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BIOLOGY
SS 2 THIRD TERM


WEEK

TOPIC

CONTENT

ACTIVITIES

1

REGULATION OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT CONTINUES

ENDOCRINE GLANDS

i). The endocrine glands and its hormones

ii). Functions of the endocrine glands

iii). Effect of under-secretion or over-secretion of endocrine hormones


i). Observe the distribution of endocrine glands on charts and photographs

2.

THE SKIN

i). Structure of mammalian skin

ii). Functions of the mammalian skin

iii). Care of the mammalian skin


i). The teacher shall mount the skin of a mammal on the microscope and students should observe and identify the different parts

3.

NERVOUS COORDINATION

i). Organization of the nervous system

ii). The central nervous system (CNS)

iii). Peripheral nervous system (PNS)


i). The students shall be asked to draw the dorsal part of the brain of rabbit and the diagram of a neurone

4.

THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)

i) Position, structure and function of the brain

ii) The position, structure and function of the spinal cord



i) The students shall be asked to draw and label the diagram of a simple reflex act

5.

THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)

i) The flow chart representing the different part of the P.N.S

ii) The somatic NS

(iii) Autonomic NS

iv) Sympathetic N.S and parasympathetic N.S



i) The differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic N.S in tabular form

6.

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF A NEURONE

i). Types of neuron (motor, sensory and relay)

ii). Structure of a neuron.

iii). Transportation of nerve impulse

iv). Reflex actions voluntary actions (examples)

v). Pavlov experiment on dog, food and bell


i). Guides students to perform experiment show reflex action: flicked a hand kerchief across the student eyes.

7.

SENSE ORGANS

A) Organ of smell (ii) Mechanism of smelling with the help of olfactory chemorecptor

(iii) adaptation for survival e.g. animals (dog) sniff during hunting

Presence of chemoreceptors in insects (butterflies). Antenna for sensing the environment.

Taste buds on tongue and part played in testing.

Sensory nerve ending/receptors associated with skin touch, deep pressure, heart and pain

Structure of the ear and past played by the various parts.



i) Smell a released cooking gas

ii) Note the area of tongue, which are sensitive to sweetness and bitterness etc



8.

SENSE ORGANS CONTINUES

i) Organs of sight (eye) and its parts

ii) Functions of the different parts of the eyes

iii) The role of the eyes in image formation and accommodation

iv) Eye defects: Myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia, astigmatism

Eye problem/diseases: Cataract, night blindness, colour blindness etc.


i) Using model, students are made to identify the various part of the eye.

9.

ECOLOGY OF POPULATION

(a) Succession

i). meaning of succession

ii). Structural change in species composition, variety and increase in number

iii). Primary succession in an aquatic habitat

iv). Secondary succession : meaning and examples

v) characteristics of a stable community

(b) Overcrowding

i). Population density studies and available resources

ii). Importance of factors affecting population space


i) Take a the students to a nearby pond to observe colonizers
ii) Ask students from other classes to join your class and find out the effect of the increased population on students.

10.

ECOLOGY OF POPULATION CONTINUES

i) Relationship between competition and succession

ii) Factors that cause overcrowding

iii). Ways of avoiding overcrowding .

Effect of food shortage: competition, reproduction, emigration rate




i) Observe the activities of grasshopper in two boxes

11.

BALANCE IN NATURE

i) Factors affecting population

- biotic - Abiotic

ii) Dynamic equilibrium in nature

iii) Factors that maintain dynamic equilibrium such as

availability of food

Natural disaster

iii) Family planning

- Natural and artificial methods of population control (sex education)



i) Map out an area in the school

ii) Plant seedling to show inter-specific and intra-specific competition

iii) Display a chart showing the family planning methods


12.

Revision

Revision

Revision

13

Examination

Examination

Examination

CHEMISTRY

SS 2 FIRST TERM


WEEK

TOPIC / CONTENT

ACTIVITIES

1

ALKANOLS

  1. Types and properties

  2. Preparation and properties of alkanols

  3. Industrial production of alkanols by fermentation

  4. Etherification

  5. Uses of alkanols

Teacher

  1. Perform experiment to show oxidation of an alkanols with KMnO4

  2. Show action of sodium on methanol

  3. Show that methanol and ethanol are soluble in water

  4. Explains the chemical reactions of alkanols:

-dehydration

-oxidation to:

a. alkanol

b. alkanoic acids.


Instructional Resources:

1. Ethanol

2. KMnO4

3. Water


4. H2SO4

5. Test tubes, test-tube racks, etc.




2

PERIODIC TABLE

1. Periodic law

2. Blocks of elements:-

Metals, non-metals, metalloids and transition metals.

