I V course / educ years The plan of lectures on medical biology and genetics for the students of I course of stomatology faculty



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AZERBAIJAN MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

STOMATOLOGY FACULTY
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM
(I - V course)

____ / ____ educ. years

The plan of lectures on medical biology and genetics

for the students of I course of stomatology faculty


N

Themes

Hours

1

The essence of life. The levels of organization of living organisms. Reproduction

2

2

Gene. Genome. Chromosomal mutations

2

3

Biology and genetics of sex

2

4

Biological bases of parasitism

2

5

Regeneration, transplantation and explantation

2



The plan of practical training medical biology and genetics

for the students of I course of stomatology faculty


N

Themes

Hours

1

The structure of the microscope and microscopic methods. Microscopic strongeratenolol and animal cell

2

2

Organelles of cells: morphological and functional organization and significance

2

3

Mitosis. Amitosis

2

4

The structure of chromosomes

2

5

Meiosis. The structure of germ cells. The gametogenesis in humans. Fertilization

2

6

Types of inheritance: mono -, di - and polygyridae crossing. The effect of allelic genes. Independent combination of nonallelic genes

2

7

Coupling of genes and crossing over. Maps of chromosomes

2

8

The inheritance of sex linked

2

9

The main methods of studying human heredity

2

10

The human karyotype

2

11

SEMINAR: "Hereditary diseases of human"

2

12

Regularities of individual development of vertebrates

2

13

Protozoa are parasites of man. Sarkodie. Flagellates. The sporozoa, ciliates

2

14

Flatworms are parasites of man. Class Flukes

2

15

Flatworms are parasites of man. Class of tapeworms

2

16

Roundworms are parasites of man. The class actually roundworms

2

17

SEMINAR: Aging ,gerontology

2

18

Biomedical importance of arthropods

1



The plan of lectures on Human Anatomy-1

for the students of I course of stomatology faculty


N

Themes

Hours

1

Introduction to discipline of “Human anatomy”. The aim, missions and methods of investigation. Brief history of Human anatomy. The development of Human anatomy in Azerbaijan

2

2

The brief information about the Human embryogenesis. The tissues, organs and systems. The general anatomy of skeleton. The structure, shape and color of bones. The physical and chemical features of bones. The periosteum and bone marrow. The development of bones. The growth of bones

2

3

The functional anatomy of joints. The types of joints. The classification of joints. The structure, main and accessory elements of simple synovial joint. The development and anatomy of joints. The skull. The development, growth, age and individual features of skull. The functional anatomy of temporomandibular joint

2

4

The functional anatomy of the muscles. A muscle as an organ, its structure, classification and development. The force and work of muscle. The functional anatomy, topography and development of head and neck muscles. The role of muscles in formation of masticatory apparatus

2

5

The general information about the splanchnology. The functional anatomy and development of the internal organs. The functional anatomy of the digestive organs

2

6

The development and anomalies of the face. The differentiation of the pharyngeal apparatus. The development of oral cavity organs. The teeth: structure, shapes and eruption times. The occlusion (bite). The anomalies of theet and occlusion

2

7

The functional anatomy, structure, development and anomalies of respiratory organs. The functional anatomy of genital and endocrine organs

2



The plan of practical training on Human Anatomy-1

for the students of I course ofstomatology faculty


N

Themes

Hours

1

The organization of educational process in the Department of Human Anatomy. The Anatomical Nomenclature. The axes and surface of the human body. The structure of simple vertebra. The cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae. The sacral and coccygeal bones

2

2

The intervertebral joints. The atlantooccipital joint. The vertebral column

2

3

The ribs and sternum. The joints of ribs with vertebrae and sternum. The thoracic cage

2

4

The bones of upper extremities

2

5

The joints of pectoral girdle. The shoulder joint. The elbow joint. The joints of bones of forearm and hand

2

6

The bones of lower extremities

2

7

The joints of the pelvic girdle. The hip joint. The knee joint. The joints of ankle and foot

