Countries visited during the voyage of h. M. S beagle bound the world



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JOURNAL OF RESEARCHES

INTO THE

NATURAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY

OP THE

COUNTRIES VISITED DURING THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S BEAGLE BOUND THE WORLD,

UNDER THE



By CHARLES DARWIN, M.A., F.R.S.,

AUTHOR OF 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES,' ETC.

NEW EDITION.

NEW YORK:

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

549 & 551 BROADWAY.

1871.

PREFACE.

I have stated in the preface to the first Edition of this work, and in the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, that it was in consequence of a wish expressed by Captain Fitz Roy, of having some scientific person on board, accompanied by an offer from him of giving up part of his own accommodations, that I volunteered my services, which received, through the kindness of the hydrographer, Captain Beaufort, the sanction of the Lords of the Admiralty. As I feel that the opportunities which I enjoyed of studying the Natural History of the different countries we visited, have been wholly due to Captain Fitz Roy, I hope I may here be permitted to repeat my expression of gratitude to him ; and to add that, during the five years we were together, I received from him the most cordial friendship and steady assistance. Both to Captain Fitz Roy and to all the Officers of the Beagle *.I shall ever feel most thankful for the undeviating kindness with which I was treated during our long voyage.

This volume contains, in the form of a Journal, a history of our voyage, and a sketch of those observations in Natural History and Geology, which I think will possess some interest for the general reader. I have in this edition largely condensed and corrected some parts, and have added a little to others, in order to render the volume more fitted for popular reading; but I trust that naturalists will remember, that they must refer for details to the larger publications, which comprise the scientific results of the Expedition. The Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle includes an account of the Fossil Mammalia, by Professor Owen; of the Living Mammalia, by Mr. Water-house; of the Birds, by Mr. Gould; of the Fish, by the Rev. L. Jenyns; and of the Reptiles, by Mr. Bell. I have appended to the descriptions of each species an account of its habits and range. These works, which I owe to the high

* I must take this opportunity of returning my sincere thanks to Mr. Bynoe, the surgeon of the Beagle, for his very kind attention to me when I was ill at Valparaiso.

vi PREFACE.

talents and disinterested zeal of the above distinguished authors, could not have been undertaken, had it not been for the liberality of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, who, through the representation of the Right Honourable the Chancellor of the Exchequer, have been pleased to grant a sum of one thousand pounds towards defraying part of the expenses of publication.

I have myself published separate volumes on the 'Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs;' on the 'Volcanic Islands visited during the Voyage of the Beagle;' and on the 'Geology of South America.' The sixth volume of the 'Geological Transactions' contains two papers of mine on the Erratic Boulders and Volcanic Phenomena of South America. Messrs. Water-house, Walker, Newman, and White, have published several able papers on the Insects which were collected, and I trust that many others will hereafter follow. The plants from the southern parts of America will be given by Dr. J. Hooker, in his great work on the Botany of the Southern Hemisphere. The Flora of the Galapagos Archipelago is the subject of a separate memoir by him, in the 'Linnean Transactions.' The Reverend Professor Henslow has published a list of the plants collected by me at the Keeling Islands ; and the Reverend J. M. Berkeley has described my cryptogamic plants.

I shall have the pleasure of acknowledging the great assistance which I have received from several other naturalists, in the course of this and my other works ; but I must be here allowed to return my most sincere thanks to the Reverend Professor Henslow, who, when I was an under-graduate at Cambridge, was one chief means of giving me a taste for Natural History, —who, during my absence, took charge of the collections I sent homeland by his correspondence directed my endeavours,—and who, since my return, has constantly rendered me every assistance which the kindest friend could offer.

Down, Bromley, Kent June, 1845.

PREFACE, vii

POSTSCRIPT.

I take the opportunity of a new edition of my Journal to correct a few errors. At page 83 I have stated that the majority of the shells which were embedded with the extinct mammals at Punta Alta, in Bahia Blanca, were still living species. These shells have since been examined (see ' Geological Observations in South America,' p. 83) by M. Alcide d'Orbigny, and he pronounces them all to be recent. M. Aug. Bravard has lately described, in a Spanish work ('Observaciones Geologicas,' 1857), this district, and he believes that the bones of the extinct mammals were washed out of the underlying Pampean deposit, and subsequently became embedded with the still existing shells; but I am not convinced by his remarks. M. Bravard believes that the whole enormous Pampean deposit is a sub-aerial formation, like sand-dunes: this seems to me to be an untenable doctrine.

At page 378 I give a list of the birds inhabiting the Galapagos Archipelago. The progress of research has shown that some of these birds, which were then thought to be confined to the islands, occur on the American continent. The eminent ornithologist, Mr. Sclater, informs me that this is the case with the Strix puncta-tissima and Pyrocephalus nanus; and probably with the Otus galapagoensis and Zenaida galapagoensis: so that the number of endemic birds is reduced to twenty-three, or probably to twenty-one. Mr. Sclater thinks that one or two of these endemic forms should be ranked rather as varieties than species, which always seemed to me probable.

The snake mentioned at page 381, as being, on the authority of M. Bibron, the same with a Chilian species, is stated by Dr. Günter (Zoolog. Soc, Jan. 24th, 1859) to be a peculiar species, not known to inhabit any other country.