3. Families: s-p-d-f (according to group I-VIII, i.e. group IA-Alkali metals, Group IIA – Alkali Earth and other family names).


Teacher:

Use the periodic table template and the atomic structure of common elements to guide students to deduce the periodic law and group elements into families based on shared characteristics.


Instructional Resource:

1. Periodic table chart of elements

2. Blank periodic table template.


3

PERIODIC TABLE

4. Properties:

-changes in sizes and changes down the group and across periods and accompanying changes in properties.

5. Diagonal relationships

6. Ionization energy and electron affinity; changes down the group and across the period


Teacher:

Initiates and guide class discussions on:

-Atomic and ionic sizes

-Ionization energy and electron affinity

-Gradation in properties of elements down the groups and across periods.

-Diagonal relationships.


Instructional Resources:

1. Sodium metal

2. Magnesium ribbon

3. Aluminium metal

4. Heat source

5. Water


6. Glass trough

7. Beakers.



4

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

1. Basic concepts:

Reactants, products, reaction time and reaction rate.

2. Introduction to collusion theory.



Teacher:

-Guide the students to identify reactants and products of chemical reaction

-Use simple experiments to illustrate:-the concept of reaction rates.
Instructional Resources:


  1. Common reagents like HCl, CuSO4, NaCl, NH4OH, NH4Cl, etc.

  2. Source of heat, water, test tubes and beakers.

5

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

3. Factors affecting the rate of chemical reactions:

- Nature of substance

-Concentration

-Pressure

-Temperature

-Catalyst

4. Types of chemical reactions:

-Endothermic reaction

-Exothermic reaction



Teacher:

1. Effects of the nature of substances, concentration/pressure, temperature and catalyst on reaction rates, using simple experiments to illustrate.

2. Use simple experiments also to illustrate endothermic and exothermic reactions.

3. Initiate class discussion of the energy relationships in endothermic and exothermic reactions i.e. ΔG=ΔH-TΔS (graphical representations only).


Instructional Resources:

1. Common reagents like HCl, CuSO4, NH4Cl, NaCl, NH4OH, etc.

2. Heat source, water, test-tubes and beakers.


6

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

5. Chemical equilibrium:

Introduction using simple equations; Le chatellier’s principles.

6. Factors affecting equilibrium of chemical reactions:

-concentration

-temperature

-pressure.


Teacher:

1. Explain Le chatellier’s principle

2. Demonstrates the effects of changes in temperature, concentration and pressure on chemical reactions.

3. Guides students to write and balance equations for chemical reactions on equilibrium.


Instructional Resources:

Common chemical equations.



7

MASS VOLUME RELATIONSHIPS

1. Basic concepts:

-Mole, molar quantities, molality.

-Standard temperature and pressure (s.t.p).

-Relative densities and relative molar mass.


Teacher:

1. Explain the concept of mole, molar, s.t.p. relative densities and relative molecular mass etc and their units.

2. Guide students to calculate:

-masses of reactants and products

-number of moles of reacting substances and products.
Instructional Resources:

1. Students’ textbooks and workbooks.

2. HCl, NaOH, magnesium ribbons, copper, copper oxide, etc.


8

MASS VOLUME RELATIONSHIPS

2. Calculations involving mass and volume

3. SI units of quantities i.e. length, mass, volume etc.


Teacher:

1. Relative densities of substance:

-molarity

-molality

-volumes of gas in chemical reactions

2. Give students practice questions

3. Mark and review students assignment

4. guide students to deduce the SI units of quantities.


Instructional Resources:

Students’ textbooks and workbooks.



9

ACID, BASE REACTIONS

1. Common indicators and their pH ranges

2. Simple acid-base titrations.


Teacher:

1. Guides students to:

-prepare standard solutions

-identify appropriate indicators for acid-base titrations.

2. Display and explain the apparatus necessary for carrying out simple titrations.

3. Demonstrates the process of acid-base titration according to instructions.

4. Guide students to carry out the acid-base titration according to instructions.

5. Ensures students record properly and perform relevant calculations.


Instructional Resource:

1. Distilled water or deionized water

2. Titration apparatus. Retort stand, beaker, burettle conical falsk, pipette, white tile, etc.

3.Indicator.

4. Weighing balance

5. Acids, Bases

6. Petri-dish

7. Practical notebooks

8. Measuring cylinder and funnel.


10

ACID, BASE REACTIONS

3. Simple acid-base titration continued.



Teacher:

Same as above.



Instructional Resources:

Same as above.



11

ACID, BASE REACTIONS

4. Heat of neutralization (introductory)

5. Construction of wooden retort stand.


Teacher:

Make arrangement for students to visit the introductory technology workshop to construct wooden retort stands.



12

Revision

Revision

13

Examinations

Examinations

14

Examinations

Examinations
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