2

8

The general review of skull. The frontal, sphenoid, occipital and parietal bones

2

9

The temporal bone: structure and canals

2

10

The ethmoid bone. The maxilla, mandible and small facial bones. Their sexual, individual and age features

2

11

The topography of skull. The topography of external and internal bases of cranium

2

12

The orbits. The nasal cavity. The pterygopalatine fossa

2

13

The joints of skull bones. The temporomandibular joint, its features and movements

2

14

Quiz on osteosyndesmology

2

15

The review of muscular system. The muscles of head: muscles of facial expression, their features. The masticatory muscles and fasciae. The functional anatomy of masticatory muscles

2

16

The muscles of neck. The topography of neck. The muscles and fasciae of thorax, their topography

2

17

The muscles and fasciae of abdomen. The inguinal canal. The dorsal muscles and fasciae

2

18

The muscles and topography of upper extremities

2

19

The muscles and topography of lower extremities

2

20

Quiz on muscular system

2

21

The information about the internal organs. The organs of oral cavity

2

22

The deciduous (milk) and permanent teeth, their structure, formule and eruption time. The distinguished features of teeth. The occlusion (bite) and its anomalies

2

23

The pharynx and esophagus. The stomach. The small and large intestines

2

24

The liver, pancreas and spleen. The peritoneum and its topography

2

25

The organs of respiratory system. The larynx, trachea and bronchi

2

26

The lungs and pleura. The mediastinum. The topography of lungs and pleura

2

27

The urinary organs. The structure and topography of kidneys. The ureters. The urinary bladder. The urethra

2

28

The male and female genital organs

2

29

The endocrine glands

2

30

Quiz on internal organs

2


The plan of lectures on Human Anatomy-2

for the students of I course of stomatology faculty


N

Themes

Hours

1

The development and general anatomy of nervous system. The structure, topography and functions of spinal cord. The meninges of spinal cord and brain. The formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid

2

2

The parts of brain. The structure of brain hemispheres. The brainstem. The cyto- and myeloarchitectonics of cerebral cortex. The dynamic localization of functions in the cerebral cortex. The functional anatomy of cerebral white and gray matters. The classification of conducting tracts. The associative, comissural and projection conducting tracts

2

3

The general review of sensory organs. I.P.Pavlov's theory about the analyzer. The receptors and their classification. The functional anatomy of vision and vestibulocochlear organs. The olfactory and taste organs. The skin sensation. The ontogenetical development of sensory organs. The peripheral nervous system. The cranial nerves

2

4

The general review of cardiovascular system. The development of vascular system. The blood circuits. The structure and branching types of vessels. The anastomoses. The concept about the microcirculation. The collateral blood circulation. The vascular plexuses, networks and venous sinuses

2

5

The heart: development, structure, topography, functional anatomy. The innervation and blood supply of the heart. The functional anatomy of arteries and veins of the trunk and extremities. The venous anastomoses

2

6

The anatomy of lymphatic system. The structural elements of lymphatic system. The lymphatic ducts, their topography. The lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels of head, neck, thorax and extremities

2

7

The anatomy of autonomic nervous system. The centers of autonomic nervous system. The peculiarities of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic plexuses of abdominal and pelvic cavities

2



The plan of practical training on Human Anatomy-2

for the students of I course of stomatology faculty


N

Themes

Hours

1

The structure and meninges of spinal cord. The formation of spinal nerves

2

2

The brain: parts and meninges. The topography of cranial nerves in the basal surface of brain

2

3

The endbrain, its derivates. The structure of cerebral hemispheres. The olfactory brain, lateral ventricles, corpus callosum. The basal (subcortical) nuclei

2

4

The diencephalon. III ventricle

2

5

The midbrain and cerebral aqueduct. The isthmus rhombencephali

2

6

The metencephalon. The pons. The cerebellum. The medulla oblongata. IV ventricle, the rhomboid fossa

