Version 1.1 14 November 2010
DRAFT SPECIFICATION FOR PROTECTIVE HELMETS FOR MOTORCYLISTS
This is the first draft of the Global Helmet Vaccine Initiative Draft Standard for Head Protection for Motorcycle Users. This Draft Standard was prepared by the Global Helmet Vaccine Technical Committee and is based upon existing motorcycle head protection standards. This helmet standard does not claim to meet the needs of all motorcycle riders and passengers in all regions; however, research on head protection in developing countries has shown that helmets that meet this performance standard can be made at a relatively low cost and can provide significant protection against head injuries1. It is the opinion of The Global Helmet Vaccine Initiative Technical Committee that in developing countries with low income, a low cost motorcycle helmet that is acceptable and appealing to consumers represents a crucial and necessary element of any road safety campaign for powered two wheelers.
The purpose of this proposed draft standard is to provide a basic standard for those regions that currently have no established standard for protective helmets for motorcycle riders and passengers. This standard does not claim to provide protection for all foreseeable impacts and cannot be considered inclusive of the special needs of each region. It is expected that each standards governing body shall make modifications to this standard to meet the needs of their region prior to approval and publication by the standards governing body of the region.
GHVI Technical Committee
30 August 2010
(1) Use of the singular does not exclude the plural (and vice versa) when the sense allows.
(2) Although the intended primary application of this Standard is stated in its Scope, it is important to note that it remains the responsibility of the users of the Standard to judge its suitability for their particular purpose.
(3) This Standard is subject to regular review, and suggestions for its improvement will be discussed by the appropriate GHVI technical committee.
(5) All enquiries regarding this Standard, including requests for interpretation, should be addressed to the Global Helmet Vaccine Initative (address).
Requests for interpretation should:
(a) define the problem, making reference to the specific clause, and, where appropriate, include an illustrative sketch;
(b) provide an explanation of circumstances surrounding the actual field condition; and
(c) be phrased where possible to permit a specific “yes” or “no” answer.
Technical Committee interpretations are processed in accordance with internationally accepted guidelines governing standardization and updated versions of this draft standard are available on the GHVI website at www.ghvi.org.
Note: This draft represents a proposed draft standard and is under review and development and subject to change; it should not be used for reference purposes.
This Standard specifies requirements for helmets intended to provide protection for riders and passengers of motorcycles and motorcycles with side cars excluding participants in competitive events. This standard has no restrictions pertaining to any particular style of motorcycle helmet other than the requirement that all motorcycle styles (e.g. full face, jet, open face, etc.) claiming to meet this standard must meet performance requirements specified in this standard. The standard defines the areas of the head that are to be protected for single impact injuries. It covers the basic performance requirements for shock absorption, strength and effectiveness of the retention system as well as marking and labeling requirements. Requirements for visors, goggles, detachable peaks and detachable face covers are not included in this Standard.
This Standard refers to the following publications:
EN 960:2006 Headforms for use in the testing of protective helmets
SAE† Standard J211-JUL2007 Instrumentation for Impact Tests – Part 1 – Electronic Instrumentation
†Society of Automotive Engineers
The following definitions apply in this Standard:
Acceleration of a body
a (self explanatory) NOTE: acceleration measured in metres per second squared, in units of g.
Acceleration of a body due to gravity
g (self explanatory. g = 9,8 m/s2)
Basic plane of a headform
plane relative to the headform that corresponds to the basic plane of the human head
Basic plane of the human head (Frankfort Horizontal Plane)
plane that is located at the central point of the upper margin of the external auditory meatus (porion) and the inferior margins of the orbits of the eyes (orbitale).
Central vertical axis
line relative to the headform that lies in the median plane of symmetry, and that is normal to the basic plane at a point equidistant from the front and back of the headform
point where the central vertical axis meets the top of the headform
soft material used to ensure a comfortable fit of the helmet on the head.
vertical distance between the lowest point (impact point) of the elevated helmet and the impact surface on a drop test apparatus
those devices used to connect all components of the helmet
vertical plane that is perpendicular to the median and reference planes and passes through the crown (see Figure 1)
device to be worn on the head intended to reduce the risk of head injury while riding on a motorcycle and including
a) a shock-attenuating system;
b) the retention system ;
d) manufacturer’s attachments (if any)
category of helmets that do not differ in such essential respects as the materials, dimensions, construction of the helmet, retention system or the protective padding
Helmet positioning index (HPI)
the vertical distance measured at the median plane, from the front edge of the helmet to the basic plane, when the helmet is placed on the reference headform
plane that passes across the body at right angles to both the frontal and median plane
(See Figure 1)
Maximum value of acceleration, amax
highest point on the acceleration-time curve, encountered during impact, in units of g,
vertical plane that passes through the headform from front to back and divides the headform into right and left halves (See Figure 1).
