FINLAND NATIONAL REPORT ON STATISTICAL INFORMATION ON
MEN’S PRACTICES WORKPACKAGE 2
Jeff Hearn and Emmi Lattu with Teemu Tallberg
This national report summarises recent statistical information on men’s practices in Finland. It concentrates on four main themes; work and home, social exclusion, violences and health. This report follows Workpackage 1, Finland National Report on Research on Men’s Practices (Hearn & Lattu 2000), which summarises recent research texts, many of which also include statistical information on men and are thus relevant throughout.
1. KEY POINTS
There is a very large amount of statistical information available in Finland, much of it produced by Statistics Finland, and much of that available on their website database and annual yearbooks and CD-ROMs. Statistical information is also produced by the National Research Centre for Welfare and Health (STAKES) and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (KELA) as well as different ministries. In recent years there has been an increase in the extent to which these statistical sources have been gender-disaggregated, but there is still a need for further gender-disaggregation across statistics. Specific gender-focused statistical sources include Gender Equality in Working Life (Lehto & Sutela 1999a)and the Gender Barometer (Melkas 1999). The latterwas first produced in 1998-99, presenting results of a national survey attitudes and experiences on gender and gender equality. There is little statistical information specifically focused on men, variations amongst men, and the relationship of those patterns to qualitative research on men’s practices and lives.
An area of special importance is the relationship of work and employment to family situation. Labour Force Surveys and Employment Statistics do not include background information on families and describe only individuals. Supplementary Labour Force Surveys report only on mothers’ situations in the labour market. Due to the recentness and brevity of paternity leave, little reliable information has been obtained. Low take-up of paternity leave may have weakened interest in studying it. Labour Force Surveys and Employment Statistics are based more on quantifiable measures than experiences or subjective feelings of combining work and family.
(iii) Statistical information on social exclusion is relatively scattered. Statistics Finland publishes a series on living conditions, but it does not specifically include information on homelessness. Besides Foreigners and International Migration, and Jaakkola’s surveys on Finns’ attitudes towards foreign nationals, there is not much regularly produced statistical information on foreigners, immigrants and ethnic minorities in Finland. Statistics Finland research on the life conditions of immigrants in 2002 will contribute to statistical information in this area.
There is a large amount of statistical data on crime; this is a more general organising principle than violences. For example, figures in Crime and Criminal Justice 1995-1996 an overview picture of the level of crime and the system of criminal justice were not separated by gender. This needs to be remedied in future work. More recent is Patterns of criminal homicide (Kivivuori 1999) which gives gender-disaggregated data on victims and offenders. The recent national survey of women’s experiences of violence from men might be paralleled by further statistical study of men’s use of and experiences of violence, as violence is often differentially perceived by men and by women.
(v) Statistical information on health outcomes and men’s health outcomes is generally good. Further statistical information on men health practices and health care practices is desirable.
2. NATIONAL BACKGROUND
Statistics Finland is the main organisation in Finland that produces official statistical information. It is divided into nine departments: Population Statistics, Social Statistics, Prices and Wages, Business Structures, Business Trends, Economics Statistics, Information Services, Management Services and Information Technology Services. The section dealing with Gender Statistics is located within the Population Statistics department. The Gender Statistics became an independent section in 1997. However, there has been gender statistics produced before that and Finland has been for years part of the Nordic committee for gender statistics. The Social Statistics department also covers much important data concerning men. Many of the statistics are collected continuously, either annually or monthly. Statistics Finland annually publishes a relatively comprehensive yearbook. It is a general work and includes statistical data on all the main branches of the Finnish society, and also some international data. The yearbook has a separate chapter on the Autonomous Territory of Åland. All the tables and figures of the yearbook are available electronically in CD-ROM. Statistics Finland also has a website (www.tilastokeskus.fi) which has a relatively good database. Statistics Finland Hyvinvointikatsaus is a statistical journal of Statistics Finland which concentrates on social conditions. Volume 3:1994 was a special issue on men and had articles on men’s life stories (Kylmälä 1994), men at home (Tigerstedt 1994), men’s drinking (Simpura 1994), the question if men are flexible at the labour market (Nätti 1994), men’s better salaries in female-dominated occupations (Koljonen 1994), men in women’s studies (Lehto 1994), stereotypes on boys and girls (Keskinen 1994), and gender and classifications (Kinnunen 1994). Statistics Finland has all the publications of Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. SOCIAL Statistical data is also collected by other organisations such as STAKES (National Research and Development Centre for Health and Welfare), KELA, (The Social Insurance Institution of Finland) different ministries and municipalities. There are numerous statistical studies available, this report aims to mention the most important ones, especially in terms of a gender perspective.