2

7

Quiz on central nervous system

2

8

The information about the sensory organs. The organ of vision. The optic nerve. The optic tract

2

9

The auxillary apparatus of eye. The oculomotor, trochlear and abducent nerves

2

10

The vestibulocochlear organ. The vestibulocochlear nerve. The conducting tracts of earing and equlibrium analyzers

2

11

The olfactory organ. The taste organ. The olfactory, facial and glossopharyngeal nerves. The olfactory and taste analyzers

2

12

The skin. The skin derivates. The trigeminal nerve

2

13

The vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves

2

14

The structure, topography, blood supply and innervation of the heart

2

15

Quiz on sensory organs, cranial nerves and heart

2

16

The blood circuits. The systemic circuit. The parts of aorta. The ascending aorta, aortic arch and their branches

2

17

The common, extenal and internal carotid arteries. The blood supply of brain. The blood supply of teeth

2

18

The veins of head and neck. The internal, external and anterior jugular veins

2

19

The arteries and veins of upper extremities

2

20

The cervical and brachial plexuses, their innervations zones

2

21

The thoracic aorta. The intercostal nerves

2

22

The superior vena cava and its formation

2

23

The parietal and visceral branches of abdominal aorta

2

24

The arteries and veins of pelvis

2

25

The arteries and veins of lower extremities

2

26

The inferior vena cava. The portal vein. Their formation and branches

2

27

The lumbar plexus

2

28

The sacral plexus

2

29

The lymphatic system

2

30

The autonomic nervous system

2


The plan of lectures on general histology

for the students of I course of stomatology faculty




Topics

hours

1

Cytology as biological and medical science. The cellular theory: the basic stages of formation, the modern formulation of substantive provisions. Importance for biology and medicine. Plasma membrane: structure, functions. Cortical cytoplasm and cytoskeleton elements. Mechanisms of cellular movement. Sentrosome. Mitochondrion.

2

2

Endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi complex. Endosomes. Lysosomes and lysosomal storage diseases. Nucleus. Structure of the chromatin. General information about the nuclear and mitochondrial genom and gene expression. Cell division, differentiation, specialization. Cell aging and death. Bases of cellular pathology.

2

3

Embryology as part of biological development. Progenesis. Comparative analysis of spermatogenesis and ovogenesis. Human gametes. Fertilization. Zygote. Morulation. Blastocyst formation at human. Implantation. Gastrulation. Axial organs of embryo. The differentiation of germ layers and axial organs of embryo. Human embryo in 2 -4 weeks.

2

4

Characterization of human embryonic organogenesis. Human embryo at 5, 6, 7, 8 weeks. Conception about the critical periods and embryotrop factors. Histology as biological and medical science. Tissues – definition, classification. Epithelial tissues: histogenesis, classification, morpho-functional features. Covering epithelium. Glandular epithelium. The mechanism and periods of secretion.

2

5

Mesenchyme, its differentiation. Blood. Structural characteristics of cellular and none-cellular elements of connective tissue. Classification and histogenesis of connective tissue. Connective tissue proper. Specialized connective tissues. Skeletal tissues.

2

6

Contractile cells and tissues: classification. Neuro-muscular tissue. Smooth muscle tissue: histogenesis, innervation, vascularization. Striated muscle tissue: genesis, morpho-functional features, innervation and vascularization. Cardiac muscle tissue. Growth and regeneration of muscle tissues.

2

7

Nervous tissue: histogenesis, morpho-functional features. Neurons. Glial cells. Nerve fibers. Peculiarities of formation and conduction of nerve impulses. Modern views on nervous tissue. Nervous system: development, general morpho-functional features. Spinal cord. Brain stem. Cerebellum. Cerebral hemispheres. Module organization of cerebral cortex. Autonomic nervous system. The blood-brain barrier.

2



The plan of practical training on general histology

for the students of I course of stomatology faculty




Topics

hours

1.

