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Section 14 - Functionally Generated Path
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Abstracts

001. Meyer, F. S. The generated path technique in reconstruction dentistry. a. Part I: Complete dentures. J Prosthet Dent  9:354-366, 1959. b. Part II: Fixed partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 9:432-440, 1959.

002. McCracken, W. L. Functional occlusion in removable partial denture construction. J Prosthet Dent 8:955-963, 1958.

003. Vig, R. G. A modified chew-in and functional impression technique.  J Prosthet Dent14:214-220, 1964.

004. Zimmerman, E. M. Modifications of the functionally generated path procedure. J Prosthet Dent 16:1119-1126, 1966.

005. Schnader, Y. E. Symposium on occlusion and function: The stone core intaglio in restorative dentistry. DCNA 25:493-510, 1981.

006. Dawson, P. E. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Occlusal Problems.C. V. Mosby, St. Louis, 1974. a. Chapter 14, The plane of occlusion, pp 190-205. b. Chapter 19, Functionally generated path techniques for recording border movements intraorally, pp 248-274.

007. Meyer, F. S. Construction of full dentures with balanced functional occlusion. J Prosthet Dent 4:440-445, 1954.

008. Mann, A. W. and Pankey, L. D. Concepts of occlusion: The P.M. philosophy of occlusal rehabilitation. DCNA Nov 1963:621-636.

009. Mann, A. W. and Pankey, L. D. Oral rehabilitation. J Prosthet Dent 10:135-162, 1960.

010. Schuyler, C. H. An evaluation of incisal guidance and its influence in restorative dentistry.  J Prosthet Dent 9:374-378, 1959.

011. Dawson, P. E. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Occlusal Problems. C. V., Mosby, St. Louis, 1974. a. Chapter 8, Pankey-Mann-Schuyler philosophy of complete occlusal rehabilitation, pp. 108-110. b. Chapter 14, The plane of occlusion, pp 190-205. c. Chapter 15, Determining the type of posterior occlusal morphology, pp. 206-218. 

Section 14: Functionally Generated Path
(Handout)

Handout not yet available for this section

- Abstracts -

14-001a. Meyer, FS. The generated path technique in reconstruction dentistry. Part I: Complete dentures J Prosthet Dent 9:354-366, 1959.



Purpose: To describe a technique useful in complete denture construction.
Materials and Methods: Author's experience and review of literature.
Results: None
Conclusion: A technique was described,.
- After making impressions and casts, make occlusion rims at the proper location.
- Transfer the occlusion rims to a plain line articulator.
- Make modeling compound occlusion rims.
- Place soft carding wax on the rims and have the patient glide them together.
- Remove the wax from the lower rim.
- Pour stone into the maxillary wax and use the modeling compound on the lower rim for its base.
- This lower stone path is what the upper teeth are set to and is in harmony with the condylar path.
- The upper posterior teeth are set against the lower stone model.
- The maxillary teeth are checked for esthetics.
- The modeling compound on the lower rim is lowered 2mm below the upper incisors so there is no contact.
- The compound on the lower rim is softened, the rim is placed in the mouth and the patient is instructed to protrude and retrude the mandible several times. Then when retruded the patient is asked to lightly close at the vertical dimension and make an imprint into the compound.
- Cusps and Sulci analysis is performed. If the compound ridge is not high enough to contact the buccal cusp then the sulcus creating it is not deep enough and must be deepened.
- Wax is then placed on the compound rims, softened and with a few lateral and protrusive movements the wax is formed.
- Stone is poured into the wax and the teeth are set to the stone.
- Balance will be obtained.

14-001b. Meyer, F. S. The generated path technique in reconstruction dentistry. Part II: Fixed partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 9:432-440, 1959.

Abstract not available at this time .......

14-002. McCracken. Functional Occlusion in Removable Partial Denture Construction. J Prosthet Dent 8: 955-963, 1958.



