Grammatica de interlingua de Alexander Gode &



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GRAMMATICA DE INTERLINGUA
de Alexander Gode & Hugh E. Blair
traducite ex anglese a interlingua per
Selahattin Kayalar, Pasadena, le Statos Unite
assistite per
Piet Cleij (Paises Basse), Bent Andersen (Danmark),
Ferenc Jeszenszky (Hungaria) e Stanley Mulaik (SUA), Augusto 2005
Lege primo le Curso minime !





PRINCIPIOS GENERAL ||| ORTHOGRAPHIA E PRONUNCIATION §1-14 • Orthographia collateral §15 • Punctuation §16

PARTES DEL DISCURSO • Articulo definite §17-18 • Articulo indefinite §19-21
   Substantivos §22-24 • Plurales §25-28 • Nomines proprie §29 • Apposition §30 | Adjectivos §31-42 • Comparation de adjectivos §34-42
   Adverbios §43-53 • Comparation de adverbios §50-53
   Pronomines §54-79 • Tabula de pronomines personal §54-59 • Pronomine personal indefinite §60-63 • Possessivos §64-65
       Reflexivos §66-73 • Relativos §74-76 • Demonstrativos §78-79
   Verbos §80-117 • Infinitivo §81-92 Participio presente §93-94 • Participio passate §95-98 • Tempore presente §99-101
       Tempore passate §102-106 • Tempore futur §107 • Conditional §108-109 • Imperativo §110-111 • Passivo §112-114
       Tabula de conjugation §115 • Le question §116 • Le sequentia de tempores §117
   Numerales §118-133 • Cardinales §118-124 • Ordinales §125 • Le adjectivo fractional §126 • Multiplicativos §127-128
       Le numerales collective §129 • Numeros adverbial §130 • Le functiones de numerales §131 • Datas e horas de die §132-133
   Particulas grammatic §134 • Lista de particulas grammatic

CONSTRUCTION DE PAROLAS • Le theoria de construction de parolas §135-167
   I Derivation §136-154 • I.A Derivation ab substantivos §138-140 • I.A.a Substantivos ab substantivos §138
      I.A.b Adjectivos ab substantivos §139 • I.A.c. Verbos ab substantivos §140
      I.B Derivation ab adjectivos §141 • I.B.a. Substantivos ab adjectivos §141 • I.B.b Adjectivos ab adjectivos §142
      I.B.c Adverbios ab adjectivos §143 • I.B.d Verbos ab adjectivos §144
      I.C. Derivation ab verbos §145-154 • Prime thema §146-147 • Secunde thema §148-151
      Substantivos ab verbos §152 • Adjectivos ab verbos §152 • Suffixos postverbal adjective §153 • Suffixos postverbal substantive §154
   II Composition §155-167 • II.A Composition per medio de prefixos §156 • II.A.a Prefixos general §157 • Prefixos technic §158
      II.B Composition per medio de formas compositori §159-162
   III Derivation composite §163-167 • Composition per prefixos §163-164 • Prepositiones e conjunctiones §165-167


Appendice 1. Verbos de duple thema


Appendice 2. Lista de parolas anglese-interlingua


Appendice 3. Textos exemplar


Altere material grammatic

INDICE ALPHABETIC





GRAMMATICA DE INTERLINGUA

Alexander Gode - Hugh E. Blair:


PRINCIPIOS GENERAL DEL GRAMMATICA

(Prefacio de "INTERLINGUA, a grammar of the international language")

"Vocabulario" e "grammatica" non es duo categorias hermeticamente isolate. Si le grammatica describe le structura de un lingua, il va sin dicer que nulle tal description pote offerer se sin referentia constante a materia lexical illustrative de varie tractos structural. Sed il es etiam ver que il non pote haber un dictionario de vocabulos presentate como materia crude amorphe. Listas lexical necessarimente possede structura, e le structura de vocabulos e expressiones es un cosa del grammatica.

Iste observationes non suggere que le distinction inter vocabulario e grammatica poterea esser abandonate, ni que lor tractamento sub capites separate es exclusivemente un acto de convenientia practic. Illos solmente reaffirma le facto que le vocabulario e le grammatica de un lingua particular es interdependente como aspectos natural e necessarimente compatibile de un singule phenomeno. Ultra isto illos pote relevar le question qual characteristicas special distingue le relationes inter le vocabulario e le grammatica in le caso de un lingua planate.



Le character basic de qualcunque lingua es in grande parte determinate per tractos de natura structural, i.e. grammatic.

Le dictionario de un lingua pote esser invadite per torrentes de vocabulos foranee, sed si su patronos de structura lexical e syntactic remane intacte, le materia foranee essera finalmente assimilate e le character basic del lingua supervivera essentialmente inalterate.

