Investigator and staff handbook laboratory animal program



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Anesthesia and Analgesia of Mice



Information from University of California Riverside with Permission.
Parenteral Anesthesia


Anticholinergics


  • Atropine, 0.04 mg/kg; IM,SQ; (1)


Tranquilizers 


  • Diazepam, 5 mg/kg; IM; (2)


Neuroleptanalgesics


  • Droperidol and fentanyl; (0.002 or 0.005 ml/gm of a 10% solution); IM;(1)


Dissociative Anesthetics


  • Ketamine, 100-200 mg/kg; IM; IP;(7) 

  • Ketamine, 80 mg/kg; IP + Xylazine, 10-16 mg/kg; IP;(3) 

  • Ketamine, 100 mg/kg + Acepromazine, 2.5 mg/kg; IM;(12) 

  • Ketamine, 22-44 mg/kg + Xylazine, 2.5 mg/kg + Acepromazine, 0.75 mg/kg; IM;(1) 


Barbiturates 


  • Pentobarbital, 5 mg/kg (newborn animals); IP;(1) 

  • Pentobarbital, 35-70 mg/kg; IV;(1)

  • Pentobarbital, 40-90 mg/kg; IP;(1)

  • Thiopental or Thiamylal, 25-50 mg/kg; IV;(1)(7)

Examples:



Agent

Dose

Duration of surgical anesthesia

Pentobarbital

50 mg/kg IP

20-40 minutes

Ketamine, xylazine

80-100 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg IP29

20-30 minutes


Inhalation Anesthesia
Due to its lower vapor pressure, methoxyflurane (Metafane) can be used without a vaporizer to anesthetize rats. Care should be taken to prevent the rat from coming into direct contact with the Metafane. Typically a gauze pledget is moistened with halothane and placed in the bottom of a drop jar (future picture). An elevated platform is placed in the bottom of the drop jar to prevent direct contact of the rat with the anesthetic. After the rat is anesthetized it can be removed and a nosecone (future picture) utilized to maintain anesthesia. A nosecone can be fashioned by using an empty syringe case into which a Metafane-wetted cotton has been placed. Positioning the animal’s nose into the syringe case will maintain anesthesia. This method of anesthesia must be done in a fume hood to prevent inhalation of the anesthetic by the technician. Other gaseous anesthetics such as halothane or isoflurane require the use of a precision vaporizer to deliver the appropriate amount of anesthetic.


Analgesics 


  • Acetaminophen, 300 mg/kg, q 4 hr.; PO;(4) 

  • Meperidine, 20-40 mg/kg; IP;(1)

  • Meperidine, 10-20 mg/kg, q 2-3 hr.; SQ, IM;(4) 

  • Ketoprofen, 2-5 mg/kg, q 8-12 hour; SQ,IM;

  • Buprenorphine, 0.05-0.1 mg/kg, q 6-12 hr.; SQ;(4) 

  • Butorphanol, 1-5 mg/kg, q 4 -8hr, SQ;(4) 

  • Codeine, 60-90 mg/kg, q 4 hr.; PO;(4) 

  • Codeine, 20 mg/kg; SQ;(4) 

  • Morphine, 2-5 mg/kg, q hourly; SQ;(4) 

  • Morphine, 5-10 mg/kg; IP;(1)


Anesthesia and Analgesia of Rats

Parenteral Anesthesia:


Anticholinergics


  • Atropine, 0.05 mg/kg; SQ (12)

  • Glycopyrrolate, 0.5 mg/kg; IM; (16) 


Tranquilizers 


  • Acepromazine, 1 mg/kg; IM; (12)

  • Diazepam, 2-4 mg/kg; IM; (2)

  • Chlorpromazine, 1-2 mg/kg; IM; (1)


Neuroleptanalgesics


  • Droperidol and fentanyl, 0.13 ml/kg (sedation); IM; (11) 

  • Droperidol and fentanyl, 0.33 ml/kg; IM, IP; (surgical plane); (9) 


Dissociatives


  • Ketamine, 50 mg/kg; IM; (sedative) (3) 

  • Ketamine, 75-90 mg/kg; IV; ( anesthetic) (13)

  • Ketamine, 22-44 mg/kg + Xylazine 2.5-10mg/kg + Acepromazine 0.75mg/kg; IM; (1) 

  • Ketamine, 75 mg/kg + Acepromazine, 25 mg/kg: IM; (12) 


Barbiturates


  • Pentobarbital, 35-45 mg/kg (use diluted solution); IP; (1) 

  • Thiopental/Thiamylal, 20 mg/kg; IV; (1)

Examples:




Agent

Dose

Onset

Duration

Pentobarbital

30 mg/kg IP 19

5

90 minutes

Pentobarbital

40 mg/kg IP 19

5

120 minutes

Ketamine, xylazine

40 mg/kg; 5 mg/kg IP19

5

80 minutes

Ketamine, xylazine

60 mg/kg; 7.5 mg/kg19

2

115 minutes

Ketamine, medetomidine

75 mg/kg; 0.5 mg/kg29

 

20-30 minutes


Analgesics:





  1. Ketoprofen, 2-5 mg/kg, q 8-12 hour; SQ,IM;

  2. Buprenorphine, 0.01-0.05 mg/kg, q 6-12 hr.; SQ, IV; (4) 

  3. Buprenorphine, 0.1-0.25 mg/kg, q 6-12 hr.; PO; (29

  4. Butorphanol, 1.0-2.0 mg/kg, q 4 hr; SQ; (14)

  5. Codeine, 60-90 mg/kg, q 4hr; SQ; (4)  

  6. Meperdine, 10-20 mg/kg, q 2-3 hr.; SQ, IM; (4) 

  7. Morphine, 2-5 mg/kg, q hr.; SQ; (4) 


Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Dosages for Mice and Rats:

  • Meloxicam (Metacam TM ): 0.3-1.0 mg/kg IM, IP, SQ (every 24 hours, if repeated injections required)

  • Drinking water dose, Mice: 1.7 ug/ml (0.3 mg/kg/day), Rats: 10.89 ug/ml (1.0 mg/kg/day)

  • Carprofen (Rimadyl TM ) or Ketoprofen (Ketofen TM ): 5 mg/kg IM, IP, SQ (every 24 hours, if repeated injections required)

  • Drinking water dose, Mice: 27 ug/ml (5 mg/kg/day), Rats: 50 ug/ml (5 mg/kg/day)

  • Ibuprofen (Advil TM , Nuprin TM , Motrin TM ): Drinking water dose, Mice: 0.11 mg/ml (30 mg/kg/day), Rats: 0.15 mg/ml (15 mg/kg/day)

 Selected References on Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Tranquilization in Laboratory Animals from the University of California, Riverside used with Permission.


  1. Clifford DH. Preanesthesia, anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia. In: Fox JG et al., eds., Laboratory Animal Medicine ACLAM Series. Academic Press, New York, pp 527-562, 1984. 

  2. Green CJ. Animal anesthesia. Laboratory Animal Handbook 8. Laboratory Animals Ltd., London, 1979. 

  3. Green CJ, et al. Ketamine alone and combined with diazepam or xylazine in laboratory animals: a ten year experience. Laboratory Animals, 15:163-170, 1981. 

  4. Flecknell, PA. Post-operative analgesia in rabbits and rodents. Lab Animal, 20(9): 34-37, 1991. 

  5. Jenkins, WL. Pharmacologic aspects of analgesic drugs in animals: an overview. JAVMA, 191(10):1231-1240. 

  6. The use of oxymorphone in veterinary medicine: proceedings of a roundtable. Veterinary Learning Systems Co., Inc., 1987. 

  7. Hughes HC. Anesthesia of laboratory animals. Lab Animal, 10(5): 40-56, 1981. 

  8. Rosenberg DP. Nonhuman primate analgesia. Lab Animal, 20(9):22-32, 1991. 

  9. Lumb WV and Jones EW. 1984. Veterinary anesthesia. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA. 

  10. Plumb DC. Veterinary drug handbook. PharmaVet Publishing, White Bear Lake, MN. 1991. 

  11. Walden NB. Effective sedation of rabbits, guinea pigs, rat, and mice with a mixture of fentanyl and droperidol. Aust Vet J, 54:538-540, 1978. 

  12. Flecknell PA. Laboratory animal anesthesia. Academic Press, NY, 1987. 

  13. Harkness JE and Wagner JE. 1989. The biology and medicine of rabbits and rodents. Lea & Febiger. Philadelphia, PA. 

  14. Current Office of the Campus Veterinarian recommendation based on clinical experience. 

  15. Field WE, et al. Use of droperidol and fentanyl for analgesia and sedation in primates. JAVMA, 149(7):896-901, 1966. 

  16. Olson ME, et al. The parasympatholytic effects of atropine sulfate and glycopyrrolate in rats and rabbits. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 57: 254-258, 1993. 

  17. Smith AC and Swindle, MM. Laboratory animal anesthesia, analgesia and surgery. Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, Greenbelt, MA, 1994. 

  18. Fox JG. 1988. Biology and disease of the ferret. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA. 

  19. Crawshaw GJ. Amphibian medicine. In: Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Current Therapy 3. ME Fowler, ed. 1993. W.B. Saunders Company, Philidelphia, PA 
     
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