Finland Identification Title of the survey: Labour Force Survey 2011 Organisation responsible



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Identification

Title of the survey: Labour Force Survey 2011

Organisation responsible: Statistics Finland

Objectives of the survey: The Labour Force Survey is a sample survey used for the compilation of monthly, quarterly and annual statistics on participation in the labour market, employment, unemployment and working hours among the population aged between 15 and 74 years old. The data content of the Survey is based on an EU regulation, and approximately 12,000 persons are interviewed for it every month. The population of the Labour Force Survey consists of persons aged 15 to 74 years old who are permanent residents of Finland. In addition to the basic interview, a household interview is conducted on the fifth interview round to ascertain the economic activity of the members who belong to the household of the interviewee and are between 15 and 74 years old. In order to ensure thta the data describe the whole population, a supplementing sample of households in which all members are aged 75 years old or over is included in the survey.

Date: 31/05/2011

Periodicity and coverage

Periodicity of data collection: Continuously (every week)

Geographical coverage: Whole country

Population coverage: Whole population

The survey covers: The usual residents present and the usual residents temporarily absent

Definition of usual resident: The permanent residents are the Finnish population living in the country and the nationals registered in the Finnish Population Information System whose stay in Finland will last for at least one year.

Definition of household and household members: The people who live and eat together or who otherwise have shared finances are members of the same household.

Usual household members who are temporarily absent are enumerated in the survey: Yes, including labour related questions

Age coverage: The labour related questions of the survey relate to the population of age groups between 15 and 74 years old

Topics covered:

Demographic characteristics: age, sex, marital status, place/country of birth, nationality, educational attainment

Main labour related characteristics: employment, unemployment, underemployment, hours of work, wages, usual activity, absence from work

Other labour related characteristics: industry, occupation, status in employment, institutional sector (public/private), size of establishment, full time/part time status, permanency of the job, working time arrangements, duration of employment, existence of more than one job, characteristics of the second job(s), duration of unemployment, previous working experience, characteristics of the last job, search for another job, reasons for seeking another job, methods of looking for work, registration as unemployed, receipt of unemployment benefits, reasons for not being in the labour force

Other characteristics:

Concepts and definitions

Current employment

Definition of employment: A person is considered as employed if he/she has been, during the reference week, in gainful employment at least for one hour against wages or salary or fringe benefits, or to make profit, or has been temporarily absent from work but had a job to return to. A person absent from work in the survey week is counted as employed if the reason for absence is maternity or paternity leave, own illness or if the total duration of absence is less than three months.

Employment refers to people who during the reference period:

- worked for one hour or more for wage or salary, in cash or in kind

- worked for one hour or more for profit or family gain, in cash or in kind

- were temporarily not at work and had a formal attachment to a wage employment job

- were temporarily not at work and had an enterprise

- worked for at least one hour without pay on a family business or farm



Reference period for employment: The latest full calendar week preceding the interview (moving)

Current unemployment

Definition of unemployment: A person is unemployed if he/she is without work during the survey week (neither in paid employment nor working as self-employed), has actively sought employment in the past four weeks as an employee or self-employed and would be available for work within two weeks. A person who is without work and waiting for an agreed job to start within three months is also classified as unemployed if he/she could start work within two weeks.

Unemployment refers to people who during the reference period: Are without work, available to work and actively seeking work

Reference period for seeking work: The four weeks preceding the Sunday of the reference week

Reference period for availability for work: The two weeks following the interview date (moving)

Underemployment

Underemployment concept measured: Time related underemployment

Definition of underemployment related to working time: The underemployed are those who (i) are engaged in part-time work because full-time work is not available, or whose employer has them work a reduced working week, or who have had no work due to shortage of orders or customers or because of having been laid off, and (ii) who would like to do more work.

Underemployment refers to employed persons who:

- are willing to work additional hours in the survey reference period

- are available to work additional hours in the survey reference period

Information collected on the number of hours of work wanted/ available for: Yes

Hours of work

The survey measures: hours actually worked and usual hours

Information is collected for: main and secondary job(s) separately

Reference period used for the measure of hours of work: a week

Actual hours of work are collected for: the week as a whole

Separate information is collected for overtime hours: yes

Definition of overtime hours: Overtime work is made by an employee in addition to agreement-based working hours. Overtime may be unpaid or paid, in which case the compensation may be received either actually in pay or as time off.

