Examples of references: Journal article

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  • Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. Only papers closely related to the work should be cited; exhaustive lists should be avoided. All references must appear both in the text and the reference list.

  • References should follow the Vancouver format.

  • In the text, references are cited in numerical order as superscript numbers starting at 1. The superscript numbers are placed AFTER the full point. 

  • At the end of the paper they should be listed (double-spaced) in numerical order corresponding to the order of citation in the text.  

  • A reference cited in a table or figure caption counts as being cited where the table or figure is first mentioned in the text.

  • Papers in press may be included in the list of references.

  • Do not include references to uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication. Abstracts and/or papers presented at meetings not in the public domain should not be included as references.

  • References to private communications should be given only in the text (i.e. no number allocated). The author and year should be provided.

  • If there are 6 or fewer authors, list them all. If there are 7 or more, list the first 6 followed by et al.

  • Abbreviations for titles of medical periodicals should conform to those used in the latest edition of Index Medicus.

  • The first and last page numbers for each reference should be provided.

  • Abstracts and letters must be identified as such. 


Examples of references:


Journal article:

Gardner DG, Kessler HP, Morency R, Schaffner DL. The glandular odontogenic cyst: an apparent entity. J Oral Pathol 1988; 17:359– 366.

Journal article, in press:

Dufoo S, Maupome G, Diez-de-Bonilla J. Caries experience in a selected patient population in Mexico City. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol (in press).

Complete book:

Kramer IRH, Pindborg JJ, Shear M. Histological typing of odontogenic tumours (2nd edn). Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1992.

Chapter in book:

DelBalso AM, Ellis GE, Hartman KS, Langlais RP. Diagnostic imaging of the salivary glands and periglandular regions. In: DelBaso AM (ed). Maxillofacial imaging. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 1990, pp 409–510.


Mileman PA, Espelid I. Radiographic treatment decisions - a comparison between Dutch and Norwegian practitioners. J Dent Res 1986; 65: 609 (Abstr 32).

Letter to the Editor:

Gomez RS, de Oliveira JR, Castro WH. Spontaneous regression of a paradental cyst. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2001; 30: 296 (letter).

Journal article on the internet:

Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet].

2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm

Homepage/Web site:

Cancer-Pain.org [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/.

友情提示:目前使用的主要是第一项“Journal article:”,多谢啦!

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