Integumentary system comparative anatomy overview



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Integumentary system – comparative anatomy overview
Amphioxus

Epidermis of simple columnar cells

With cilia on outside as a larva, cuticle covering postlarva

Unicellular glands

Dermis a very thin collagen base for epidermis
Agnathans

Epidermis of stratified epithelium (not necessarily stratified squamous)

With many unicellular glands (cuticle or slime coating)

Cornified (epidermal) teeth

(ancient forms with dermal bone “armor”)

Dermis a thin very tough collagen layer

With melanophores

Chonrichthyes

Epidermis of stratified epithelium

Mostly unicellular glands, few multicellular glands

Chromatophores present in both epidermis and dermis

Dermis of dense fibrous connective tissues

denticles (tooth scales), spines, teeth emerge to the surface

Chromatophores present in both dermis and epidermis


Osteichthyes

Epidermis of stratified epithelium

Mostly unicellular glands, some multicllular glands

Slime covering (mucous cuticle)

Dermis of two layers

A loose outer layer and a deeper fibrous layer

Scales of various forms

ganoid enamel on dentin and lamellar bone (polypterus)

enamel on lamellar bone (bowfin and gar)

acellular lamellar bone on fibrous collagen ( most other fish)

Chromatophores

Amphibia


Epidermis of stratified squamous epithelium (keratinized in some)

Mostly multicellular glands with ducts (underlying the surface epithelium)

Scattered large secretory cells in surface epithelium

Chromatophores present in both epidermis and dermis

Capillaries present in deeper epidermis for cutaneous respiration

Dermis either fibrous or of both an outer loose and a deeper fibrous layer

Scales absent except in some caecilians (where they are called osteoderms)

Chromatophores present in both dermis and epidermis


Reptilia

Epidermis of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Special keratinized structures – scales, beaks, nails, spines

Few specialized multicellular glands, no unicellular skin glands

Dermis of fibrous connective tissue

Subsurface dermal scales (osteoderms) present in crocodilians,

turtles, and some lizards.

Chromophores present in dermis (not sure about epidermis)

Aves

Epidermis of thin keratinized stratified squamous epithelium



Special keratinized structures – feathers, scales, beaks, nails Few specialized multicellular glands ( Uropygeal gland)

no unicellular skin glands

Chromophores present in epidermis and dermis
Dermis (loose and dense connective tissue?)

Chromophores present in dermis and epidermis Arrector pilorum muscles

Highly vascular in places

Mammalia


Epidermis of thick keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Special keratinized features include hair, nails, claws, horns, hooves, tori, baleen, scales

Numerous multicellular glands

Chromophores present

Dermis a very thick layer made of loose and dense connective tissue

Arrector pili muscles



Dermal bone of antlers and the armor of the armadillo


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