Separate information is collected for absence hours: no

Separate information is collected for working time arrangements: yes

Time unit used in the measure of hours of work: exact hours

Income from paid employment

The components of income for which separate statistics are available are: regular cash earnings, irregular cash earnings, profit related pay, bonuses

Income from paid employment covered: GROSS income

Reference period: a month

Income from paid employment refers to: main job only

Information on income from paid employment is requested in: exact amounts

Actual/usual income: usual income for a specific reference period

Income due/received: income due for a specific reference period

Income from self-employment

Employment in the informal sector

Informal employment

Usual activity

Treatment of special groups

- Persons with a job but temporarily absent due to parental leave are classified as employed if the absence from work lasts less than 3 months

- Persons with a job but temporarily absent due to educational or training leave are classified as employed if the absence from work lasts less than 3 months

- Persons with a job but temporarily absent due to voluntary leave without pay are classified as employed if the absence from work lasts less than 3 months

- Persons on temporary lay-off without pay are classified as employed if the absence from work lasts less than 3 months

- Persons on indefinite lay-off without pay are classified as unemployed if they are available and looking for work

- Seasonal workers not at work during the off-season are classified as unemployed if they are available and looking for work

- Persons without work and currently available for work who have made arrangements to start a new job on a date subsequent to the reference period are classified as unemployed if the agreed start date of the job is within 3 months and they could work within 2 weeks

- Persons without work and currently available for work who are trying to establish their own enterprise are classified as unemployed if they are available and looking for work

- Persons without work and currently available for work who are not seeking work during the reference period due to specific reasons (e.g. discouraged workers) are classified as unemployed if they are available and looking for work

- Persons who performed some work for pay or profit during the reference period but were subject to compulsory schooling are classified as employed

- Persons who performed some work for pay or profit during the reference period but were full-time or part-time students are classified as employed

- Persons who performed some work for pay or profit during the reference period but were retired and/or receiving a pension are classified as employed

- Persons who performed some work for pay or profit during the reference period but were registered as jobseekers at an employment office are classified as employed

- Persons who performed some work for pay or profit during the reference period but were receiving unemployment benefits are classified as employed

- Persons who were seeking and/or available for work and were subject to compulsory schooling are classified as unemployed if they are available and looking for work

- Persons who were seeking and/or available for work and were full-time or part-time students are classified as unemployed if they are available and looking for work

- Persons who were seeking and/or available for work and were retired and/or receiving a pension are classified as unemployed if they are available and looking for work

- Paid apprentices and trainees are classified as employed

- Unpaid apprentices and trainees are classified as unemployed if they are available and looking for work

- Contributing family workers at work during the reference period are classified as employed

- Contributing family workers temporarily absent from work are classified as employed if the absence from work lasts less than 3 months

- Persons engaged in production of goods for own final use (e.g. subsistence farming) are classified as economically inactive

- Persons engaged in production of services for own final use (e.g. care work, cooking, etc.) are classified as economically inactive

- Members of the armed forces who are volunteer members are classified as economically inactive

- Members of the armed forces who are career members are classified as employed

- Members of the armed forces who are conscripts are classified as economically inactive

- Persons in civilian service equivalent to military service are classified as economically inactive

- Volunteers contributing to the production of goods are classified as economically inactive

- Volunteers contributing to the production of services provided by market producers are classified as economically inactive

- Volunteers contributing to the production of services provided by non-market producers (i.e. government units, NPIs serving households, etc.) are classified as economically inactive

- Volunteers contributing to the production of personal or domestic services produced by other households are classified as economically inactive



Classifications

Disaggregations used in the analysis and tabulation of the survey results:

- The economically active population is tabulated by: sex, age, occupation, level of education

- The employed population is tabulated by: sex, age, industry, occupation, status in employment, level of education, institutional sector (public/private)

- The unemployed population is tabulated by: sex, age, occupation, level of education

- The economically inactive population is tabulated by: sex, age, level of education

Classifications used

Industry:

- Title of the classification: TOL2008

- Number of most detailed groups or digits used: 1-2 digits

- Links to international classifications: NACE

- Level of correspondence at which the link is made: 4 digit level

Occupation:

