Hominin Evolution (based on R. Klein, B. Wood), compiled by Charles J. Vella, 9/2012



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Homo heidelbergensis

880-250T (.6-.1)

Mauer, Germany; Boxgrove, England; Bodo, Ethiopia; Kabwe, Zambia

Larger brain

1908

Schoetensack 1908

1270 cc




1908

Mauer 1 mandible






























Homo

antecessor

780T (.7-.5)

Gran Dolina, Atapuerca,

Spain








Jose-Maria Bermudez de Castro







1997

ATD 6-5
























































Homo neanderthalis

200T-30T (.2-.03);

400-500T in Spain



Kleine Feldhofer, Germany; sites in Europe, Near East, Asia

1-4% DNA in Europeans/

Asians


1856

1864, King

1420 cc

H. sapiens

Neanderthal 1 calotte (Kleine Feldhofer skeleton); 40KYA







Also Engis, Belgium




1824



















Forbes’ Quarry, Gibraltar




1848



































































Hominin

Time

Location

Features

Found

Described

Brain Size

Co-exist

Type Specimen























































Homo sapiens

200T-

(.2-present)



Cro-Magnon, Les Eyzies, France; many sites

Brain size, globe skull,

art, only survivor;

In Europe, 45 TYA


1868




1350 cc

H. neand.










Also Paviland, Gower Peninsula, Wales

1st fossil of H. sapiens

1822/3



































































Homo floresiensis

<38T-18T

(.095-.018)



Liang Bua, Island of Flores, Indonesia

100 specimens/

14 individuals



2003

Peter Brown

2005


400cc




2005 LB 1























































Denisovans

41-50T

Denisovia, Siberia

Finger bone, molar, toe bone

2008

Maria Mednikova



2010

David Reich





















5% DNA in New Guineans, Aborigines, Melanesia































































































































Hominid

Teeth

Mandible

Leg

Fingers &

Arms


Brow bridge

Face & Chin

Pelvis

Notable

Non Skeletal

Height

Weight

Sahelanthropus

tchadensis



Small canines worn at tip; thick enamel

thick







Massive bb, moder. prognathic face







Toumai skull;

small braincase and widely spaced eye

sockets





Chimp size




Orrorin

tugenensis



Thick enamel,

Large canines






outer/

cortical bone is thickest at top and bottom of neck



Curved fingers










Origin in forested habitat










Ardipithecus kadabba




























70-80 lbs.








































Ardipithecus ramidus

thin dental enamel ; smaller canines








strongly built arm bones

Anterior Foramen magnum







Origin in forested habitat




70-80 lbs.








































Australopithecus anamensis

Rectangular arcade;

Thick enamel







Modern bipedal tibia













tiny external ear canal






























































































































































































Hominid

Teeth

Mandible

Leg

Arm

Brow bridge

Face & Chin

Pelvis

Notable

Non Skeletal

Height

Weight

Australopithecus

bahrelghazli

mandible fragment, a lower second incisor, both lower canines, all 4 of its premolars



















Abel name






















































































































Australopithecus afarensis

Smaller incisors, larger molars; thick enamel

large













Basin shaped

Lucy 1974, 3.2 M;

Bipedal;


3.3 M tool use on ungulates

Laetoli, Tanz.

footprints



1979,

3.6 M


3-4 ft.

75-125 lbs.









































































Kenyanthropus platyops













Deformed cranium







Like rudolfensis?


















































































Australopithecus africanus

Large molars




Limbs more ape













Taung child;

Grassy woodland



Bipedal & climber



















































































































Hominid

Teeth

Mandible

Leg

Arm

Brow bridge

Face & Chin

Pelvis

Notable

Non Skeletal

Height

Weight













































































































Australopithecus garhi






















Animal bones with flesh removed










Paranthropus aethiopicus

Large incisors



















Apelike cranium










Australopithecus sediba




























4 ft. 2 in (1.27 m)




Paranthropus boisei

Very large, thick enameled molars; small canines

Larger than robustus










Massive, wide, flat face;




no PC bones with cranial remains; pointed sticks

Abrasive food; worn enamel




150 lbs./75 lbs.

Paranthropus robustus


































Homo habilis










Longer arms than legs

Variable size crania







Oldowan Tools

Per Wood, similar to afarensis & boisei











































































































































































































































































































































Hominid

Teeth

Mandible

Leg

Arm

Brow bridge

Face & Chin

Pelvis

Notable

Non Skeletal

Height

Weight

Homo rudolfensis






















Body proportions unknown

= h. habilis















































































Home gautengensis


































Homo ergaster

Teeth smaller than Aust.




Long, robust lower leg = long distance













Cooked Food?










Homo erectus







Femur & tibia more flattened than modern




Bony ridge; sulcus behind; blunt ridge in midline (sagittal torus)




Large socket for head of femur; consistent with habitual bipedal & endurance running

Low crania, greatest width low on cranium; angulated occipital region

Use of hand axes











































Hominid

Teeth

Mandible

Leg

Arm

Brow bridge

Face & Chin

Pelvis

Notable

Non Skeletal

Height

Weight

















































































































































Homo heidelbergensis

Smaller

Smaller

Thick & strong




Not thick



















Homo neanderthalis







Thick shafts & large joints in 30-100K European/near East




Large nasal opening; face projects in midline;

Rounded cranium;




202 positions in the mtDNA differ; 1-4% DNA of modern non-Africans

Cranial cavity larger than H. sapiens; burial of dead















































































Homo sapiens






































































Home florsensis







Homo like limbs; primitive ankle

Primitive wrist










400 cc brain; homo like skull




40 inches




Denisovans






















X-woman; 385 positions differ; 5% of Melanesians, New Guineans

















































































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