Chapter 20: The adrenergic nervous system Type: multiple choice question Title



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Patrick: An Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry 3e


Chapter 20: The adrenergic nervous system
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 01

01) What are the two main types of adrenergic receptor?

Feedback: The two main types of adrenergic receptors are the α and β adrenoceptors. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are the two main types of cholinergic receptors. A receptors are adenosine receptors. Numerals such as 1 and 2 are used to indicate receptor subtypes such as the α 1-adrenoceptor.

Page reference: 594

a. Muscarinic and nicotinic

b. 1 and 2

*c. α and β

d. A1 and A2
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 02

02) What kind of receptors are the adrenergic receptors?



Feedback: The adrenergic receptors bind G-proteins when they are activated and split the G-protein into an α-subunit and a β,γ-dimer. These in turn trigger signal transduction pathways.

Page reference: 594

*a. G-protein coupled receptors

b. Kinase linked receptors

c. Intracellular receptors

d. Ion channels
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 03

03) What G-protein is activated by α -adrenoceptors?



Feedback: There are various types of G-proteins which trigger different signal transduction processes. The Go protein is activated by α -adrenoceptors.

Page reference: 594

a. Gs

b. Gi

*c. Go

d. Gq
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 04

04) What G-protein is activated by α -adrenoceptors?



Feedback: There are various types of G-proteins which trigger different signal transduction processes. The Gs protein is activated by α -adrenoceptors.

Page reference: 594

*a. Gs

b. Gi

c. Go

d. Gq
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 05

05) How many subtypes of the α -adrenoceptor are there?



Feedback: The subtypes are the α-adrenoceptor and α2-adrenoceptor. There are also three subtypes of each of these (α 1A, α 1B, α 1C, α 2A, α 2B, α 2C)

Page reference: 594

*a. 2


b. 3

c. 4


d. 5
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 06

06) How many subtypes of the β -adrenoceptor are there?



Feedback: The subtypes are the β-adrenoceptor, β2-adrenoceptor and β3-adrenoceptor.

Page reference: 594

a. 2


*b. 3

c. 4


d. 5
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 07

07) What is the physiological effect resulting from activation of βadrenoceptors in heart muscle?



Feedback: The predominant adrenergic receptor in cardiac muscle is the βadrenoceptor, compared to bronchial smooth muscle where the predominant adrenergic receptor is the β2adrenoceptor

Page reference: 594

a. Muscle contraction leading to decreased heart rate and force

*b. Muscle contraction leading to increased heart rate and force

c. Muscle relaxation leading to decreased heart rate and force

d. Muscle relaxation leading to increased heart rate and force
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 08

08) What is the predominant β -adrenoceptor in bronchial smooth muscle?


Feedback: The β 1-adrenoceptor is predominant in heart muscle. The β 2-adrenoceptor is the predominant type of -adrenoceptor in bronchial smooth muscle, arteriole smooth muscle, veins, the liver, gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle and kidney. The β 3-adrenoceptor is predominant in fat cells. The β 4-adrenoceptor does not exist.

Page reference: 594

a. β 1adrenoceptor

*b.β2 adrenoceptor

c. β 3adrenoceptor

d. β 4adrenoceptor
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 09

09) What is the physiological effect resulting from activation of β2 adrenoceptors in bronchial smooth muscle?



Feedback: Activation of β2 adrenoceptors in bronchial smooth muscle results in muscle relaxation, leading to opening of the airways. Therefore, adrenergic agonists are useful agents in the treatment of asthma.

Page reference: 594

a. Muscle contraction leading to closure of the airways

b. Muscle relaxation leading to closure of the airways

c. Muscle contraction leading to opening of the airways

*d. Muscle relaxation leading to opening of the airways
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 10

10) What is the physiological effect resulting from activation of β3 adrenoceptors in fat cells?



Feedback: Activation of β3 adrenoceptors in fat cells leads to the activation of enzymes which catalyse the breakdown of fat. Consequently, agonists of these receptors are potential medications for the treatment of obesity.

Page reference: 594

*a. Activation of enzymes leading to fat breakdown

b. Deactivation of enzymes leading to fat breakdown

c. Activation of enzymes leading to fat synthesis

d. Deactivation of enzymes leading to fat synthesis
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 11

11) What is the predominant adrenoceptor in the smooth muscle of arterioles supplying blood to the skeletal muscles?



Feedback: The β 1-adrenoceptor is predominant in heart muscle. The β 2-adrenoceptor is the predominant type of β -adrenoceptor in bronchial smooth muscle, arteriole smooth muscle, veins, the liver, gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle and kidney. The α 1-adrenoceptor is predominant in bronchial smooth muscle and the liver along with β 2-adrenoceptors. The α 2-adrenoceptor is predominant in gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle along with β 2-adrenoceptors and α 1-adrenoceptors.