- Title of the classification: AML2002/AML2010

- Number of most detailed groups or digits used: 1-2 digits

- Links to international classifications: ISCO-08

- Level of correspondence at which the link is made: 4 digit level

Status in employment:

- Title of the classification: Professional status + Classification of Socio-economic Groups 1989

- Number of most detailed groups or digits used: 6 groups

- Links to international classifications: No links to ICSE



Education:

- Title of the classification: FISCED-1997

- Number of most detailed groups or digits used: 10 groups

- Links to international classifications: ISCED-97

- Level of correspondence at which the link is made: 2 digit level

Sample design

Sampling frame: Population register

The sampling frame is updated: continually

Procedure used to update the sampling frame: The register data of the sample is updated regularly every month (e.g. address, death and change of marital status).

Lowest level of geographic disaggregation for which reliable estimates of the unemployment rate can be produced and their frequency: NUTS 3 (quarterly)

The sample is stratified: Yes

Variables used for stratification: geographic region, socio-economic characteristics: age and sex

Number of sampling stages: 1

Ultimate sampling units: individuals

Sample size: 12000 ultimate sampling units per month

Sample fraction: 0.3% of the total population

Sample rotation takes place: at the ultimate sampling unit level only

The rotation system results in: the overlap between same periods one year apart

Percentage of ultimate sampling units remaining in the sample for two consecutive survey rounds: 0%

Maximum number of times an ultimate sampling unit is interviewed: 5

Months needed to renew the sample completely: 18

Data collection

Main mode of data collection: computer assisted telephone interview (CATl)

Number of ultimate sampling units (USU) interviewed per interviewer per day: 40

Average duration of an interview per household member of working age: 4 minutes

The field staff is mainly: part of a permanent survey organisation

Duration of training on the survey for newly recruited interviewers: 5 day(s)

Respondents' participation in the survey is compulsory: No

Ultimate sampling units that could not be identified are replaced: No

Ultimate sampling units that could not be contacted are replaced: No

Ultimate sampling units that refuse to participate are replaced: No

Estimation and adjustment

Percentage of all eligible ultimate sampling units that are interviewed: 78.04%

Percentage of refusals in the total non-response: 14.15%

The sample is self-weighting: No

Weighting factors used to adjust for: sample design, survey non-response

Adjustment for item non-response is made: Yes

Method of imputation: Mean imputation

Relative standard errors computed:

- Total unemployment rate: 2.31 %

- Total employment: 0.39 %

- Total unemployment: 2.38 %



Confidence level: 95 %

If sub-annual surveys are conducted, the results are adjusted for seasonal variations: Yes

Data series seasonally adjusted: Employment, unemployment, labour force, employment rate and unemployment rate

Method(s) used for seasonal adjustment: TRAMO/SEATS

Selected indicators tabulated from the survey:

- Unemployment rate by: sex, age, level of education

- Employment to population ratio by: sex, age, level of education

- Labour force participation rate by: sex, age

- Hours of work (per worker) by: sex, economic activity, status in employment

- Earnings (per worker) by:

- Number of workers by hours band by:

- Number of workers by earnings class by:



Availability of data from other sources

- Data on employment is also available from: administrative records

- Data on unemployment is also available from: administrative records

- Data on wages is also available from: administrative records



LFS data are considered official for:

- employment: yes

- unemployment: yes

- earnings: no

- hours of work: no

Documentation and dissemination

Publication(s) and website where the survey results can be found: Labour force survey 2011, April; http://prod.stat.fi

Publication(s) and website where methodological information on the survey can be found: Quality Description: Labour force survey; http://prod.stat.fi/til/tyti/laa_en.html

Dissemination formats and periodicity:

- news release (monthly)

- comprehensive report (annual)

- online database (monthly)



- microdata access (annual)

Time needed for an initial release of the survey results: 3 weeks after the end of the reference month

The public is informed in advance on the date of the initial release of survey results: Yes

Non-published results can be made available on request: Yes

Micro data are made available on request: Yes

Comments: Microdata access has a quarterly periodicity in Eurostat

Historical information

Year when the survey was conducted for the first time: 1959

Years when significant methodological changes were introduced: 1983: The postal enquiry was revised to the interview survey. Data contents were expanded. 1997: New survey design more closely aligned to ILO recommendations. 2000: Continuous survey. A comparable time series of the key data exists since 1989.


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