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CHEMISTRY

SS 2 SECOND TERM


WEEK

TOPIC / CONTENT

ACTIVITIES

1

WATER

1. Structure of water

2. Solubility (Basic concepts: solute, solvent, solution)

3. Solubility of different substances

4. Factors that affect solubility/uses of solubility curves.


Teacher:

-Perform experiment to help students to determine the solubility of substances (use sodium chloride in water at room temperature).

-Demonstrates the application of solubility (removal of stains from cloth using kerosene).

-Demonstrate the removal of hardness in water: using washing soda, boiling.


Instructional Resources:

1. Samples of hard water

2. washing soda

3. source of heat

4. sodium chloride

5. kerosene



2

WATER

5. Hardness of water and removal of hardness

6. Purification of water

7. Municipal water supply

8. Production of distilled water


Teacher:

-Explains the various stages in water treatment for consumption

- Leads students on excursion to water works (observe water distillation process)

-Demonstrates the laboratory distillation of water.


Instructional Resources:

1. Weighing balance

2. Evaporating dish

3. Water bath

4. Distillation apparatus

5. Bath water



3

AIR

1. Air:


- constituents

- percentage composition

2. Properties of air

3. Flame


Teacher:

Teacher should perform experiments to show:

-composition of air

- properties of air

-lights the Bunsen burner, regulate the flame so as to produce the different zones of flame.

-guides students to draw and label the flame correctly.



Instructional Resources:

-Bunsen burner

-Sources of gas

-Match stick/box

-Candle stick

-magnesium ribbon

-alkaline pyrogallol.


4

HYDROGEN

1. Hydrogen:

-configuration and possible oxidation numbers

-isotopes of hydrogen

-unique position of hydrogen in the periodic table

2. Laboratory preparation of hydrogen

3. Industrial preparation of hydrogen

4. Physical and chemical properties of hydrogen

5. Uses of hydrogen.


Teacher:

-Should guide students to write and draw the electronic configuration of hydrogen.

-should guide students to:

Name isotopes of hydrogen and write their electronic configuration.

-Explain the unique position of hydrogen on the periodic table.

-Sets up apparatus for the laboratory preparation of hydrogen using an active metal (e.g. zinc) and an acid (e.g. H2SO4)

-Performs simple experiments to show the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen

-Guides class discussion of the uses of hydrogen.


Instructional Resource:

-periodic table

-charts (hydrogen ballon, welders at work, etc.)

-laboratory apparatus for the preparation of hydrogen.



5

OXYGEN

1. General properties of oxygen group

2. The electronic structure and bonding capacity of oxygen

3. Laboratory and industrial preparation of oxygen

4. Physical and chemical properties of oxygen

5. Reaction of oxygen (oxidation)

6. Compounds of oxygen

7. Uses of oxygen.



Teacher:

1. Explain the general properties of oxygen group in the periodic table

2. Guides students to:

-write and draw the electronic configuration of oxygen.

3. Set up apparatus and demonstrate the laboratory preparation of oxygen using hydrogen peroxide and manganese (iv) oxide as catalyst.

4. Demonstrate the test for oxygen using a glowing splint.

5. Performs simple experiments to demonstrate the physical and chemical properties of oxygen.
Instructional Resources:


  1. Periodic table

  2. Picture showing a welder at work

  3. Laboratory apparatus and reagents for the preparation of oxygen.

  4. Matches

  5. Splint.

6

HALOGENS

1. Electronic configuration of halogens

2. Physical properties of halogens and gradation down the group.

3. Chemical properties of halogens and gradation down the group.



Teacher:

1. Guides the students to write and draw the electronic configuration of some halogens

2. Set up the apparatus and demonstrate the laboratory preparation of chlorine

3. Performs simple experiments to illustrate the physical and chemical properties of halogens.


Instructional Resources:

1. Periodic table

2. Table showing physical properties of halogens and similarities among halogens

3. Litmus paper (red and blue).



7

HALOGENS

4. Compounds of halogens

5. Uses of halogens (Cl2, Br2, I2)

6. Preparation of chlorine.



Teacher:

1. Explains the gradation of these properties down the group

2. Illustrate the bleaching action of chlorine.

3. Leads class discussion on the uses of halogens.


Instructional Resources:

1. Water


2. Apparatus and reagents for the preparation of chlorine gas.

3. Bromine

4. Iodine.


8

NITROGEN

1. General properties of nitrogen family group V elements

2. Laboratory preparation of nitrogen.


Teacher:

1. Explains the general properties of the nitrogen family

2. Demonstrates the laboratory preparation of nitrogen.
Instructional Resources:

1. Charts tabulating the properties of nitrogen group, laboratory preparation of nitrogen, nitrogen cycle

2. Periodic table.


9

NITROGEN

1. Industrial preparation of nitrogen from liquid air

2. Properties of nitrogen


Teacher:

1. Guides students to record, observe and draw appropriate diagrams on the laboratory preparation of nitrogen.

2. Explains the industrial preparation of nitrogen from liquid air.

Instructional Materials: Same as above wk.


10

NITROGEN

  1. Uses of nitrogen

  2. Nitrogen cycle

Teacher:

1. Guides the students to:

-find out the uses of nitrogen and their gradation down the group.

-find out the use of nitrogen from text book, internet etc.


Instructional Resources:

Books, virtual libraries (internet).



11

NITROGEN

1. Compounds of nitrogen:

a. oxides of nitrogen

b. ammonia

2. Test for ammonia.


Teacher:

1. Guides the students to:

-identify and name other compounds of nitrogen

2. Demonstrates the test for ammonia gas using:

a. a damp red litmus paper

b. conc. HCl

3. Demonstrates removal of stains on wood work using liquid ammonia.
Instructional Resources:

-Glass with grease

-Painted wood work

-Samples of fertilizer

-Chemicals containing nitrogen e.g. HNO3, conc. HCl etc.


12

Revision

Revision

13

Examinations

Examinations

14

Examinations

Examinations



CHEMISTRY

SS 2 THIRD TERM


WEEK

TOPIC / CONTENT

ACTIVITIES

1

SULPHUR

1. General properties of group VI A elements

2. Electronic structure of sulphur

3. Allotropes of sulphur

4. Uses of sulphur


Teacher:

1. Explain the general properties of group VIA elements.

2. Guide students to write the electronic configuration of sulphur.

3. Explain the meaning of allotropy and guides students to identify allotropes of sulphur and their uses.


Instructional Resources:

1. Chart showing the allotropes of sulphur

2. Sulphur ointment

3. Sulphur pellets or flower of sulphur



2

SULPHUR

1. Compounds of sulphur

2. Industrial preparation of H2SO4

3. Uses of H2SO4



Teacher:

1. Guides the students to draw correctly and explain the contact process for the manufacture of H2SO4

2. Lead students on excursion to a tyre manufacturing industry.
Instructional Resources:

i. chart on the contact process for the preparation of H2SO4

ii. H2SO4 (car battery acid).

iii. Matches



3

OXIDATION-REDUCTION (REDOX) REACTIONS

1. Oxidation: definition

2. Reduction: definition

3. Redox Reactions

4. Oxidation numbers of central elements in some compounds.


Teacher:

i. Guides students to define oxidation and reduction

ii. Calculate oxidation numbers, using the rules set under objectives (e.g. to calculate oxidation number of central atom in H2SO4, HNO3, KClO3) and hence give their IUPAC names.
Instructional Resources:

i. Students textbooks

ii. chalk board

iii. flip-charts



4

OXIDATION-REDUCTION (REDOX) REACTIONS

1. Connection of oxidation numbers with IUPAC name

2. Oxidizing and Reducing agents

3. Redox equation



Teacher:

i. Name inorganic compounds x e.g. Pb(NO3)2, FeSO4, 7H2O, [Cu(NH3)4]2+ etc.

ii. Identify the process of oxidation and reduction in a given redox reaction e.g. –X4+Y->X2++Y2+

iii. Write the formula of a compound giving its IUPAC name e.g. iron(II) trioxosulphate (iv).

