abase V. /降低，羞辱/lower; humiliate. Defeated, Queen Zenobia was forced to abase herself before the conquering Romans, who made her march in chains before the emperor in the procession celebrating his triumph. abasement, N.
abash V. /使难堪/embarrass. He was not at all abashed by her open admiration.
abate V. /减弱，减少/subside; decrease, lessen. Rather than leaving immediately, they waited for the storm to abate. abatement, N.
abbreviate V. /减短，缩写/shorten. Because we were running out of time, the lecturer had to abbreviate her speech.
abdicate V. /放弃/renounce; give up. When Edward VIII abdicated the British throne to marry the woman he loved, he surprised the entire world.
abduction N. /绑架/kidnapping. The movie Ransom describes the attempts to rescue a multimillionaire's son after the child's abduction by kidnappers. abduct,V.
aberrant N. /不正常的/abnormal or deviant. Given the aberrant nature of the data, we doubted the validity of the entire experiment. also N.
abet V. /帮助，鼓励/aid, usually in doing something wrong; encourage. She was unwilling to abet him in the swindle he had planned.
abeyance N. /悬而未决/suspended action. The deal was held in abeyance until her arrival.
abhor V. /憎恨/detest; hate. She abhorred all forms of bigotry. abhorrence, N.
abject ADJ. /穷困潦倒，卑微/wretched; lacking pride. On the streets of New York the homeless live in abject poverty, huddling in doorways to find shelter from the wind.
abjure V. /发誓放弃/renounce upon oath. He abjured his allegiance to the king. abjuration, N.
ablution N. /洗/washing. His daily ablutions were accompanied by loud noises that he humorously labeled "Opera in the Bath."
abnegation N. /批判，自我牺牲/repudiation; self-sacrifice. No act of abnegation was more pronounced than his refusal of any rewards for his discovery.
abolish V. /废除/cancel; put an end to. The president of the college refused to abolish the physical education requirement. abolition, N.
abominable ADJ. /可恶的，非常糟糕/detestable; extremely unpleasant; very bad. Mary liked John until she learned he was dating Susan; then she called him an abominable young man, with abominable taste in women.
aboriginal ADJ., N. /原来的，土著的/being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native. Her studies of the primitive art forms of the aboriginal Indians were widely reported in the scientific journals. aborigines, N.
abortive ADJ. /不成功的，失败/unsuccessful; fruitless. Attacked by armed troops, the Chinese students had to abandon their abortive attempt to democratize Beijing peacefully. abort,V.
abrade V. /磨损，侵蚀/wear away by friction; scrape; erode. The sharp rocks abraded the skin on her legs, so she put iodine on her abrasions.
abrasive ADJ. /摩擦的，粗糙的，研磨剂/rubbing away; tending to grind down. Just as abrasive cleaning powders can wear away a shiny finish, abrasive remarks can wear away a listener's patience. abrade,V.
abridge V. /删节，节选/condense or shorten. Because the publishers felt the public wanted a shorter version of War and Peace, they proceeded to abridge the novel.
abrogate ADJ. /废除/abolish. He intended to abrogate the decree issued by his predecessor.
abscond V. /隐匿，逃避，躲债/depart secretly and hide. The teller who absconded with the bonds went uncaptured until someone recognized him from his photograph on "America's Most Wanted."
absolute ADJ. /完全的，肯定的/complete; totally unlimited; certain. Although the King of Siam was an absolute monarch, he did not want to behead his unfaithful wife without absolute evidence of her infidelity.
absolve V. /谅解/pardon (an offense). The father confessor absolved him of his sins. absolution, N.
absorb V. /吸收，合并/assimilate or incorporate; suck or drink up; wholly engage. During the nineteenth century, America absorbed hordes of immigrants, turning them into productive citizens. Can Huggies diapers absorb more liquid than Pampers can? This question does not absorb me; instead, it bores me. absorption, N.
abstain V. /控制，限制（自己）/refrain; hold oneself back voluntarily from an action or practice. After considering the effect of alcohol on his athletic performance, he decided to abstain from drinking while he trained for the race. abstinence, N.
abstemious ADJ. /节制（饮食），调节/sparing in eating and drinking; temperate. Concerned whether her vegetarian son's abstemious diet provided him with sufficient protein, the worried mother pressed food on him.
abstinence N. /节制（饮食）/restraint from eating or drinking. The doctor recommended total abstinence from salted foods. abstain,V.
abstract ADJ. /抽象的/theoretical; not concrete; nonrepresentational. To him, hunger was an abstract concept; he had never missed a meal.
abstruse ADJ. /难以理解的，复杂的/obscure; profound; difficult to understand. She carries around abstruse works of philosophy, not because she understands them but because she wants her friends to think she does.