Outer covering (shell)
outer material that gives the helmet its form
Permanent marking and warning
Information that remains legible and cannot be removed in its entirety under conditions of normal use
point at the posterior intersection of the median and reference planes
a construction plane parallel to the basic plane of the headform at a distance from it which is a function of the size of the headform
system which secures the helmet firmly to the head by passing under the mandible in whole or in part when adjusted according to manufacturer’s instructions
The drop assembly in the monorail or twin wire drop system minus the weight of the headform, ball clamp, ball clamp bolts, and accelerometer
the area on and above the test line where an impact site shall be located
the line that defines the boundaries of the test area
an attachment to the helmet intended to reduce sun glare
A transparent protective screen extending over the eyes and covering part or all of the face
4 General requirements
4.1 Construction requirements - materials
All materials used shall be known not to be adversely affected by ordinary household soap and cleaners as recommended by the manufacturer. Paints, glues and finishes used in manufacturing shall be compatible with the materials used in the construction of the helmet. Material coming in contact with the wearer’s head shall not be of any type known to cause skin irritation or disease or undergo significant loss of strength, flexibility, or other physical changes as a result of contact with perspiration, oil or grease from the wearer’s head. Adhesive material used to attach padding or straps to the helmet shall be of a formulation that will not alter the chemical or physical properties of the materials to an extent as to reduce their protective qualities.
All materials used in the fabrication of helmets shall be known to be suitable for use in the design of protective helmets. The materials shall not undergo appreciable alteration due to aging or normal use, such as exposure to sun, extremes of temperature, and rain. All materials used in the construction of the helmet shall be resistant to irreversible polymeric changes when exposed to temperatures from -10oC to 50oC.
4.2 Construction requirements - projections
A helmet shall not have any internal rigid projections more than 3mm. Rigid projections outside any helmet’s shell shall be limited to those required for operation of essential accessories and shall not protrude more than 5 mm. All parts shall be well finished and free of sharp edges and other irregularities which would present a potential hazard to the user or others.
The minimum width of the retention system straps shall be 15 mm.
5 Test requirements
Helmets shall be capable of meeting the requirements in this Standard throughout their full range of available sizes. Each helmet shall be tested on the headform size of best fit. All testing shall be done with the visor and all accessories removed (if applicable).
Samples for testing
To test conformance to this standard, five samples of each helmet size of each helmet model offered for sale are required. One sample each shall be conditioned in each of the environments described in Clause 6.1 for 4 to 24 hours prior to testing.
Extent of protection
The entire area of the helmet above the test line stipulated in Clause 6.3 shall attenuate impact energy to the minimum requirements specified in Clause 5.7.
All helmets shall allow unobstructed vision through a minimum of 105o to the left and right sides of the median plane when measured in accordance with the procedures described in Clause 6.5.
When tested in accordance with Clause 6.6 at ambient temperature no contact with the test headform by the test dowel shall be made within any aperture on the helmet.
Effectiveness of retention system
When tested in accordance with Clause 6.7 at ambient temperature the helmet shall remain on the test headform.
Strength of retention system
When tested in accordance with Clause 6.8 the retention system shall not detach and the maximum elongation of the retention system shall not exceed 25 mm when measured between preliminary and test load positions.
When the helmet is tested in accordance with Clause 6.9 the peak headform acceleration (amax) shall not exceed 275g.
All helmets shall have permanent labels and warnings that are in accordance with Clause 7.1.1 and 7.1.2. All helmets shall be sold with packaging that is in accordance with Clause 7.1.3 and instructions that are in accordance with Clause 7.2.
6 Test methods
Helmets shall be conditioned to one of the following environments prior to testing in accordance with the test schedule specified in Clause 6.4. All test helmets shall be stabilized within the ambient condition for 4 to 24 hours prior to further conditioning and testing.
(a) Ambient conditioning
The sample shall be exposed to a temperature of 20 ± 5˚C and a relative humidity not exceeding 75 % for 4 to 24 hours.
(b) Low temperature conditioning
The sample shall be exposed to a temperature of -10± 3˚C for 4 to 24 hours. Testing shall begin within 60 s of removal from the low temperature conditioning chamber. Complete all helmet testing within 5 minutes after removal from the conditioning environment. Helmets may be returned to the conditioning environment in order to meet this requirement. Helmets shall remain in the conditioning environment for 15 minutes for each 5 minutes that they are out of the conditioning environment.
(c) Elevated temperature conditioning
The sample shall be exposed to a temperature of 50 ± 2˚C for 4 to 24 hours. Testing shall begin within 60 s of removal from the elevated temperature conditioning chamber. Complete all helmet testing within 5 minutes after removal from the conditioning environment. Helmets may be returned to the conditioning environment in order to meet this requirement. Helmets shall remain in the conditioning environment for 15 minutes for each 5 minutes that they are out of the conditioning environment.
(d) Water immersion conditioning
The sample shall be fully immersed “crown” down in potable water at a temperature of 23± 5˚C to a crown depth of 305 mm ±25 mm for 4 to 24 hours. Testing shall begin within 60 s of removal from the water immersion conditioning chamber. Complete all helmet testing within 5 minutes after removal from the conditioning environment. Helmets may be returned to the conditioning environment in order to meet this requirement. Helmets shall remain in the conditioning environment for 15 minutes for each 5 minutes that they are out of the conditioning environment.