Iste principio, applicabile a omne linguas, es illustrate impressivemente per le anglese con su considerabile vocabulario romanic assimilate in un base germanic.

Il non ha un ration apparente que linguas auxiliar planate esserea governate per leges fundamentalmente differente. Totevia, superficialmente lor situation pare completemente reverse. Il habeva ample opportunitate pro observar que, un vice que accordo super le vocabulario le melior possibile pro un lingua auxiliar es assecurate, opiniones differente con respecto a problemas grammatic duce a nihil altere que variantes parallel de un singule lingua general. Sed isto non es assi proque le structura grammatic de un lingua planate es minus significante que illo del linguas natural; illo es assi proque un vocabulario establite implica le determination de si multe questiones de structura, i.e. de grammatica, que le tractos grammatic remanente joca necessarimente un rolo subordinate e dependente.

Il es, alora, solmente un inversion apparente del principio que le grammatica precede le vocabulario que, post determinar le vocabulario de un lingua auxiliar planate, tote que remane a dicer via le grammatica debe completemente subordinar se al characteristicas structural del vocabulario. Le structura grammatic de un lingua planate determina su character basic precisemente como le structura de un lingua natural. Sed le determination del vocabulario lassa pauc questiones grammatic totalmente indeterminate.

Le vocabulario de Interlingua per le IALA es incorporate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary. Le principio fundamental del grammatica correspondente debe esser que iste grammatica sia le systema le minime o le plus simple possibile que es apte pro governar le uso del vocabulario seligite in linguage coherente.

Le effortios del IALA pro compilar un dictionario de parolas generalmente international duceva necessarimente al collection de un vocabulario essentialmente romanic. Le linguas fonte a cuje sphera cerca e recerca poteva securmente restringer se esseva espaniol e portugese, italiano, francese, e anglese, con germano e russo como possibile substitutos. [*]

In consequentia un principio solide de guida in le elaboration del systema grammatical de IALA es que le termino "grammatica minimal" non permittera le suppression de ulle tracto grammatic que secundo le testimonio del linguas fonte es indispensabile in le governamento de lor vocabularios e in consequentia del vocabulario del Interlingua incorporate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary. In altere terminos,


cata tracto grammatic essera retenite, si illo manca in un del linguas fonte, o inversemente
nulle tracto grammatic essera retenite, si illo manca in un del linguas fonte.
Assi, per exemplo, le tracto de un forma plural distincte del substantivos debe esser retenite proque illo se monstra exister in omne linguas fonte, durante que le tracto de generes grammatic pote esser omittite proque illo manca in un del linguas fonte, a saper in anglese.
 
 

Le determination de qual tractos grammatic debe esser retenite in le Interlingua, lassa aperte le question del formas que sia usate pro representar lo. Le formas de tractos grammatic es determinate tanto como possibile per le methodos elaborate pro le "standardisation" de formas de parolas como analysate in le Introduction al Interlingua-English Dictionary.

Si le material del grammatica sequente pare esser organisate de un maniera aliquanto inorthodoxe, le ration es simplemente que certe capitulos generalmente representate in grammaticas conventional poteva esser omittite in le caso presente proque lor materia es completemente coperite per le Dictionario. Assi iste grammatica non contine, per exemplo, discussiones special de prepositiones e conjunctiones excepte un paragrapho sub le titulo de construction de parolas. Il essera etiam notate que il non ha ulle section concernente le problemas del syntaxe. Tal problemas realmente existe in Interlingua, sed il pareva opportun tractar los in connexion con le varie partes del discurso cuje functiones in le phrase pote esser extendite a implicar tote le questiones syntactic de importantia practic. Le apparato technic del Dictionario (le lista de abbreviationes, etc.) es applicabile etiam al Grammatica e illo ha essite includite de novo in le paginas sequente.
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[*] Pro le detalios, vide Interlingua-English Dictionary, "Introduction".

Traduction ab anglese in interlingua per


Selahattin Kayalar
Pasadena, Statos Unite de America, augusto 2005,
adjutate per
Piet Cleij (Paises Basse),
Bent Andersen (Danmark),
Ferenc Jeszenszky (Hungaria) e
Stanley Mulaik (SUA).



INTERLINGUA GRAMMAR

Alexander Gode - Hugh E. Blair:


INTERLINGUA GRAMMAR: GENERAL PRINCIPLES

(Prefacio de "INTERLINGUA, a grammar of the international language")

"Vocabulary" and "grammar" are not hermetically sealed-off categories. A gram­mar describes the structure of a language, it goes without saying that no such description can be offered without constant reference to word material illustrative of various struc­tural features. But it is also true that there can be no dictionary of words presented as amorphous raw material. Lexical listings are necessarily possessed of structure, and the structure of words and phrases is a matter of grammar.