     A method of establishing occlusion on the partial denture involves the generation of occlusal paths and the use of an occlusal template to which the denture teeth are occluded and by which they are modified to accept eccentric movements.
     Should partial dentures be necessary in both arches, a choice must be made as to which denture is to be made first on a simple articulator mounting and which denture is to have the functional occlusal pattern.
     By wearing and biting into a wax occlusion rim, a record is made of the opposing teeth in all extremes of jaw movement.
     The occlusal path recorded will represent each tooth in its three dimensional aspect and although the cast poured against the record will resemble the opposing teeth, it will be much wider than the tooth which carved it because it represents a tooth in all extremes of movement. The recording of occlusal paths in this manner eliminates the problem of trying to reproduce mandibular movement on an instrument.
     The occlusion on the partial denture will have more complete harmony with the opposing teeth and the remaining natural teeth by this method than can ever be obtained by adjustments in the mouth, because corrections to accommodate to voluntary movements does not mean complete freedom from occlusal disharmony in postural positions or during stress periods. Also it is very doubtful that any dentist can interpret articulation paper markings correctly without an occlusal analysis, which brings us to the need for a complicated instrument as the only alternative to this method.
     It makes possible the obtaining of jaw relations under actual working conditions, with the new denture framework in its terminal position, the opposing teeth under function, and an opposing denture, if present, fully seated before jaw relations are recorded.
     In some instances, it makes possible the recovery of lost vertical dimension, either bilaterally or unilaterally, where abnormal closure or mandibular rotation has occurred instead of recording and perpetuating an abnormal position which is correctable.
     The occlusal registration must be converted to an occlusal template by filling the wax with hard stone. It is desirable that stone stops be used to maintain the vertical relation, rather than relying upon some adjustable part of the articulating instrument which might be changed accidentally. By the use of stone stops and by mounting both the denture cast and the template before separating them, a simple hinge or even a tripod instrument may be used, thereby eliminating the use of any but the simplest articulator. The jaw movements having been recorded and transferred to a template, eliminates the need for articulator adjustments.
     Electroplating permits a metallic surface to be formed on the wax record with accuracy and with greater hardness than low-fusing metals
     Electroforming with silver has proved to be the simplest and most satisfactory method.

14-003. Vig, R. G. A modified chew-in and functional impression technique.   J Prosthet Dent14:214-220, 1964.

Abstract not available at this time .......

14-004. Zimmerman, E. M. Modifications of the functionally generated path procedure. J Prosthet Dent 16:1119-1126, 1966.

Abstract not available at this time .......

14-005. Schnader, Y. E. Symposium on occlusion and function: The stone core intaglio in restorative dentistry. DCNA 25:493-510, 1981.

Abstract not available at this time .......

14-006a. Dawson, P. E. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Occlusal Problems. Ch. 8.: The Plane of Occlusion. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, 1974. pp. 190-205.



Purpose: To establish the plane of occlusion with the Broadrick Occlusal Plane Analyzer and the P.M.S. technique.
Material and Method:
This descriptive text presented the requirements for proper occlusion i.e. anterior guidance, discluding posterior teeth in protrusion, disclusion of all teeth on the balancing side in lateral excursion. It also defined the following terms:
1. Curve of Spee: anteroposterior curvature of the occlusal surfaces, beginning at the tip of the lower cuspid and following the buccal cusp tips of the bicuspids and molars and continuing to the anterior border of the ramus.
2. Curve of Wilson: mediolateral curvature of the cusps as projected on the frontal plane expressed in both arches.
Discussion: If the curve of Spee is too high in posterior the supporting tissues are prone to deleterious forces. If the curve of Spee is too low posteriorly it will not interfere with the basic requirements of protrusive and balancing side disclusion. It can create a poor esthetic and poor crown-root ratio on upper teeth. If the curve of Spee is too high or too low anteriorly the premolars can contact the upper cuspids in protrusive. Having the lower premolars much lower than the anteriors is unaesthetic.
     The curve of Wilson deals with the mediolateral slant of posterior teeth in its relationship with the lateral anterior guidance angle. The steeper the lateral anterior guidance angle, the higher the lower lingual cusps may be on the opposite side.

There are 3 practical methods for establishing an acceptable plane of occlusion:


   1. Analysis on natural teeth through selective grinding
   2. Analysis on models with fully adjustable instrumentation
   3. Pankey-Mann-Schuyler method with the Broadrick Occlusal Plane Analyzer

Conclusion: When the occlusal plane is predetermined prior to preparation of the teeth only the most minor occlusal adjustment should be necessary on the finished restoration.

14-006b. Dawson, P. E. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and treatment of Occlusal Problems. Chapter 23: Functionally generated path techniques for recording border movements intraorally. C. V. Mosby, 1989, 410-433.