Page reference: 594-595

a. αadrenoceptor

b. α 2adrenoceptor

c. β1adrenoceptor

*d. β 2adrenoceptor
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 12

12) What is the physiological effect resulting from activation of β 2adrenoceptors in the smooth muscle of arterioles suppling blood to the skeletal muscles?



Feedback: As the smooth muscles of arterioles relax, the blood vessels dilate, increasing the blood supply to skeletal muscles.

Page reference: 594-595

a. Smooth muscle contraction leading to hypertension

b. Smooth muscle relaxation leading to hypotension

c. Smooth muscle contraction leading to decreased blood supply to skeletal muscles

*d. Smooth muscle relaxation leading to increased blood supply to skeletal muscles
Type: matching question

Title: Chapter 20 - Question 13

13) The following diagram shows the biosynthetic pathway to adrenaline.


What are the enzymes A-D?



Feedback: Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyses the oxidation of the aromatic ring present in tyrosine to introduce a second phenol group and the formation of levodopa. Dopa decarboxylase catalyses the decarboxylation of levodopa to produce dopamine. Dopamine β -hydroxylase catalyses the oxidation of dopamine in order to introduce an alcohol function leading to the formation of noradrenaline. N-Methyl transferase introduces a methyl group onto the nitrogen atom of noradrenaline

Page reference: 595-596

a. A = Tyrosine hydroxylase

b. B = Dopa decarboxylase

c. C = Dopamine β -hydroxylase

d. D = N-methyl transferase
Type: matching question

Title: Chapter 20 - Question 14

14) The following diagram shows the biosynthetic pathway to adrenaline.


What are the names of the compounds E-H?



Feedback: Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyses the oxidation of the aromatic ring present in tyrosine to introduce a second phenol group and the formation of levodopa. Dopa decarboxylase catalyses the decarboxylation of levodopa to produce dopamine. Dopamine β -hydroxylase catalyses the oxidation of dopamine in order to introduce an alcohol function leading to the formation of noradrenaline. N-Methyl transferase introduces a methyl group onto the nitrogen atom of noradrenaline.

Page reference: 595-596

a. E = L-tyrosine

b. F = Levodopa

c. G = Dopamine

d. H = Noradrenaline
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 15

15) Identify the enzyme that is responsible for catalysing the following metabolic reaction.



Feedback: Monoamine oxidase catalyses the oxidation of a primary amino group to an aldehyde. Catechol O-methyltransferase catalyses the methylation of one of the catechol phenol groups to a methyl ether.

The other two enzymes do not exist.



Page reference: 595-596

a. Monoamine O-methyltransferase

*b. Monoamine oxidase

c. Catechol O-methyltransferase

d. Catechol oxidase
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 16

16) How is noradrenaline removed from a nerve synapse once it has served its function as a chemical messenger?



Feedback: Carrier proteins in the presynaptic nerve transport noradrenaline back into the nerve such that it can be taken up in vesicles. It is then ready to be released again when the nerve becomes active.

Page reference: 597

a. It is metabolised by enzymes present on the outer surface of nerve membranes.

*b. It is transported into the presynaptic nerve by carrier proteins.

c. It is transported into the postsynaptic nerve by carrier proteins.

d. It diffuses out of the synapse and enters the blood vessels to be taken to the kidneys.
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 17

17) Which of the following agents has a controlling influence on the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerves?



Feedback: Prostaglandins, acetylcholine and noradrenaline itself all inhibit the release of noradrenaline from presynaptic nerves. Each of these chemical messengers interacts with a receptor on the pre-synaptic nerve that is specific for that chemical messenger.

Page reference: 597-598

a. Prostaglandins

b. Acetylcholine

c. Noradrenaline

*d. All of the answer are correct
Type: matching question

Title: Chapter 20 - Question 18

18) The structure shown below is adrenaline. What sort of binding interactions do the following functional groups have with the binding site of the adrenergic receptor; i) the phenols ii) the aromatic ring iii) the alcohol and iv) the quaternary nitrogen atom?




Feedback: The phenol groups and the alcohol group act as hydrogen bond donors. The aromatic ring interacts through van der Waals interactions. The quaternary nitrogen interacts through ionic interactions.

Page reference: 599

a. i = Hydrogen bond donor (1)

b. ii = Van der Waals interactions

c. iii = Hydrogen bond donor (2)

d. iv = Ionic interactions
Type: multiple choice question

Title: Chapter 20 Question 19

19) The following structure was found to have an 800 fold increase in agonist activity when the blue coloured group was added. What drug design strategy is illustrated here?



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