These observations are not to suggest that the distinction between vocabulary and grammar might be abandoned, nor even that their treatment under separate heads is exclusively a matter of practical convenience. They are merely to restate the fact that the vocabulary and the grammar of a particular language are interdependent as naturally and necessarily compatible aspects of one and the same phenomenon. Be­yond this they may raise the question as to what special characteristics distinguish the relationship of vocabulary and grammar in the case of a planned interlingua.



The basic character of any language is largely determined by features of a structural, ie., a grammatical nature.

Let the dictionary of a language be invaded by hordes of foreign words, as long as its patterns of word and sentence structure stay intact, the foreign material will eventually be assimilated and the basic character of the language will survive essentially unchanged.

This principle, applicable to all languages, is strikingly illustrated by English with its very considerable Romance vocabulary assimilated to a Teutonic base.

There is no apparent reason that planned auxiliary languages should be governed by fundamentally different laws. Yet superficially their situation does look completely reversed. There has been ample opportunity to observe that once agreement on the best possible vocabulary for an auxiliary language is assured, diversities of opinion in regard to grammatical problems lead to nothing more than parallel variants of one general language. But this is not so because the grammatical structure of planned languages is less significant than that of natural languages; it is so because an established vocabulary implies the settlement of so many questions of structure, ie., of grammar, that the remaining grammatical features play of necessity a subordinate and dependent role.


 

It is, then, only a seeming reversal of the principle of grammar's precedence over vocabulary that after the vocabulary of a planned auxiliary language has been deter­mined all that remains to be said by way of grammar must be completely subordinated to the structural characteristics of the vocabulary. The grammatical structure of a planned language determines its basic character precisely as does the structure of a natural language but the determination of the vocabulary leaves few grammatical questions wholly indeterminate.

The vocabulary of IALA's form of the interlingua is that embodied in the Interlingua-English Dictionary. The fundamental principle of the corresponding grammar must be that this grammar shall be the minimum or simplest possible system fit to govern the use of the chosen vocabulary in coherent speech.

IALA's endeavor to compile a dictionary of generally international words led of necessity to the assembly of a basically Romance vocabulary. The source languages to whose domain search and research could safely be restricted were Spanish and Portuguese, Italian, French, and English, with German and Russian as possible sub­stitutes. [*]

Hence a sound working principle in the elaboration of IALA's system of grammar is that the term "minimum grammar" shall not permit the suppression of any grammatical feature which according to the testimony of the source languages is indis­pensable in the government of their vocabularies and hence of the vocabulary of the interlingua embodied in the Interlingua-English Dictionary. In other words,
every grammatical feature which is encountered in all the source languages shall be retained in the grammar of the interlingua, or negatively,
no grammatical feature shall be so retained if it is missing from as much as one of the source languages.
Thus, for instance, the feature of a distinctive plural form of nouns must be retained because it is found to exist in all the source languages while the feature of grammatical gender can be dispensed with because it is missing in one of the source languages, ie., in English.

The determination of what grammatical features are to be retained in the interlingua leaves open the question of the forms which are to be used to represent them. The forms of grammatical features are determined as far as possible by means of the method worked out for the "standardization" of forms of words as analyzed in the Introduction to the Interlingua-English Dictionary.

If the material of the following grammar appears to be organized in a somewhat unorthodox way, the reason is simply that certain chapters ordinarily represented in conventional grammars could be omitted in the present instance because their subject matter is completely covered by the Dictionary. Thus the grammar contains, for example, no special discussion of prepositions and conjunctions except for a paragraph under heading of word building. It will also be noted that there is no section concerned with problems of syntax. Such problems do exist in Interlingua, but it seemed expedient to treat them in connection with the various parts of speech whose functions in the sentence can be made to involve all syntactic questions of practical import. - The technical apparatus of the Dictionary (list of abbreviations, etc.) applies to the Grammar as well and has not been included again in the following pages.

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[*] For further details, see Interlingua-English Dictionary, "Introduction".



In finnese:
Alexander Gode - Hugh E. Blair:
KIELIOPIN YLEISET PERIAATTEET




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Grammatica
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Orthographia e pronunciation
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§1 Le LITTERAS usate es le vinti-sex litteras conventional del alphabeto roman. Il ha nulle signos e symbolos extra pro indicar le accento e le pronunciation.