abundant ADJ. /丰富，富足/plentiful; possessing riches or resources. At his immigration interview, Ivan listed his abundant reasons for coming to America: the hope of religious freedom, the prospect of employment, the promise of a more abundant life.
abusive ADJ. /粗俗的侮辱，对身体有害的/coarsely insulting; physically harmful. An abusive parent damages a child both mentally and physically.
abut V. /毗邻/border upon; adjoin. Where our estates abut, we must build a fence.
abysmal ADJ. /无底的/bottomless. His arrogance is exceeded only by his abysmal ignorance.
abyss N. /深渊，深坑，无底洞/enormous chasm; vast bottomless pit. Darth Vader seized the evil emperor and hurled him down into the abyss,
academic ADJ. /学术的/related to a school; not practical or directly useful. The dean's talk about reforming the college admissions system was only an academic discussion: we knew little, if anything, would change.
accede V. /同意/agree. If I accede to this demand for blackmail, I am afraid that I will be the victim of future demands.
accelerate V. /加速/move faster. In our science class, we learn how falling bodies accelerate.
accentuate V. /强调，重音/emphasize; stress. If you accentuate the positive and eliminate the negative, you may wind up with an overoptimistic view of the world.
accessible ADJ. /可得到的/easy to approach; obtainable. We asked our guide whether the ruins were accessible on foot.
accessory N. /附件/additional object; useful but not essential thing. She bought an attractive handbag as an accessory for her dress. alsoADJ.
acclaim V. /赞扬，表扬/applaud; announce with great approval. The NBC sportscasters acclaimed every American victory in the Olympics and decried every American defeat. also N.
acclimate V. /适应/adjust to climate. One of the difficulties of our present air age is the need of travelers to acclimate themselves to their new and often strange environments.
acclivity N. /上山的陡坡/sharp upslope of a hill. The car would not go up the acclivity in high gear.
accolade N. /出名的大奖/award of merit. In Hollywood, an "Oscar" is the highest accolade.
accommodate V. /招待，食宿，适应/oblige or help someone; adjust or bring into harmony; adapt. Mitch always did everything possible to accommodate his elderly relatives, from driving them to medical appointments to helping them with paperwork. (secondary meaning)
accomplice N. /共犯，同伙/partner in crime. Because he had provided the criminal with the lethal weapon, he was arrested as an accomplice in the murder.
accord N. /一致/agreement. She was in complete accord with the verdict.
accost V. /搭讪，邂逅/approach and speak first to a person. When the two young men accosted me, I was frightened because I thought they were going to attack me.
accoutre V. /装备/equip. The fisherman was accoutred with the best that the sporting goods store could supply. accoutrements, N.
accretion N. /增长/growth; increase. The accretion of wealth marked the family's rise in power.
accrue V. /附带的/come about by addition. You must pay the interest that has accrued on your debt as well as the principal sum. accrual, N.
acerbity N. /尖酸的（语气，脾气）/bitterness of speech and temper. The meeting of the United Nations General Assembly was marked with such acerbity that informed sources held out little hope of reaching any useful settlement of the problem. acerbic,ADJ.
acetic ADJ. /酸的/vinegary. The salad had an exceedingly acetic flavor.
acidulous ADJ. /酸的；尖锐，刻薄/slightly sour; sharp, caustic. James was unpopular because of his sarcastic and acidulous remarks.
acknowledge V. /认可，承认/recognize; admit. Although I acknowledge that the Beatles' tunes sound pretty dated today, I still prefer them to the "gangsta rap" songs my brothers play.
acme N. /顶点/top; pinnacle. His success in this role marked the acme of his career as an actor.
acoustics N. /声学的/science of sound; quality that makes a room easy or hard to hear in. Carnegie Hall is liked by music lovers because of its fine acoustics.
acquiesce V. /默许/assent; agree without protesting. Although she appeared to acquiesce to her employer's suggestions, I could tell she had reservations about the changes he wanted made. acquiescence, N.; acquiescent,ADJ.
acquire V. /获取/obtain; get. Frederick Douglass was determined to acquire an education despite his master's efforts to prevent his doing so.
acquittal N. /无罪开释/deliverance from a charge. His acquittal by the jury surprised those who had thought him guilty. acquit,V.
acrid ADJ. /尖锐；尖酸/sharp; bitterly pungent. The acrid odor of burnt gunpowder filled the room after the pistol had been fired.
acrimonious ADJ. /挖苦的，尖酸的（语言，行为）/bitter in words or manner. The candidate attacked his opponent in highly acrimonious terms. acrimony,
acrophobia N. /恐高症/fear of heights. A born salesman, he could convince someone with a bad case of acrophobia to sign up for a life membership in a sky-diving club.
actuarial ADJ. /保险精算的，精算/calculating; pertaining to insurance statistics. According to recent actuarial tables, life expectancy is greater today than it was a century ago.