Purpose: To review the technique for recording and utilizing the Functionally Generated Path technique (FGP). The chapter describes both the clinical and laboratory procedures.
Subject: FGP procedures are described as a useful and accurate method to record all possible border pathways of the lower posterior teeth when preparing upper posterior teeth for restoration. Technique is described for maxillary full arch, single tooth, and quadrant restoration.
Methods and materials: Brief technique summary for bilateral maxillary posterior preparations: 1) prepare teeth 2) alginate impression 3) extra hard baseplate wax base (or acrylic or cast base) fabricated to be stable cross-arch, adapted down around each tooth, but thin on prepared occlusal surface with no contact 4) functional wax softened and added to baseplate, enough to be impressed by about one third of each lower tooth. 5) patient guided through protrusive and all lateral excursions 6) wax chilled with ice water and a stone mix applied to wax in the mouth. 7) upper master die model articulated against FGP stone core. 8) Wax-up can be made against the functional model, made against an anatomic opposing cast and refined on the functional model, or castings fabricated from anatomic model and adjusted against the functional model. Variations are described for single tooth or quadrant preps.
Results: 1) Group function is attained by adjusting the lingual inclines of the upper buccal cusps to contact against the functional core. 2) Disclusion is attained when the inclines are taken out of contact with the functional core and only centric stops are retained. 3) Balancing contacts will be reproduced in functional core, therefore balancing side disclusion must be effected by reduction of the balancing inclines in restoration or wax pattern.
Conclusions: 1) Anterior guidance and condylar movement determine border pathways of lower posterior teeth. By recording and reproducing all possible border pathways of the lower posterior teeth, in a functionally generated path, a method can be utilized for restoring upper posterior teeth 2) FGP procedures are not generally used on lower teeth. In lower teeth, functioning contacts on the buccal cusps and centric contact in the base of the fossae can be accomplished in less time consuming ways than FGP.
Comments: The article provides a cookbook recipe for utilizing a FGP for accurately restoring occlusal contours.

14-007. Meyer, F. S. Construction of full dentures with balanced functional occlusion. J Prosthet Dent 4:440-445, 1954.

14-008. Mann, AW and Panky, LD. Concepts of occlusion: The PM philosophy of occlusal rehabilitation. J Prosthet Dent 10:135-162, 1960.

     The lower is rebuilt to an ideal occlusion using the PM instrument that allows for Bonwill's triangle and Monson's curve. The incisal guidance is then rebuilt by grinding or restoring the anterior teeth. The maxillary is then reconstructed using the FGP technique describer by Meyer.


     The four prime objectives of oral rehabilitation are (1) optimum oral health, (2) functional efficiency, (3) mouth comfort, and (4) esthetics.

14-009. Mann, A. W. and Pankey, L. D. Oral rehabilitation. J Prosthet Dent 10:135-162, 1960.

Abstract not available at this time .......

14-010. Schuyler. An Evaluation Of Incisal Guidance And Its Influence In Restorative Dentistry. J Prosthet Dent 9: 374-378, 1959.