§2 Le NORMA DE PRONUNCIATION es "continental." Le valores de sono del varie litteras es fluide intra limites de typo. Illos pote esser naturalmente influentiate per sonos proxime como etiam per habitos native de parlatores individual. Per exemplo, le sono de -u - describite in le expression "como -u in anglese {plural} - esserea justemente pronunciate como -oo in anglese {good} o {loom}, sed non como -u in anglese {stutter} o in le francese {lune}.

§3 On debe guardar se del tendentia de parlatores anglese a obscurar vocales sin accento, facente los omnes sonar como -a in anglese {China}. Isto se applica particularmente al -e final. Nulle sono, final o altere, con o sin accento, debe esser pronunciate indistinctemente.

§4 Le pronunciation anglese normal concorda con illo usate in le Interlingua pro le litteras -b, -d, -f, -k, -l, -m, -n, -p, -ph, -qu, -v, -w, e -z. Le litteras remanente es coperite per le regulas e observationes sequente:

a - es sempre pronunciate como -a in anglese {father};

c - ante -e, -i, -y es pronunciate como -ts in anglese {hats} (o, optionalmente, como -c in anglese {city}); alteremente como -c in anglese {cats}; -ch como -ch in anglese {echo}, {chrome};

e - sempre como -e in anglese {met} o, melior, como -é‚ in francese {risqué};

g - como -g in anglese {good};

h - como in anglese (o, optionalmente, silente); post -r e -t, mute;

i - normalmente como -i in anglese {machine}; quando non accentuate ante un vocal, como -i in anglese {onion} o {phobia}; p.ex. bile, biliose, varie;

j - como -z in anglese {azure} (o, optionalmente, como -g in anglese {gem} o como -y in {yes});

o - sempre como -o in anglese {obey};

r - como -rr in anglese {merry} o, melior, como -r in espaniol {caro};

s - como -s in anglese {stay}; inter vocales, le mesme (o, optionalmente, como -s in anglese {these}); p.ex. sparse, abstruse, accusativo;

t - como in anglese; -ti ante vocales, a minus que accentuate o precedite per -s, como -tsy in anglese {he gets you} (o, optionalmente, como -sy in anglese {we pass you} o como -ty in anglese {we let you}); p.ex. actor, garantia, question, sed action, reverentia;

u - normalmente como -u in anglese {plural}; quando non accentuate ante un vocal, como -u in anglese {persuade} o {superfluous}; p.ex. plural, persuader, superflue;

x - como -x in anglese {fox}; inter vocales, le mesme (o, optionalmente, como -x in anglese {exact});

y - non accentuate ante vocales, como -y in anglese {yes}; alteremente como -i in anglese {machine}; p.ex. Yugoslavia, typo.

§5 In DIPHTHONGOS le vocales retene lor valores de sono independente. Le diphthongo -ai es pronunciate como in germano {kaiser}, -au como in germano {kraut}. Le -e e -i accentuate es separate per un pausa syllabic ab un -a, -e, -o sequente; p.ex. mie, io, spondeo, via, bastardia. Non accentuate -i e -u se transforma in semiconsonantes ante un vocal sequente; p.ex. Bulgaria, filatorio, persuader.

§6 CONSONANTES DUPLE se fusiona in pronunciation. Le consonante duple -ss es sempre silente como -ss in anglese {miss}. Le sonos de -g e -k assimila un -n precedente como in anglese. Nota que le consonante duple -cc es scribite -c al fin de un parola (siccar sed sic).

§7 Pronunciationes deviante de iste normas es indicate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary per un systema de rescriber in le qual le litteras ha le mesme valores de sono como in Interlingua. Le digrapho -ch representa frequentemente le sono de -sh in anglese {English} e es rescribite como -sh; p.ex. choc (sh-). Le combination -gi sovente representa le sono de -z in anglese {azure} e es rescribite como -j ; p.ex. avantagiose (-ajo-). Le -g simple ha iste sono e ergo es rescribite assi in le suffixo -age; p.ex. avantage (-aje).

§8 Pro cambios orthographic in derivation, vide §137.

§9 "VOCABULOS HOSPITE" non-assimilate, i.e. parolas foranee o prestate le quales es identificate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary quanto a lor origine, retene le pronunciation e orthographia del lingua original. Le signos diacritic original es omittite quando le orthographia simplificate resultante suffice pro suggerer le pronunciation intendite; p.ex. defaite pro francese {défaite}, sed kümmel como in germano.