actuate V. /推动，促使/motivate. I fail to understand what actuated you to reply to this letter so nastily.
acuity N. /尖锐/sharpness. In time his youthful acuity of vision failed him, and he needed glasses.
acumen N. /思想敏锐/mental keenness. His business acumen helped him to succeed where others had failed.
acute ADJ. /精明，敏锐，聪明/quickly perceptive; keen; brief and severe. The acute young doctor realized immediately that the gradual deterioration of her patient's once acute hearing was due to a chronic illness, not an acute one.
adage N. /格言，谚语/wise saying; proverb. There is much truth in the old adage about fools and their money.
adamant ADJ. /坚硬，不动摇/hard; inflexible. Bronson played the part of a revenge-driven man, adamant in his determination to punish the criminals who destroyed his family. adamancy, N.
adapt V. /改变/alter; modify. Some species of animals have become extinct because they could not adapt to a changing environment.
addendum N. /附加，补充/an addition or supplement. As an addendum to the minutes, let me point out that Susan moved to appoint Kathy and Arthur to the finance committee.
addiction N. /瘾，依赖/compulsive, habitual need. His addiction to drugs caused his friends much grief.
addle V. /使变疯，腐坏/muddle; drive crazy; become rotten. This idiotic plan is confusing enough to addle anyone. addled,ADJ.
address V. /发表（演讲），处理，讨论/direct a speech to; deal with or discuss. Due to address the convention in July, Brown planned to address the issue of low-income housing in his speech.
adept ADJ. /擅长于/expert at. She was adept at the fine art of irritating people. also N.
adhere V. /黏着/stick fast. I will adhere to this opinion until proof that I am wrong is presented. adhesion, N.
adherent N. /支持者，追随者/supporter; follower. In the wake of the scandal, the senator's one-time adherents quickly deserted him.
adjacent ADJ. /邻近的，毗邻的/adjoining; neighboring; close by. Philip's best friend Jason lived only four houses down the block, close but not immediately adjacent.
adjunct N. /无用的附加物/something added on or attached (generally nonessential or inferior). Although I don't absolutely need a second computer, I plan to buy a laptop to serve as an adjunct to my desktop model.
admonish V. /警告，训斥/warn; reprove. He admonished his listeners to change their wicked ways. admonition, N.
admonition N. /警告/warning. After the student protesters repeatedly rejected Chairman Deng's admonitions, the government issued an ultimatum: either the students would end the demonstration at once or the soldiers would fire on the crowd.
adorn V. /装饰/decorate. Wall paintings and carved statues adorned the temple. adornment, N.
adroit ADJ. /熟练，有技巧/skillful. His adroit handling of the delicate situation pleased his employers.
Word List 2 adulation-amend
adulation N. /奉承，恭维/flattery; admiration. The rock star thrived on the adulation of his groupies and yes men. adulate,V.
adulterate V. /掺杂/make impure by adding inferior or tainted substances. It is a crime to adulterate foods without informing the buyer; when consumers learned that Beech-Nut had adulterated their apple juice by mixing it with water, they protested vigorously.
adventitious ADJ. /偶然/accidental; casual. He found this adventitious meeting with his friend extremely fortunate.
adversary N. /对手/opponent. The young wrestler struggled to defeat his adversary.
adverse ADJ. /讨厌，敌意/unfavorable; hostile. The recession had a highly adverse effect on Father's investment portfolio: he lost so much money that he could no longer afford the butler and the upstairs maid. adversity, N.
adversity N. /贫困，不幸/poverty; misfortune. We must learn to meet adversity gracefully.
advocacy N. /支持，辩护/support; active pleading on something's behalf. No threats could dissuade Bishop Desmond Tutu from his advocacy of the human rights of black South Africans.
advocate V. /辩护/urge; plead for. The abolitionists advocated freedom for the slaves. also N.
aerie N. /猛禽的窝/nest of a large bird of prey (eagle, hawk). The mother eagle swooped down on the unwitting rabbit and bore it off to her aerie high in the Rocky Mountains.
aesthetic ADJ. /审美的/artistic; dealing with or capable of appreciation of the beautiful. The beauty of Tiffany's stained glass appealed to Esther's aesthetic sense. aesthete, N.
affable ADJ. /平易近人的/easily approachable; warmly friendly. Accustomed to cold, aloof supervisors, Nicholas was amazed at how affable his new employer was.
affected ADJ. /假的，做作的/artificial; pretended; assumed in order to impress. His affected mannerisms-his "Harvard" accent, his air of boredom, his use of obscure foreign wordsbugged us: he acted as if he thought he was too good for his old high school friends. affectation, N.
affidavit N. /宣誓书/written statement made under oath. The court refused to accept his statement unless he presented it in the form of an affidavit.