Histologic techniques. Methods of investigation. The general morphology, forms and sizes of the eukaryotic cells. Cellular compartments.

2

2.

General information about the structure of plasma membrane. The chemical structure of plasma membrane and ultrastructure of plasma membrane. Selective permeability.

2

3.

Endocytosis. Exocytosis. Receptor function of plasma membrane.

2

4.

Centrosome. Mitochondria. Ribosome. Endoplasmic reticulum.

2

5

Golgi complex. Endosomes. Lysosomes. Proteasomes. Peroxisomes. Cytoplasmic deposits.

2

6.

Nucleus. Nuclear envelope. Nucleoplasm. Chromatin. Nucleolus. The structure of metaphase chromosome.

2

7.

Cell cycle. Mitosis and amitosis.

2

8.

Slide examination on Cytology.

2

9.

Progenesis. The structure of gametes. Meosis.

2

10.

Fertilization. Implantation. Cleavage.

2

11.

Blastocyst. Gastrulation.

2

12.

Differentiation of embryonic axial organs. Extraembryonic organs.

2

13.

Slide examination on Embryology.

2

14

Epithelial tissues. Simple epithelium. Stratified epithelium. Glandular epithelium..

2

15.

Mesenchyme. Blood. Lymph.

2

16.

Loose (areolar) connective tissue. Dense connective tissue.

2

17.

Connective tissues with special properties.

2

18.

Cartilage tissue. Chondrogenesis.

2

19.

Bone tissue.Osteohistogenesis.

2

20.

Muscle tissue.

2

21.

Nervous tissue. Neurons. Glial cells.

2

22.

Nerve fibers. Nerve endings. Synaptic communication.

2

23.

Slide examination on General Histology.

2


The plan of lectures on special histology

for the students of I course of stomatology faculty




Topics

hours

1

Sensory organs. Conception about analyzers. Main analyzers. Olfactory organ and olfactory analyzer. Vision organ and analyzer. Histophysiologies of retina. Reception of vision. Sensoepithelial sensory organs: organs of hearing and equilibrium. Taste organ and analyzer. Histophysiologies of tactile senses. Renewal and repair features of receptor cells. Age changes.

2

2

Features of humoral regulation. Histophysiologies of secretion. Endocrine, paracrine and autocrine secretion. Endocrine system: general morpho-functional features, development. Pineal gland. Hypothalamus. Pituitary gland. Thyroid. Parathyroid. Adrenals. Diffuse endocrine system. Age features.

2

3

Cardiovascular system: general morpho-functional plan. Relations between hemodynamic condition and structure of vascular wall. Heart. Arteries. Microcirculation network. Capillaries. Venous network. Anastomoses. Neuro-humoral regulation of cardiovascular system functioning. Age changes. Regeneration features.

2

4

Embryonic and postembryonic hematopoiesis: characteristics. Organs of hematopoiesis. Immunity, immune defense reactions. Immunocytes: classification, morpho-functional features. Immunoglobulins and plasma cells. Macrophageal system. Functional relations between hemotopoetic and immune organs, T- and B-zones. Age changes. Regeneration and involution features. Conception about thymico-lymphatic status.

2

5

Integument: development, structural parts, functions. Skin. Skin appendixes: hairs, nails, sebaceous and sweat glands. Innervation, vascularization, age features. Respiratory system: development, structural parts, morpho-functional features. Respiratory portion. Air-blood barrier. Innervation, vascularization, age features.

2

6

Digestive system: sources of development, general morpho-functional plan. General morpho-functional features of alimentary canal. Organs of oral cavity. Lymphoepithelial ring. Esophagus. Stomach. Intestines. Histophysiology of digestion in intestines. Liver: development, structure, functions, blood supply. Pancreas. Conception about “gastro-pancreatic system”.

2

7

Urinary system: development, general morpho-functional features, sources of development. Hormonal regulation, regenerative features, age changes. Histophysiology of urine formation. Male and female reproductive systems: development, general morpho-functional features, generative and endocrine functions. Factors of sexual differentiation. Innervation, vascularization, age features.