§10 Le ACCENTO principal es normalmente super le vocal ante le ultime consonante. Le desinentia plural non cambia le accento original del parola. Adjectivos e substantivos con desinentias in -le, -ne, e -re precedite per un vocal ha le accento super le tertie syllaba ab le fin; p.ex. frágile, órdine, témpore. In parolas formate con le suffixos -ic, -ica, -ico, -ide, -ido, -ula, e -ulo le accento cade super le syllaba que precede le suffixo. Le suffixos -ific e -ifico es accentuate super le prime -i.

Deviationes ab iste systema de accento es coperite in le Interlingua-English Dictionary per rescriber con signos de accento. Le majoritate de iste deviationes pote esser coperite per regulas descriptive additional. Per exemplo, le suffixos -issim, -esim, -ifer, e -olog es accentuate super le prime vocal. Le suffixos -ia e -eria, in tanto que illos corresponde al anglese {-y} e {-ery}, es accentuate super le vocal -i; etc.

Nota: Parolas sin un consonante o sin un vocal ante le ultime consonante es accentuate per necessitate super le prime vocal; p.ex. ío, vía, e certe formas de tempore presente, como strúe, créa, etc. Sed cónstrue, prócrea, etc. e etiam dimínue, substítue, etc. seque le regula standard e ha le accento super le vocal ante le ultime consonante.

§11 Le importantia de regularitate del accentuation non debe esser exaggerate. Le effortio involvite in acquirer un accentuation non-familiar pro un parola alteremente familiar pare sovente exaggerate. Isto, naturalmente, non implica que parolas de Interlingua pote esser accentuate completemente al hasardo, sed que un parola como kilometro remane le mesme parola international si habitos native causa que un parlator lo accentua super le secunde o super le tertie syllaba.

§12 Habitos native pote equalmente esser permittite prevaler in questiones de INTONATION, DURATION DE SONOS, e simile. Es suggerite, nonobstante, que le sequentia de un vocal final e un vocal initial, ambes non accentuate e non separate per un pausa in intonation, es pronunciate como un syllaba combinate glissante; p.ex. le alte Ural, quasi como si illo habeva le quatro syllabas le-ál-teu-rál.

§13 Le SYLLABATION seque le pronunciation. Consonantes singule, excepte -x, pertine al syllaba sequente. Gruppos de consonantes es dividite, sed -l e -r non debe esser separate de precedente -b, -c, -ch, -f, -g, -p, -ph, -t, -th, e -v. Le combinationes -qu, -gu, e -su se comporta como consonantes singule.

§14 Le USO DE MAJUSCULAS differe del usage anglese in que intra le phrase majusculas initial occurre exclusivemente con nomines proprie, sed non con derivatos de illos.
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In Francia le franceses parla francese ab le initio de lor vita.
 

Le piscatores del Mar Morte cape haringos salate.


 

Le ver stilo shakespearean se trova solmente in Shakespeare.


 

Proque terminos sacre, nomines del ferias religiose e altere, designationes de movimentos, eras, doctrinas, etc. poterea esser considerate como nomines proprie o commun, illos es scribite con majuscula o non, dependente del signification intendite.


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Le romanticismo de Hollywood es subinde insipide. Le philosophia del Romanticismo cerca le reunion de scientia e religion.

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Grammar
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Spelling and Pronunciation
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§ 1. The LETTERS used are the conventional twenty-six letters of the Roman alphabet. There are no extra signs and symbols to indicate stress and pronunciation.

§ 2. The NORM OF PRONUNCIATION is "continental." The sound values of the various letters are fluid within type limits. They may be naturally influenced by neighboring sounds as also by native habits of individual speakers. For instance, the sound of u- described in the phrase, "like u in 'plural' "-- may well be pronounced like oo in 'good' or in 'loom' but not like u in 'stutter' or in French 'lune'.
 

§ 3. The tendency of English speakers to obscure unstressed vowels, making them all sound like a in 'China,' should be guarded against. This applies particularly to final e. No sound, final or otherwise, unstressed or stressed, should be unduly slurred over.


 

§ 4. The normal English pronunciation agrees with that used in the Interlingua for the letters b, d, f, k, l, m, n, p, ph, qu, v, w, and z. The remaining letters are covered by the following rules and observations:

a is always pronounced like a in English 'father';

c before e, i, y is pronounced like ts in 'hats' (or, optionally, like c in 'city'); otherwise like c in 'cats'; ch like ch in 'echo. chrome';


 
 

e always like e in 'met' or, better, like é in French 'risqué.'

g like g in 'good';

h as in English (or, optionally, silent); after r and t, silent;

i normally like i in 'machine'; when unstressed before a vowel, like in 'onion' or in 'phob/a'); e.g. bile, biliose, varie;
 

j like z in 'azure' (or, optionally, like g in 'gem' or like y in 'yes');


