Chapter 1 Osteo1ogy.............................1 Chapter 2



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D. the inferior sagittal sinus

E. the cavernous sinus

8. Which lies along the superior border of the cerebral falx?

9. Which lies along the posterior margin of the tentorium of cerebellum?

10: Which is situated laterally to the body of the sphenoid bone?

True or False Questions

1. A blockage in the cerebrospinal fluid circulation leads to hydrocephalus. ( )

2. The lateral ventricles are located near the cerebellum. ( )

3. Blockage of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) normally would result in the enlargement of the fourth ventricle. ( )

4. The presence of blood in a spinal tap taken from an individual with a closed head injury signals arterial bleeding into the subarachnoid space. ( )

5. The spinal dura mater terminates at the level of the second lumbar vertebra. ( )

6. The vertebral venous plexus is found in the subarachnoid space. ( )

7. Epidural hematoma is usually caused by leakage from a cerebral vein. ( )

Explanation of Terms

1. epidural space

2. Sinuses of the dura mater

3. subarachnoid space

4. cerebral arterial circle

5. blood-brain barrier (BBB)

6. superior petrosal sinus

Answer the Following Questions

1. How does the pia mater differ from the arachnoid mater in covering the brain?

2. What is the arterial circle of Willis?

ANSWERS


Multiple Choice Questions

A1

1. B 2. C 3. E 4. B 5. A 6. C 7. E 8. D 9. B 10. B 11. C 12. C 13. D 4. B 15. A 16. A 17. B 18. A 19. D 20. A 21. A 22. C 23. E 24. E 25. D 26. B 27. C 28. E 29. B 30. B 31. B 32. B 33. B 34. B 35. B 36. E 37. C 38. A 39. D



A2

1. B 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. B 8. B 9. A 10. C

BI

1. B 2. A 3. D 4. E 5. E 6. A 7. B 8. A 9. C 10. E



True or False Questions

1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. F

Explanation of Terms

1. The space between the walls of the vertebral canal and the dura mater of the spinal cord. Within it there is fat, loose connective tissue, and vertebral venous plexuses.

2. The sinuses of the dura mater are venous channels which drain the blood from the brain; they are devoid of valves, and are situated between the two layers of the dura mater and lined by endothelium continuous with that which lines the veins.

3. The space between the arachnoid and pia mater, filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The large blood vessels supplying the brain and spinal cord lie in the subarachnoid space.

4. The cerebral arterial circle on the ventral aspect of the brain; formed by the anterior communicating artery, the two anterior cerebral, the two internal carotid, the two posterior communicating, and the two posterior cerebral arteries.

5. The BBB is just between the blood and neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and consists of the capillary endothelium, capillary basement membrane and the neuroglial membrane formed by the perivascular processes of the astrocytes.

6. The superior petrosal sinus connects the posterior end of the cavernous sinus to the bend marking the transition between the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. It receives cerebellar and inferior cerebral veins and veins from the tympanic cavity.

Answer the Following Questions

1. The pia mater on the brain is a delicate, intimate, areolar investment of brain and spinal cord that enmeshes the blood vessels on their surfaces. It is a vascular membrane. On the other hand, the arachnoid is a delicate transparent membrane composed of a blend of collagenous and elastic fibers and squamous mesenchymal epithelial cells. It is not vascular and is not attached directly to the brain or spinal cord.

2. The cerebral arterial circle, is an important anastomosis at the base of the brain between the following arteries:

Posterior cerebral arteries;

Posterior communicating arteries;

Internal carotid arteries;

Anterior cerebral arteries;

Anterior communicating arteries.

The various components of the cerebral arterial circle give many small branches to the brain.

(Wang Jun)

