International Style (architecture)



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Criticism of International Style[edit]


The stark, unornamented appearance of the International Style met with contemporaneous criticism and is still criticized today by many. Especially in larger and more public buildings, the style is commonly subject to disparagement as ugly,[26] inhuman,[27] sterile,[28] and elitist.[29] Such criticism gained momentum in the latter half of the 20th Century, from academics such as Hugo Kükelhaus to best-selling American author Tom Wolfe's From Bauhaus to Our House, and contributed to the rise of such counter-movements as postmodernism. The negative reaction to internationalist modernism has been linked to public antipathy to overall development.[30][31]

Although it was conceived as a movement that transcended style, the International Style was largely superseded first by more localised variations that took into account locality and site and later by so-called Postmodern architecture that started in the 1960s. In 2006, Hugh Pearman, the British architectural critic of The Times, observed that those using the style today are simply "another species of revivalist", noting the irony.[6]


Other major examples of International Style architecture[edit]


Architect

Building

Location

Date

Eileen Gray

E-1027

Cap Martin, France

1929

Alvar Aalto

Paimio Sanatorium

Turku, Finland

1930

Leendert van der Vlugt

Van Nelle Factory

Rotterdam

1926–1930

Joseph Emberton

Royal Corinthian Yacht Club

Essex

1931

Ove Arup

Labworth Café

Essex

1932–1933

Leendert van der Vlugt

Sonneveld House

Rotterdam

1932–1933

Frits Peutz

Glaspaleis

Heerlen

1933

Oscar Stonorov and Alfred Kastner

Carl Mackley Houses

Philadelphia

1933–1934

Edvin Engström

Södra Ängby

Stockholm, Sweden

1933–1939

Neil & Hurd

Ravelston Garden

Edinburgh, Scotland

1936

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Farnsworth House

Illinois

1945–1951

Illinois Institute of Technology campus (including S. R. Crown Hall)

Chicago

1945–1960

Oscar Niemeyer, Le Corbusier, Harrison & Abramovitz

United Nations Building

New York City

1950s

Michael Scott

Busaras

Dublin, Ireland

1945–1953

Kemp, Bunch & Jackson

Aetna Building

Jacksonville

1955

Ron Phillips and Alan Fitch

City Hall, Hong Kong

Victoria City, Hong Kong

1956

John Bland

Old City Hall

Ottawa

1958

Emery Roth & Sons

10 Lafayette Square

Buffalo, New York,

1958-1959

Kelly & Gruzen

High School of Graphic Communication Arts

Manhattan, New York City

1959

Stanley Roscoe

Hamilton City Hall

Hamilton

1960

John Lautner

Chemosphere

Los Angeles

1960

I. M. Pei

Place Ville-Marie

Montreal

1962

Charles Luckman

Prudential Tower

Boston

1964

George Dahl

Elm Place

Dallas

1965

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Toronto-Dominion Centre

Toronto

1967

Westmount Square

Montreal

1967

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

Equitable Building

Atlanta

1968

Hermann Henselmann et al.

Berlin TV Tower

Berlin

1969

Michael Manser

Capel Manor House

Horsmonden

1971

Campeau Corporation

Place de Ville

Ottawa

1967–1972

Crang & Boake

Hudson's Bay Centre

Toronto

1974

Pedro Moctezuma Díaz Infante

Torre Ejecutiva Pemex

Mexico City

1982
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