 

o always like o in 'obey';

r like rr in 'merry' or, better, like r in Spanish 'caro';

s like s in 'stay'; between vowels, the same (or, optionally, like s in 'these'); e.g. sparse, abstruse, accusativo;

t as in English; ti before vowels, unless stressed or preceded by s, like tsy in 'he gets you' (or, optionally, like sy in 'we pass you' or like ty in 'we let you'); e.g. actor, garantia, question, but action, reverentia;
 

u normally like u in 'plural'; when unstressed before a vowel, like u in 'persuade' or in 'superfluous'; e.g. plural, persuader, superflue;

x like x in 'fox'; between vowels, the same (or, optionally, like x in 'exact');
 

y unstressed before vowels, like y i,n 'yes'; otherwise like i in 'machine'; e.g. Yugoslavia, typo.

§ 5. In DIPHTHONGS the vowels retain their independent sound values. The diphthong ai is pronounced as in 'kaiser,' au as in 'kraut.' Stressed e and i are separated by a syllabic break from a following a, e, o; e.g. mie, io, spondeo, via, bastardia. Unstressed i and u turn into semiconsonants before a following vowel; e.g. Bulgaria, filatorio, persuader.
 

§ 6. DOUBLE CONSONANTS merge in pronunciation. The double consonant ss is always voiceless like ss in 'miss.' The sounds of g and k assimilate a preceding n as in English. Note that the double consonant cc is spelled c at the end of a word (siccar but sic).


 

§ 7. Pronunciations deviating from these norms are indicated in the Interlingua-English Dictionary by a system of respelling in which the letters have the same sound values as in Interlingua. The digraph ch stands frequently for the sound of sh in 'English' and is respelled as sh; e.g. choc (sh-). The combination gi often represents the sound of z in 'azure' and is respelled as j; e.g. avantagiose (-ajo-). Simple g has this sound and hence this respelling in the suffix -age; e.g. avantage (-aje).

§ 8. On orthographic changes in derivation, see § 137 below.

§ 9. Unassimilated "GUEST WORDS," that is, foreign or borrowed words which are identified in the Interlingua-English Dictionary as to their origin, retain the pronunciation and spelling of the language of origin. The original diacritical signs are omitted when the resulting simplified spelling suffices to suggest the intended pronunciation; e.g. defaite for French défaite, but kümmel as in German.


 

§ 10. The main STRESS is normally on the vowel before the last consonant. The plural ending does not change the original stress of the word. Adjectives and nouns ending in -le, -ne, and -re preceded by a vowel have the stress on the third syllable from the end; e.g. fragile, ordine, tempore. In words formed with the suffixes -ic, -ica, -ico, -ide, -ido, -ula, and -ulo, the stress falls on the syllable preceding the suffix. The suffixes -ific and -ifico are stressed on the first i.

Deviations from this stress system are covered in the Interlingua-English Dictionary by respelling with stress marks. Most of these deviations might be covered by additional descriptive rules. For instance, the suffixes -issim-, -esim-, -ifer-, and -olog- are stressed on the first vowel. The suffixes -in and -erin, in so far as they correspond to English -y and -ery, are stressed on the vowel i; etc.
 

Note: Words without consonant or without a vowel before the last consonant are stressed of necessity on the first vowel; e.g. io, via, and certain present-tense forms, as strue, crea, etc. But construe, procrea, etc. and also diminue, substitue, etc. follow the standard rule and have the stress on the vowel before the last consonant.

§ 11. The importance of stress regularity should not be exaggerated. The effort involved in acquiring an unfamiliar stress for an otherwise familiar word seems often inordinate. This does not, of course, imply that Interlingua words may be stressed completely at random but merely that a word like kilometro remains the same international word whether native habits cause a speaker to stress it on the second or on the third syllable.
 

§ 12. Native habits may likewise be allowed to prevail in questions of INTONATION, SOUND DURATION, and the like. It is suggested, however, that the sequence of a final and an initial vowel, both unstressed and not separated by a pause in intonation, be pronounced as a combined glide; e.g. le alte Ural almost as though it had the four syllables le-ál-teu-rál.


 

§ 13. SYLLABIFICATION follows pronunciation. Single consonants, except x, belong with the following syllable. Consonant groups are divided but l and r must not be separated from preceding b, c, ch, d, f, g, p, ph, t, th, and v. The combinations qu, gu, su behave like single consonants.