Feb. 1st, 1860.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I. CHAPTER VIL

Porto Praya— Ribeira Grande — Atmospheric Excursion to St. Fé—Thistle-Beds—Habits of Dust with Infusoria—Habits of a Sea-slu»- and tue Bizcacha—Little Owl—Saline Streams— Cuttle-fish—St. Paul's Rocks, non-volcanic— Level Plains—Mastodon—St. Fé—Change in Singular incrustations—Insects the first Colo- Landscape—Geology—Tooth of extinct Horse nists of Islands—Fernando Noronha—Bahia —Relation of the Fossil andrecentQuadrupeds —Burnished Rocks—Habits of a Diodon— of North and South America—Effects of a Pelagic Confervas and Infusoria—Causes of great Drought—Parana—Habits of the Jaguar discoloured Sea Page 1 — Scissor-beak — King-fisher, Parrot, and Scissor-tail — Revolution — Buenos Ayres — CHAPTER II. State of Government, 123

Rio de Janeiro—Excursion north of Cape Frio CHAPTER VIII. --Great Evaporation — Slavery — Botofogo Excursion to Colonia del Sacamiento—Value Jiay—lerrestnal Planariae—Clouds on the of an Estancia-Cattle, how counted—Sin-Corcovado-Heavy Ram—Musical Frogs- gular Breed of Oxen-Perforated Pebbles-Phosphorescent Insects - Hater, springing Shepherd-Dogs-Horses broken-in, Gauchos powers of-Bhie Haze-Noise made by a Riding-Character of Inhabitants-Rio Plata Butterfly—Entomology—Ants-Wasp kill- _FiOcks of Butterflies—Aeronaut Spiders— ing a Spider—Parasitical Spider-Artifices of phosphorescence of the Sea-Port Desire— an Epeira-Greganous Spider—Spider with Guanaco—Port St. Julian—Geology of Pata-an unsymmetrical Web 19 gonia__Fossil gigantic Animal-Types of CHAPTER III Organization constant—Change in the Zoology of America—Causes of Extinction 142 Monte Video—Maldonado—Excursion to R. riuAwrPD tv Polanco—Lazo and Bolas—Partridges—Ab- OHAi LhLi iiL' sence of Trees—Deer—Capybara, or River Santa Cruz—Expedition up the River—Indians Hog — Tucutuco — Molothrus, cuckoo-like —Immense Streams of Basaltic Lava—Frag-habits—Tyrant Flvcatcher—Mocking-bird— ments not transported by the River—Exca-Carrion Hawks—Tubes formed by Lightning ration of the Valley—Condor, habits of— —House struck 39 Cordillera—Erratic Boulders of great size— Indian Relics—Return to the Ship—Falk-CHAPTER IV, land Islands—Wild Horses, Cattle, Rabbits-Rio Negro-Estancias attacked by the Indians Wolf-like Fox-Fire made of Bones-Man--Salt Lakes-Flamingoes-R. Negro toll. *er of h*nt¿nS ¡ Cattle —Geology — Colorado-Sacred Tree-Patagonián Hare- Streams of Stones-Scenes of Violence-Indian Families-General Rosas-Proceed to Penguin-Geese-Eggs of Doris-Compound Bahia Blanca-Sand Dunes—Negro Lieute- Animals 177 nant—Bahia Blanca—Saline Incrustations— CHAPTER X. Punta Alta—Zorillo 63 Tierra del Fuego, first arrival—Good Success CHAPTER V, -^ay—'^■ri Account of the Fuegians on board —Interview with the Savages—Scenery of Bahia Blanca—Geology—Numerous gigantic the Forests—Cape Horn—Wigwam Cove-extinct Quadrupeds-Recent Extinction— Miserable Condition of the Savages—Famines Longevity of Species—Large Animals do not —Cannibals—Matricide—Religious Feelings require a luxuriant Vegetation—Southern —Great Gale—Beagle Channel—Ponsonby Africa—Siberian Fossils—Two Species of Sound—Build Wigwams and settle the Fue-Ostrich—Habits of Oven-bird—Armadilloes gians—Bifurcation of the Beagle Channel— —Venomous Snake, Toad, Lizard—Hyberna- Glaciers—Return to the Ship—Second Visit tion of Animals—Habits of Sea-Pen—Indian in the Ship to the Settlement—Equality of Wars and Massacres—.Arrow-head—Antiqua- Condition amongst the Natives 204

rianKeliC , 81 CHAPTER XL CHAPTER W. Strait of Magellan—Port Famine—Ascent of Set out for Buenos Ayres—Rio Sauce—Sierra Mount Tarn —Forests—Edible Fungus— Ventana — Third Posta—Driving Horses — Zoology—Great Sea-weed—Leave Tierra del Bolas—Partridges and Foxes—Features of the Fuego—Climate—Fruit Trees and Produo Country—Long-legged Plover—Teru-tero— tions of the Southern Coasts—Height, of Hailstorm—Natural Enclosures in the Sierra Snow-line on the Cordillera — Descent of Tapalguen—Flesh of Puma—Meat Diet— Glaciers to the Sea—Icebergs formed—Trans-Guardiadel M.onte—Eflteets of Cattle on the portal of Boulders— Climate and Produo-Vegetaibn—Cardoon—Buenos Ayres—Cor- tions of the Antarctic Islands—Preservation xel where Cattle are slaughtered 106 of Frozen Carcasses—Recapitulation 231
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