Multiple Choice Questions

A1

1. The endocrine system .



A. releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body

B. releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs

C. produces effects that can last for hours, days, or even longer

D. control the body processes with nervous system

E. all of the above

2. Another system that works closely with the endocrine system to control body processes is the .

A. circulatory system

B. nervous system

C. urinary system

D. digestive system

E. respiratory system

3. The endocrine system controls homeostasis .

A. rapidly via nerve impulses

B. gradually via nerve impulses

C. rapidly by secreting hormones

D. gradually by secreting hormones

E. rapidly by secreting enzymes

4. Endocrine glands are often referred to as .

A. ducted glands

B. digestive glands

C. enzyme-producing glands

D. ductless glands

E. respiratory glands

5. Endocrine glands that compose the endocrine system .

A. produce hormones that are secreted into the digestive tract .

B. release hormones into the bloodstream

C. release hormones as rapidly as nerve impulses are transmitted

D. are present only in humans

E. are present in the internal cavity

6. Secretions from ductless glands are called .

A. enzymes

B. digestive fluids

C. hormones

D. excretory fluids

E. interstitial fluid

7. Which of the following exerts control over all the others?

A. adrenal cortex

B. thyroid gland

C. parathyroid

D. hypophysis

E. testis

8. The gland, formerly called the "master gland" that controls many other endocrine glands in the .

A. thymus

B. thyroid gland

C. suprarenal gland

D. hypophysis

E. testis

9. The sella turcica that supports the hypophysis is located in which bone?

A. the ethmoid bone

B. the frontal bone

C. the sphenoid bone

D. the occipital bone

E. the temporal bone

10. The two basic divisions of the hypophysis are .

A. neurohypophysis and infundibulum

B. pars distalis and pars intermedia

C. supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei

D. adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis

E. pars distalis and pars tuberalis

11. Oxytocin is secreted by the .

A. adenohypophysis

B. neurohypophysis

C. zona glomerulosa

D. pars intermedia .

E. cervix

12. Reabsorption of water from the kidneys is regulated by hormones produced in the .

A. adenohypophysis

B. thyroid

C. pancreas

D. hypothalamus

E. pineal body

13. The thyroid gland .

A. is located above the larynx

B. consists of the lateral and pyramidal lobes

C. isthmus crosses the middle line in front of fifth to sixth tracheal rings

D. is surrounded by a fibrous capsule and a synovial capsule

E. secretes thyroxine and calcitonin

14. The parathyroid glands are located .

A. below the thyroid, hence the name "para"

B. above the thyroid, hence the name "para"

C. near the thyroid, hence the name "para"

D. imbedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

E. distant from the thyroid but named because there are two and they resemble the thyroid glands.

15. The suprarenal glands consist of .

A. the inner and outer layer of the kidney

B. the medulla and the cortex

C. the lower and upper sections

D. the anterior and posterior sections

E. the left and right lobe

16. The suprarenal cortex does not secrete .

A. mineralocorticoids

B. progesterone

C. glucocorticoids

D. androgens

E. gonadocorticoids

17. The inner portion of the suprarenal glands .

A. produces hormones that help the body deal with long-term stress

B. is called the suprarenal cortex

C. is the source of cortisol

D. produces epinephrine and norepinephrine

E. produces androgens

18. The gland produces the hormone melatonin.

A. hypophysis

B. pineal

C. thyroid

D. pancreatic

E. thymus

19. The endocrine gland responsible for the body' s circadian rhythm is the .

A. thymus

B. pineal

C. parathyroid

D. hypophysis

E. suprarenal

20. What gland is part of both the endocrine system and the digestive system?

A. hypophysis

B. pancreas

C. testis

D. thymus

E. suprarenal gland

21. The pancreatic islets produce .

A. thyroxin

B. cortisone

C. insulin

D. somatotropin

E. calcitonin

22. The gland is known for playing a major role in immunity.

A. thyroid

B. pineal

C. thymus

D. suprarenal

E. hypophysis

23. The thymus aids the differentiation of cells.

A. red blood

B.B


C.T

D. cancerous

E. nerve

24. Androgens are produced by the .

A. ovary

B. testis

C. thyroid

D. hypophysis

E. thymus

25. Which of the following is mismatched?

A. oxytocin-uterus

B. parathyroid hormone-bones

C. ADH-kidneys

D. insulin-hypothalamus

E. thyroxine-hypophysis

26. Two glands are especially noted for regressing after childhood, namely the .

A. thymus and pineal gland

B. suprarenal cortex and medulla

C. thyroid and parathyroid

D. thymus and thyroid

E. testis and ovary

A2

1. Someone who has suffered damage to the pancreas might .



A. have trouble walking a straight line

B. be unable to remember a recent event

C. have periods of very low energy

D. have trouble making a fist

E. be always cold

2. Dwarfism may result from a bloodstream that has .

A. too much epinephrine

B. too little growth hormone

C. too little antidiuretie hormone

D. too much thyroxine

E. too much insulin

3. Failure of the pituitary to stop producing growth hormone after the body growth is completed results in .

A. acromegaly

B. giantism

C. tetany

D. kidney failure

E. hyperthyroidism

B1

Match the hormone with the primary agent that stimulates its secretion.



A. epinephrine

B. TSH


C. calcitonin

D. ACTH


E. growth hormone

1. thyroxine

2. corticosteroids

Match each item with the most closely related item.