§ 14. CAPITALIZATION differs from English usage in that within the sentence upper-case initials occur exclusively with proper names but not with derivatives from them.
---
In Francia le franceses parla francese ab le initio de lor vita 'In France the French talk French from the start of their lives'

Le piscatores del Mar Morte cape haringos salate 'The fishermen on the Dead Sea catch salt herrings'

Le ver stilo shakespearean se trova solmente in Shakespeare 'The true Shakespearean style is found only in Shakespeare'

Since sacred terms, the names of religious and other holidays, designations of movements, eras, doctrines, etc. may be considered proper or common names, they are capitalized or not, depending on the meaning intended.

---
Le romanticismo de Hollywood es subinde insipide 'The romanticism of Hollywood is often insipid'
Le philosophia del Romanticismo cerca le reunion de scientia e religion 'The philosophy of Romanticism seeks the reunion of science and religion'




-----------------------
Orthographia collateral
-----------------------

§15 Le regulas sequente de ORTHOGRAPHIA COLLATERAL, non observate in le Interlingua- English Dictionary, forni un systema simplificate de position equal a illo que es describite in le paragraphos precedente. Tote le punctos non specificamente coperite infra debe esser retenite inalterate; assi per exemplo le tractamento del vocabulos hospite non-assimilate cuje orthographia remane como usate in le Interlingua- English Dictionary.

(a) Litteras duple que representa un consonante singule es simplificate con le exception de -ss. Nota que le gruppo -cc ante -e, -i, e -y non representa un consonante singule; p.ex. eclesia, aliterar, aducer, interogar (pro ecclesia, alliterar, adducer, interrogar); sed massa, transsubstantiation, accidente.

(b) Le vocal -y es reimplaciate per -i; p.ex. tirano (pro tyranno). Le semiconsonante -y remane inalterate; p.ex. yak.

(c) Le digrapho -ph es reimplaciate per -f; p.ex. fonetic, emfatic (pro phonetic, emphatic).

(d) Le digrapho -ch, representante le sono -k, es retenite solo ante -e e -i. In altere partes illo es reimplaciate per -c. P.ex. cloric (pro chloric), Cristo (pro Christo) sed chimeric.

(e) Le -h silente post -r e -t es omittite; p.ex. retoric (pro rhetoric), patetic (pro pathetic).

(f) Le littera -j reimplacia -g e -gi pro representar le sono de -z in anglese {azure}; p.ex. sajo (pro sagio).

(g) Le suffixo -age (etiam le gruppo sonic -age al fin de un parola ubi illo non es un suffixo) es reimplaciate per le forma -aje; p.ex. saje, coraje (pro sage, corage). Le suffixo -isar es reimplaciate per le forma -izar. Su derivatos es equalmente scribite per -z. P.ex. civilizar, civilization (pro civilisar, civilisation).

(h) Le -e final es omittite post -t precedite per un vocal excepte in parolas que ha le accento super le tertie syllaba ab le fin; p.ex. animat, brevitat (pro animate, brevitate), sed composite. Iste regula etiam se applica pro -e final post -n, -l, e -r quando iste consonantes es le orthographia collateral pro -nn, -ll, e -rr; p.ex. peren, bel, mel, il, bizar (pro perenne, belle, melle, ille, bizarre). Nota: Le formas del tempore presente e imperative non es afficite per iste regula; pote, permite, etc. retene lor -e final.



----------------------
Collateral orthography
----------------------

§ 15. COLLATERAL ORTHOGRAPHY. -- The following rules, not observed in the Interlingua-English Dictionary, yield a simplified system of equal standing with that outlined in the preceding paragraphs. All points not specifically covered below are to be kept unchanged; so for instance the treatment of unassimilated guest words whose orthography remains that used in the Interlingua-English Dictionary.


 

(a) Double letters representing a single consonant are simplified with the exception of ss. Note that the group cc before e, i, and y does not represent a single consonant. E.g. eclesia, aliterar, aducer, interogar (for ecclesia, alliterar, adducer, interrogar) but massa, transsubstantiation, accidente.

(b) The vowel y is replaced by i; e.g. tirano (for tyranno). The semi-consonant y remains unchanged; e.g. yak.

(c) The digraph ph is replaced by f; e.g. fonetic, emfatic (for phonetic, emphatic).

(d) The digraph ch, representing the sound of k, is kept only before e and i. Elsewhere it is replaced by c. E.g. cloric, Cristo (for chloric, Christo) but chimetic.

(e) The silent h after r and t is omitted; e.g. retoric, patetic (for rhetoric, pathetic).


 

(f) The letter j replaces g and gi to represent the sound of z in 'azure.' E.g. sajo (for sagio).

(g) The suffix -age (also the sound group -age at the end of a word where it is not a suffix) is replaced by the form -aje; e.g. saje, coraje (for sage, corage). The suffix -isar is replaced by the form -izar. Its derivatives are likewise spelled with z. E.g. civilizar, civilization (for civilisar, civilisation).