-identify reductants and oxidants in a redox reaction.

-Write equations for half reactions and overall reactions using IUPAC system.

-Balance redox equations.
Instructional Resources:

i. Iron(ii) oxide

ii. KMnO4, etc.


5

IONIC THEORY

1. Electrovalent and covalent compounds.

2. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes

3. Weak and strong electrolytes

4. Electrochemical series

5. Factors affecting the preferential discharge of ions.



Teacher:

i. Guides students to distinguish between:

-electrovalent and covalent compounds.

-electrolytes and non-electrolytes

ii. Demonstrates experiments on:

-movement of ions in solution

-strong and weak electrolytes

iii. Guide students in the discussion of the relationship between the nature of ions and their ranking in the electrochemical series.

iv. Explain the factors affecting the preferential discharge of ions in solution.
Instructional Resources:

1. Samples of electrovalent and covalent compounds.

2. Apparatus for electrolytes

3. Sample of weak and strong electrolytes.



6

ELECTROLYSIS

1. Meaning of electrolysis

2. Terminologies:

-electrodes

-electrolyte

-electrolytic cell

-electrochemical cells, etc.

3. Electrolysis of acidified water, copper (ii) sulphates (CUSO4) and brine.



Teacher:

1. Guide students to:

-define electrolysis

-distinguish between strong and weak electrolytes.

-construct electrolytic and electrochemical cells.

2. Demonstrates electrolytes of:

-acidified water using Hoffmans’ voltammeter

-brine


-copper sulphate.
Instructional Resources:

1. An electrolytic cell apparatus

2. Hoffman’s voltammeter

3. An electrochemical cells apparatus.

4. Copper sulphate solution

5. Dilute H2SO4

6. Brine


7

ELECTROLYSIS

1. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis and the calculations

2. Uses of electrolysis: purification, extraction and electroplating of metals.


Teacher:

1. Explain the Faraday’s first and second laws of electrolysis

2. Demonstrate the uses of electrolysis

3. Guide students to calculate amount of substances librated or deposited at electrodes during electrolysis.


Instructional Resources:

i. Student textbooks

ii. Students workbook

iii. Copper sulphate solution



8

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

1. Acid-base titrations (neutralization) continued.

2. Redox titrations involving KMnO4, Fe2+, C2O4, I2, KI, S2O32-


Teacher:

1. Carryout titrations to determine:

-percentage purity

-heat of neutralization

-water of crystallization, etc.
Instructional Resources:

i. Indicator extract from flowers.

ii. Bomb calorimeter

iii. Relevant acids and base.



9

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

Test for oxidants reductions.



Teacher:

i. Analyze substances and test for:

-cations and anions (e.g. Fe2+, Cu2+, NH4+, SO42-, SO32-, etc.

ii. Guides students to:

-test for oxidants in redox reactions
Instructional Resources:

Relevant salts.



10

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

1. Identification of ions (Fe2+, NH4+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Pb2+, etc) chlorides nitrates, sulphates, sulphide, bicarbonates, carbonates, sulphite, etc.



Teacher:

Guide students to identify ions (cations and anions)


Instructional Resources:

Relevant salts.



11

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

1. Test for hydrogen, NH3, HCl, NO3, Oxygen, CO2, Cl (bleaching action)

2. Identification of fats and oils, simple sugar, proteins, starch.


Teacher:

Guide students to:

-test for oxidants and reductants in redox reactions

-test for simple sugars. fats and oils, proteins, starch etc.


Instructional Resources:

-Relevant salts.

-Starch, fats and oils, proteins etc.


12

Revision

Revision

13

Examinations

Examinations

14

Examinations

Examinations

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