Department of microbiology microbial food technology group a diploma in quality assurance in microbiology diploma

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Indicator organism

Indicator organisms are used to measure potential fecal contamination of environmental samples. The presence of coliform bacteria, such as E. coli, in surface water is a common indicator of fecal contamination. Coliform bacteria in water samples may be quantified using the most probable number (MPN) method, a probabilistic test which assumes cultivable bacteria meet certain growth and biochemical criteria. If preliminary tests suggest that coliform bacteria are present at numbers in excess of an established cut-off (the Coliform Index), fecal contamination is suspected and confirmatory assays such as the Eijckman test are conducted.[citation needed]

Coliform bacteria selected as indicators of fecal contamination must not persist in the environment for long periods of time following efflux from the intestine, and their presence must be closely correlated with contamination by other fecal organisms. Indicator organisms need not be pathogenic.[1]

Direct-to-Consumer genetic testing

Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) genetic testing is a type of genetic test that is accessible directly to the consumer without having to go through a health care professional. Usually, to obtain a genetic test, health care professionals such as doctors acquire the permission of the patient and order the desired test. DTC genetic tests, however, allow consumers to bypass this process and order one themselves. There are a variety of DTC tests, ranging from testing for breast cancer alleles to mutations linked to cystic fibrosis. Benefits of DTC testing are the accessibility of tests to consumers, promotion of proactive healthcare and the privacy of genetic information. Possible additional risks of DTC testing are the lack of governmental regulation and the potential misinterpretation of genetic information.

2.Explain the Immunological methods in detail.

Immunological methods

  • Indirect immunofluorescence


  • Immunoblotting (Western blot)

  • Complement fixation test


Microphotograph of a histological section of human skin prepared fordirect immunofluorescence using an anti-IgA antibody. The skin is from a patient with Henoch-Schonlein purpura: IgA deposits are found in the walls of small superficial capillaries (yellow arrows). The pale wavy green area on top is the epidermis, the bottom fibrous area is the dermis.

Microphotograph of a histological section of human skin prepared fordirect immunofluorescence using an anti-IgG antibody. The skin is from a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and shows IgG deposit at two different places: The first is a band-like deposit along the epidermalbasement membrane ("lupus band test" is positive). The second is within the nuclei of the epidermal cells (anti-nuclear antibodies).

Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on biological samples. This technique uses the specificity of antibodies to theirantigen to target fluorescent dyes to specific biomolecule targets within a cell, and therefore allows visualisation of the distribution of the target molecule through the sample. Immunofluorescence is a widely used example of immunostaining and is a specific example of immunohistochemistry that makes use of fluorophores to visualise the location of the antibodies. [1]

Immunofluorescence can be used on tissue sections, cultured cell lines, or individual cells, and may be used to analyse the distribution of proteinsglycans, and small biological and non-biological molecules. Immunofluoresence can be used in combination with other, non-antibody methods of fluorescent staining, for example, use of DAPI to label DNA. Several microscope designs can be used for analysis of immunofluorescence samples; the simplest is the epifluorescence microscope, and theconfocal microscope is also widely used. Various super-resolution microscope designs that are capable of much higher resolution can also be used.[2]

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