(h) Final e is dropped after t preceded by a vowel except in words which have the stress on the third syllable from the end; e.g. animat, brevitat (for animate, brevitate) but composite. This rule applies likewise to final e after n, l, and r when these consonants are the collateral spelling for nn, ll, and rr; e.g. peren, bel, mel, il, bizar (for perenne, belle, melle, ille, bizarre). Note: Present-tense and imperative forms are not affected by this rule; pote, permite, etc. retain their final -e.





-----------
Punctuation
-----------

§16 Le PUNCTUATION reflecte le rhythmo del phrase parlate e obedi nulle regulas absolute. Le signos del punctuation e lor valores general es le mesmes como in anglese. Expressiones interpolate e propositiones relative e conjunctional es demarcate per commas a minus que le rhythmo intendite permitte nulle pausa. In enumerationes de plus que duo parolas o contextos, le uso de e o o ante le ultime non elimina le comma.


---
Le homine que vos vide es mi patre.

Le homine, que se considera como le corona del creation, pare plus tosto facite de metallo blanc que de auro.


 
 

Le asino, le can, e le catto formava un pedestallo pro le gallo.


 

Es isto le canto del asino, del can, del catto, o del gallo?


 

Le Statos Unite, Anglaterra e su imperio, e Russia es tres del grande potentias.


 
 

Ille es, pro exprimer lo cortesemente, pauco intelligente.



-----------
Punctuation
-----------

§ 16. PUNCTUATION reflects the rhythm of the spoken sentence and obeys no absolute rules. The signs of punctuation and their general values are the same as in English. Interpolated phrases and relative and conjunctional clauses are enclosed in commas unless the intended rhythm permits no break. In enumerations of more than two items, the use of e 'and' or o 'or' before the last item does not eliminate the comma.


---
Le homine que vos vide es mi patre 'The man you see is my father'

Le homine, que se considera como le corona del creation, pare plus tosto facite de metallo blanc que de auro 'Man, who considers himself the crown of creation, seems rather to be made of babbitt than of gold'

Le asino, le can, e le catto formava un pedestallo pro le gallo 'The donkey, the dog, and the cat formed a pedestal for the rooster'

Es isto le canto del asino, del can, del catto, o del gallo? 'Is this the song of the donkey, the dog, the cat, or the rooster?'

Le Statos Unite, Anglaterra e su imperio, e Russia es tres del grande potentias 'The United States, England and its empire, and Russia are three of the great powers'

Ille es, pro exprimer lo cortesemente, pauco intelligente 'He is, to put it politely, not very intelligent'





===================
Partes del discurso
===================
---------
Articulos
---------
-----------------
Articulo definite
-----------------

§17 Le ARTICULO DEFINITE es le. Illo exhibi nulle accordo in forma con le substantivo sequente. Un preposition a o de precedente se combina con le articulo le in le formas al e del.

le patre le matre le infante le patres del patre al matre le matre del infantes

§18 Le articulo definite es usate in toto como in anglese.

Io ama infantes.
Io ama le infantes.
Ubi pote io trovar flores?
Ubi pote io trovar le flores?
 
 

Le articulo definite non necessarimente debe esser omittite con titulos que precede nomines proprie, excepte in discurso directe. Illo non debe esser omittite con nomines abstracte que representa le classe integre, specie, etc.

le professor e le seniora Alicuno ...
 

Da me le libertate o le morte!


 

Io es felice de vider vos, doctor Alicuno.


 

Illa adora le homine e le animal.



===============
Parts of Speech
===============
-------
ARTICLE
-------
----------------
Definite article
----------------

§ 17. The DEFINITE ARTICLE is le 'the.' It shows no agreement in form with the following noun. A preceding preposition a or de fuses with the article le in the forms al and del.


 

le patre 'the father' le matre 'the mother' le infante 'the child' le patres 'the fathers' del patre al matre 'from the father to the mother' le matre del infantes 'the mother of the children'

§ I8. The definite article is used on the whole as in English.

'I like children' Io ama infantes


'I like the children' Io ama le infantes
'Where can I find flowers?' Ubi pote io trovar flores?
'Where can I find the flowers?' Ubi pote io trovar le flores?

The definite article need not be omitted with titles preceding proper names, except in direct address. It must not be omitted with abstract nouns representing the entire class, species, etc.

'Professor and Mrs. Somebody' le professor e le seniora Alicuno

'Give me liberty or give me death' Da me le libertate o le morte

'I am happy to see you, Dr. Somebody' Io es felice de vider vos, doctor Alicuno

'She adores man and beast' Illa adora le homine e le animal


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