2



The plan of practical training on special histology

for the students of I course stomatology faculty




Topics

hours

1.

Spinal cord. Sensory ganglia. Cerebellum. Cerebral hemispheres.

2

2.

Organ of sense. Organ of vision. Olfactory organ. Organs of hearing and equilibrium. Taste organ.

2

3.

Endocrine sistem.

2

4.

Arteries. Microcirculation meshwork. Veins. Heart.

2

5

Hematopoiesis




6.

Bone marrow. Thymus. Lymph node. Spleen.

2

7.

I Slide examination

2

8.

Skin. Skin appendixes. Trachea. Lungs.

2

9.

Lips. Tongue. Salivary glands Development and structure of teeth Esophagus. Stomach.

2

10.

Small and large intestines. Appendix. Liver. Pancreas.

2

11.

II Slide examination

2

12.

Kidneys. Ureters. Urinary bladder

2

13.

Testes. Epididymis. Prostate gland.

2

14

Ovaries. Uterus. Mammary gland. Placenta.

2

15.

III Slide examination.

2


The plan of practical training on latin language

for the students of stomatology faculty




Themes

Hours

1

Introduction. Latin alphabet.

2




Fonetics. Short and long vowels. Stress.

2

2

Verbs

2




Active and passive voices of verbs

2

3

Nouns

2




The first declination of nouns

2

4

The second declination of nouns, masculine gender

2




The second declination of nouns, neuter gender

2

5

Adjectives

2




The first and second declination of adjectives

2

6

The third declination of nouns

2




The masculine gender of the third declination

2

7

The feminine gender of the third declination

2




The neuter gender of the third declination

2

8

II group of adjectives

2




8 weeks total studies

2

9

Degrees of comparison of adjectives

2




Prepositions. Conjunctions.

2

10

Adverbs. Pronouns. Numerals.

2




Fourth and fifth declinations of nouns

2

11

Coordination of nouns with adjectives

2




Chemical nomenclature. Exercises

2

12

Recipe. Structure of recipes

2




Abbreviations and expressions

2

13

Recipes. Exercises

2




Recipes. Exercises

2

14

Recipes. Exercises

2




Clinical terminologies

2

15

Exercises on clinical terminologies

2




15 weeks total studies

2



The plan of lectues on “Normal Physiology”

for the students of I course of stomatology faculty (spring term)


N

Themes

Hours

1.

Physiology is science about the dynamics of whole organism. History of physiology development. Methods of investigations in physiology.

General peculiarities of living organisms. Excitability. Excitation. Inhibition. General physiological principles of organism structure: correlation, regulation, reflex reaction, self organization, self regulation, functional system.



2


2.

Morphophysiological properties of muscles. Types of muscle contraction. Summation of muscle contractions. Mechanism of tetanic muscle contraction. Motor unit. Muscular tone. Modern idea about mechanism of muscle contraction. Muscle work and strength. Muscle fatigue. Morphophysiological properties of smooth muscles. Nerve-muscle junction.

2

3.

Receptors, their classification. Morphophysiological peculiarities of nerves. Peculiarities of transmission of excitation in nerve fibers. Classification of nerve fibers. Components of nerve trunk action potential. Nerve indefatigability. Parabiosis. Coordination of reflex processes. Convergence and occlusion. Irradiation of excitation in central nervous system. Reciprocal innervation. Principle of dominant. Methods of research of the CNS activity.

2

4.

Physiology of spinal cord. Spinal shock. Medulla oblongata and mesencephalon. Decerebrate rigidity. Physiology of reticular formation. Diencephalon. Specific and non-specific nuclei. Functions of hypothalamus. Limbic system. Subcortical nuclei. Physiology of cerebellum.

Morphological properties of vegetative nervous system. Differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, their synergism and relative antagonism. Effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.



2

5.

