Tubularization bone empty in the middle (width is smaller in most circumstances, sometimes premature maturation can take place too (this is when the plate closes sooner than normal and so the bone gets trapped in a very small dimension)
Exuberant callous formation (mostly hematoma where the body is trying to fix the problem in the body)
Hematoma that turns into callous formation
Violation of length and width ration - the width is very narrow on the metacarpals (this is a sign of OI), this is due to poor crystal lattice formation, a blue sclera is present on this patient,
Sclerosing dysplasia = much greater bone density (Mallory Ostosis ) dripping wax appearance, more bone put down (picture of thumb with dripping candle wax appearance - this can be clinically significant on some films
Neurovascular compression is a common symptom when the bone is getting bigger
An osteoid on the humerus due to mallory ostosis - this disease can add bone to the outside or inside of bone…this makes this disease different from the rest. Most diseases cannot add to both.
On finger there is an added callous or bone formation on the phalanx and meta carpal. This is much more suddle, this is no mechanical stress or piezo electric effect present
Could be a stress fracture - whiter on the inside of bone, Mallory Ostosis
Sclerosing dysplasia - osteo petrosus (hard, and dense) - this is also a member of the brittle bone disease. This is also called chalk bone. This makes the bone easy to break. The body is unable to absorb fetal bone matrix. This mixes the fetal and adult bone. This does not allow for a good crystal lattice since it never was completed
Red marrow is harder to produce when you have this disease, can lead to anemia
Tarta - less fracture incidents, not all bones are included equally, not as much anemia
Primordial or fetal bone - Involves whole skeleton, anemia, susceptible to infection due to decreased WBC count
Femur neck is too small - coxa vera, this also allow for less weight to be held on the bone
Sandwich vertebra - this looks like an oreo double stuffed. Just the contrast is reversed. The vertebra is White on the ends and darker in the middle
Ruggered jersey spine - hyperparathyroidism causes this (looks like sandwich spine)
Osteo petrosis - sandwich type - brittle bone disease
SI joint not normal (edge of the film diagnosis…when the problem is on the edge of the film)
Posterior deflection of the sternum - pectus excavata
Pigeon chest - pectus caronata
Kyphosis will be reduced too, abnormal cardiac sounds are all part of straight back syndrome.
Kyphosis increases as you get older normally.
When measuring femur we check 3 things.
Shoulder is the one we report on.
Know measurements and lines for Final
When articular cartilage is broken off it tends to ossify over time.
Fabella - accessory ossicle which would be a normal variant
What lives in a cysts?
Infection, uterine cysts, iliac artery aneurysm
Half Sphericle Spondylosis Sclerosis
Myerdings - grade 2
Ullmans line - would assure us of the retrolisthesis
Percentage of anteriority - measure the entire end plate then measure the amount of anteriority (how much end plate is not aligned)
this is the preferred method
If beyond 3mm then there is a problem (translation)
Surgery will have to be used if translation continues or is too bad
Know and discuss 5 major categories that cause anterolisthesis
Isthmic - acquired and healed incorrectly
Degenerative - the facet joints truly control the AP position of the vertebral bodies, thinning of the articular cartilages will limit the amount of translation
Traumatic - fracture of a posterior
Pathologic - metastasis, pagets disease, stretched or fractured bone due to pathology
Iatrogenic - surgery
It is not about the anterolisthesis as much, but do they have movement? You want to look at this part. Pain control treatments are very valuable to people.
The most frequent cause for anteriority:
Isthmic is #1 (most frequently stressed is pars interarticularis)
Eskimos have 40% anterolisthesis
Due to having child on back and the child having to learn to walk in snow shoes
Out of 2100 cadaverrs - 0 posterior elements maldeveloped (dysplastic)
Degenertaive is #2
Dysplastic is #6
3mm of translation needed to determine as an anterolisthesis
Common terms to be aware of
AP at lumbo sacral junction:
Upside down napolean hat…aka…Brow's line of Brailsford