affiliation N. /联合，加入/joining; associating with. His affiliation with the political party was of short duration for he soon disagreed with his colleagues.
affinity N. /亲缘关系/kinship. She felt an affinity with all who suffered; their pains were her pains.
affirmation N. /正面肯定，确认/positive assertion; confirmation; solemn pledge by one who refuses to take an oath. Despite Tom's affirmations of innocence, Aunt Polly still suspected he had eaten the pie.
affix V. /增加，附于/fasten; attach; add on. First the registrar had to affix her signature to the license; then she had to affix her official seal.
affliction N. /痛苦/state of distress; cause of suffering. Even in the midst of her affliction, Elizabeth tried to keep up the spirits of those around her.
affluence N. /富足，财富/abundance; wealth. Foreigners are amazed by the affluence and luxury of the American way of life.
affront N. /侮辱，冒犯；蓄意蔑视/insult; offense; intentional act of disrespect. When Mrs. Proudie was not seated beside the Archdeacon at the head table, she took it as a personal affront and refused to speak to her hosts for a week. alsoV.
aftermath N. /后果，结果/consequences; outcome; upshot. People around the world wondered what the aftermath of China's violent suppression of the student protests would be.
agenda N. /议程/items of business at a meeting. We had so much difficulty agreeing upon an agenda that there was very little time for the meeting.
agent N. /方法，工具；代表/means or instrument; personal representative; person acting in an official capacity. °I will be the agent of America's destruction," proclaimed the beady-eyed villain, whose agent had gotten him the role. With his face, he could never have played the part of the hero, a heroic F.B.I. agent.
agglomeration N. /聚集，累积/collection; heap. It took weeks to assort the agglomeration of miscellaneous items she had collected on her trip.
aggrandize V. /增加，加强/increase or intensify. The history of the past quarter century illustrates how a President may aggrandize his power to act aggressively in international affairs without considering the wishes of Congress.
aggregate V. /收集，聚集/gather; accumulate. Before the Wall Street scandals, dealers in so-called junk bonds managed to aggregate great wealth in short periods of time. aggregation, N.
aggressor N. /攻击者/attacker. Before you punish both boys for fighting, see whether you can determine which one was the aggressor.
aghast ADJ. /吓坏了的/horrified. He was aghast at the nerve of the speaker who had insulted his host.
agility N. /敏捷/nimbleness. The agility of the acrobat amazed and thrilled the audience.
agitate V. /激怒，打扰/stir up; disturb. Her fiery remarks agitated the already angry mob.
agnostic N. /无神论者/one who is skeptical of the existence or knowability of a god or any ultimate reality. Agnostics say we can neither prove nor disprove the existence of god; we simply just can't know. alsoADJ.
agrarian ADJ. /耕地的，耕种的/pertaining to land or its cultivation. The country is gradually losing its agrarian occupation and turning more and more to an industrial point of view.
alacrity N. /欢快的情绪/cheerful promptness. Phil and Dave were raring to get off to the mountains; they packed up their ski gear and climbed into the van with alacrity.
alchemy N. /炼金术士/medieval chemistry. The changing of baser metals into gold was the goal of the students of alchemy. alchemist, N.
alcove N. /小隔间，壁橱/nook; small, recessed section of a room. Though their apartment lacked a full-scale dining room, an alcove adjacent to the living room made an adequate breakfast nook for the young couple.
alias N. /别名/an assumed name. John Smith's alias was Bob Jones. also ADV.
alienate V. /孤立，树敌/make hostile; separate. Her attempts to alienate the two friends failed because they had complete faith in each other.
alimentary ADJ. /营养的/supplying nourishment. The alimentary canal in our bodies is so named because digestion of foods occurs there. When asked for the name of the digestive tract, Sherlock Holmes replied, "Alimentary, my dear Watson."
alimony N. /（离婚后的）生活费，抚养费/payment by a husband to his divorced wife (or vice versa). Mrs. Jones was awarded $200 monthly alimony by the court when she was divorced from her husband.
allay V. /平静下来，（使）冷静下来/calm; pacify. The crew tried to allay the fears of the passengers by announcing that the fire had been controlled.
allege V. /断言/state without proof. Although it is alleged that she has worked for the enemy, she denies the allegation and, legally, we can take no action against her without proof. allegation, N.
allegiance N. /忠诚/loyalty. Not even a term in prison could shake Lech Walesa's allegiance to Solidarity, the Polish trade union he had helped to found.
allegory N. /寓言/story in which characters are used as symbols; fable. Pilgrim's Progress is an allegory of the temptations and victories of man's soul. allegorical,ADJ.
alleviate V. /解脱，释放，释然/relieve. This should alleviate the pain; if it does not, we shall have to use stronger drugs.
alliteration N. /头韵/repetition of beginning sound in poetry. "The furrow followed free" is an example of alliteration.