Physiology of blood. Blood volume, hematocrit, pH of blood, osmotic pressure. Functional systems regulating the constancy of homeostatic parameters of blood etc. Defense functions of blood.




6.

Significance of blood circulation for organism. Valvular apparatus. Phases of cardiac cycle. Stroke volume of the heart and cardiac output. Physiological properties of cardiac muscle. Neurohumoral regulation of heart activity. Role of reflexogenic zones and cerebral cortex in regulation of heart activity.

2

7.

External manifestations of heart activity, methods of research. Electrocardiography. Heart sounds. Phonocadiography.

Basic principles of hemodynamics. Rate of blood flow and its determination. Measure of arterial pressure in human and animal. Arterial pulse and its main parameters. Vasomotor centers. Neurohumoral regulation of vasomotor center. Role of reflexogenic zones and cerebral cortex in regulation of vascular tone. Limph circulation and its regulation mechanisms.



2



The plan of practical training on “Normal Physiology”

for the students of I course of stomatology faculty (spring term)


N

Themes

Hours

1

Introduction. Organization and aim of physiological experiments. Methods of physiological investigation. The apparatus and physiological solutions used in the physiological experiments.

Physiology of excitable tissues.

- Making of neuro-muscular preparation, methods of irritation and determination of stimulation threshold.

- First and second experiments of Galvani. Matteucci experiment.


2

2

Action of direct electrical current on excitable tissues.

- Making of non-polarizable electrodes.

- Polar rule of excitation.

- Physiological electrotonus and perielectrotonus.

- Rule of muscle contraction.


2

3

Muscle contraction. Muscle work, strength and fatigue.

- Recording and analyses of solitary muscle contraction.

- Action of power and frequency of stimulation and temperature on the solitary muscle contraction.

- Muscular work at various loads and determination of absolute muscular strength.

- Recording of human muscle fatigue. Ergography.

- Study the fatigue phenomenon on isolated muscle.

- Observation of nerve indefatigability.


2

4.

Laws of conduction of excitation. Types of muscle contraction.

- Observation of laws of conduction of excitation.

- Mechanism of conduction of excitation in synapses. Study the effect of curare on the conduction of excitation at nerve-muscle synapse.

- Effect of stimulation strength, stimulation frequency and temperature on a muscle solitary contraction.



2

5.

Independent work. Solving the tests, crosswords and situational tasks on “Neuro-muscular physiology” Concluding session.

2

6.

Physiology of CNS. Excitation and inhibition in the CNS.

- Observation of spinal cord reflexes.

- Observation of CNS Inhibition. Experiments of Sechenov and Holts.

- Study the influence of chemical substances on CNS excitability.



2

7.

Methods of investigation of CNS activity.

- Electroencephalography (EEG).

- Recording of evoked potential.

- Recording of neuron action potential.



2

8.

Analyzers.

- Determination of dependence between the stimulation strength and intensity of sensation (Weber- Fechner law).

- Determination of tactile sensation.

- Determination of gustatory sensation.


2

9.

-Determination of visual acuity.

-Determination of visual field.

-Determination of hearing acuity.


2

10

Independent work. Solving the tests, crosswords and situational tasks on “Physiology of CNS” and “Analyzers”.

Concluding session.

2

11

Physical and chemical properties, amount, content and functions of blood.

- Separation of blood into plasma and formed elements.

- Determination of blood buffer properties.


2

12

Erythrocytes. Hemoglobin. ESR.

- Counting of erythrocytes.

- Determination of hemoglobin content.

- Calculation of color index.

- Determination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.


2

13

Blood groups. Rhesus factor. Leucocytes.

- Determination of blood groups

- Determination of Rhesus factor.

- Counting of leucocytes.



2

14

Thrombocytes. Blood coagulation.

- Counting of thrombocytes.

- Determination of blood clotting time.


2

15

Independent work. Solving the tests, crosswords and situational tasks on “Blood system physiology”.

Concluding session.

3

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