     Complete occlusal coordination of the masticatory mechanism necessitates a coordination of posterior guiding tooth inclines with the two extreme guiding factors which are the incisal guidance and the unrestrained movement of the condyles in the glenoid fossae. Of these two extreme factors, the incisal guidance is the more influential factor due to its proximity to the occlusion and nonresiliency. There is a degree of resiliency of flexibility in the movement of the condyles in the glenoid fossae.
     The controls of the lateral functional inclinations of the posterior teeth are the incisal guidance and the lateral movement of the condyles in the glenoid fossae, which is called Bennett movement.
     A steep incisal guidance, or a locked or restricted relationship of the anterior teeth, or a functional abnormality of posterior tooth inclines may influence the direction and degree of the Bennett movement.
     By building posterior occlusal contours to some irregular functional movements of the condyles, we may be perpetuating pathology of the joints.
     The anterior movement of the condyles upon the articulating eminences of the glenoid fossae has little or no influence upon the functional relation of the posterior tooth surfaces on the working side. In complete oral rehabilitation, it has little or no influence upon the steepness of lateral working inclines of the teeth.
     Incisal guidance and the forward movement of the condyles are the factors controlling inclinations of the posterior teeth on both the balancing side and in the protrusive relationship.
     In the evaluation of factors controlling posterior occlusal contours of the complete oral rehabilitation of the natural dentition, we must come to the conclusion that incisal guidance is the predominating factor. Therefore, the establishing of the anterior tooth relation, esthetics, and incisal guidance should be the first step in planning the oral rehabilitation. Posterior tooth surfaces are then formed to function in harmony with this guiding factor.
     The reduction of horizontal stresses by a reduction of the steepness of posterior occlusal inclinations may be desirable. This necessitates a reduction of the lateral guiding inclines of the anterior teeth, these being the controlling factors to the inclines of the posterior teeth.
     Schuyler - mount casts in the articulating instrument with a retruded, but unrestrained centric maxillomandibular relation record. After this relation record has been checked and proved and the instrument has been set to the recorded movements, the mandibular member of the instrument is advanced by placing a strip of tin foil of the desired thickness in front of the axis balls in the slot in the condylar guidances of the instrument. The thickness commonly used is .5 or.75 mm. The restorations on the teeth are finished and milled at this advanced position. Then the articulator is retruded to its normal position and the occlusal surfaces of the restorations are milled again to that position. This procedure provides a slight range of anteroposterior freedom for the mandible and a slight freedom in intercuspation. Complete dentures and complete oral rehabilitation are more readily tolerated when this freedom is built into the occlusion. 

14-011a. Dawson,P.E. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Occlusal Problems. C.V., Mosby, St. Louis, 1974. Chapter 8, Pankey-Mann-Schuyler philosophy of complete occlusal rehabilitation, pp108-110.

     The deviation of the incisal path in an individual is less than that of the condylar path. The incisal path influences disocclusion at the second molar twice as much as that of the condylar path during a protrusive movement, three times as much on the non-working side and four times as much on the working side during lateral movement. The cusp angle is considered to be the most reliable reference for occlusion. The standard cusp angle values were determined to be 25 during protrusive movement, 15 on the working side, and 20 on the non-working side during lateral movement.
     In order to provide disocclusion, the cusp angle should be shallower than the condylar path. To make a shallower cusp angle, it is necessary to produce balanced articulation so the cusp angle becomes parallel to the cusp path of a opposing teeth during eccentric movement. The twin stage procedure uses a cast with a removable anterior segment and fabricates the posterior teeth in a balanced occlusion. The anterior segment is replaced and anterior guidance is established.( 1mm during protrusive movement)
     In Hobo’s article a description is given to create a custom incisal guide table, and a technique to simulate the protrusive movement on the articulator is detailed. In his text book, values have been determined and can be programmed into a semi-adjustable articulator.
     Stage I: The sagittal condylar path inclination 25 ; Bennett angle 15 ; sagittal inclination of the incisal guide table 25 ; and the lateral wing angle 10 .The anterior segment of the maxillary and mandibular casts are removed using dowel pins and the casts are adjusted so they do not disclude during eccentric movements. Wax the occlusal morphology of the posterior teeth so the maxillary and mandibular teeth contact during eccentric movements (balanced articulation).
     Stage II: The sagittal condylar path inclination 40 ; Bennett angle 15 ; sagittal inclination of the incisal guide table 45 ; and the lateral wing angle 20 .The anterior segment of the maxillary and mandibular casts is replaced. Wax the palatal contours of the maxillary anterior teeth so the incisors contact during protrusive movement, and the canines on the working side contact during a lateral movement. Anterior guidance is established and disclusion is produced.
     If the sagittal condylar path of the patient is steeper than the articulator adjustment value (40 ), disclusion increases. If the path is less than 40 , then the amount of disclusion decreases. If the patient has less than 16  (only about an 8% occurrence rate), cuspal interferences will occur.
     If the incisal path is more than 5 steeper than the condylar path, patients complain of discomfort (Mc Horris 1979).

14-011b. Dawson, P. E. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Occlusal Problems. C. V., Mosby, St. Louis, 1974. b. Chapter 14, The plane of occlusion, pp 190-205.

Abstract not available at this time .......

14-011c. Dawson, P. E. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Occlusal Problems. C. V., Mosby, St. Louis, 1974. c. Chapter 15, Determining the type of posterior occlusal morphology, pp. 206-218. 



Abstract not available at this time .......


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