A. parathyroid gland

B. thymus gland

C. suprarenal cortex

D. endocrine pancreas

E. hypophysis

3. secretes androgens, mineralocorticoids, and glucocorticoids

4. atrophies by adulthood

True or False Questions

1. The endocrine system is quicker than the nervous system. ( )

2. Hormones are secreted by exocrine glands and affect nearby ceils. ( )

3. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the bloodstream for transport to target organs. ( )

4. It is possible to find all the hormones in a blood sample taken from the arm. ( )

5. The hypothalamus is controlled by the pituitary gland. ( )

6. The hypophysis is located within the hypophyseal fossa of the ethmoid bone, and is attached to the thalamus by the infundibulum. ( )

7. The hypophysis is divided into two portions: the cortex pituitary and the medulla pituitary. ( )

8. Hyper-secretion of growth hormone may lead to "gigantism." ( )

9. The thyroid gland is attached to the trachea just above the larynx. ( )

10. The adrenal medulla is an endocrine gland. ( )

11. Melatonin is involved with circadian rhythms. ( )

12. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. ( )

13. The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine tissue. ( )

14. The pancreatic endocrine tissues are called pancreatic islets. ( )

15. The thymus increases in size with aging. ( )

16. Male sex hormones can be produced by the testes or adrenal glands. ( )

Explanation of Terms

1. endocrine glands

2. adenohypophysis

3. neurohypophysis

4. anterior lobe of hypophysis

5. posterior lobe of hypophysis

6. thyroid capsule

7. isthmus of thyroid gland

8. suprarenal cortex

9. suprarenal medulla

10. pancreatic islets

Answer the Following Questions

1. Which organ and tissue consist of the endocrine system?

2. Differentiate between endocrine and exocrine glands.

3. Describe the location and lobes of the hypophysis.

4. Describe the location, lobes and capsule of the thyroid gland.

5. Distinguish between the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex.

6. Describe the location and general function of the pineal gland.

7. Describe the location and structure of the pancreatic islets.

8. Describe the location and general function of the thymus gland.

9. Describe the endocrinal secretions produced by testis or ovary.

ANSWERS


Multiple Choice Questions

A1

1. E 2. B 3. D 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. D 8. D 9. C 10. D 11. B 12. D 13. B 14. D 15. B 16. B 17. D 18. B 19. B 20. B



21. C 22. C 23. C 24. B 25. D 26. A

Al

1. C 2. B 3. A



B1

1. B 2. D 3. C 4. B

True or False .Questions

1. F 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. F 10. T 11. T 12. F 13. T 14. T 15. F 16. T

Explanation of Terms

1. Endocrine glands are ductless; they secrete specific chemicals called hormones directly into the blood or surrounding interstitial fluid; their action is relatively slow and prolonged.

2. The adenohypophysis includes the pars distalis, the pars tuberalis, and the pars intermedia.

3. The neurohypophysis consists of the pars nervosa and the pars infundibulum.

4. Anterior lobe of hypophysis consists of the pars distalis and the pars tuberalis and secretes growth hormone, somatotropin, thyrotropin, adrenocorticotropin and gonadotropin, etc.

5. Posterior lobe of hypophysis constitutes in the pars intermedia and the pars nervosa. The lobe stores and releases the vasopressin and oxytocin.

6. The thyroid gland is surrounded by a fibrous capsule (true capsule) external to this is a sheath of pretracheal fascia (false capsule). Between the true and false capsules, there are parathyroid glands and blood vessels and nerves of the thyroid.

7. The isthmus is a narrow portion which connects anteriorly thyroid right and left lobes. The isthmus crosses the middle line in front of second to fourth tracheal ring.

8. Suprarenal cortex is an outer portion of suprarenal gland on section and produces mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids.

9. Suprarenal medulla is an inner portion of suprarenal gland on section and secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.

10. Pancreatic islets are most common in the tail of the pancreas and endocrine portion of the pancreas which consists of scattered clusters of cells.

Answer the Following Questions

1. The glands and tissues of endocrine system include the pituitary body, the thyroid, the parathyroids, the suprarenals, pancreas, the pineal body, the thymus and the gonads etc.

2. In contrast to exocrine glands, endocrine glands are ductless; they secrete specific chemicals called hormones directly into the blood or surrounding interstitial fluid.

3. The hypophysis is located on the inferior aspect of the brain in the region of the diencephalon and is attached to the end of the infundibulum of the brain and resting in the hypophyseal fossa. The hypophysis is divided into an adenohypophysis and a neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis includes the pars distalis, the pars tuberalis, and the pars intermedia. The neurohypophysis consists of the pars nervosa and the pars infundibulum.

4. The thyroid gland is located in the anterior neck, just below the larynx. It consists of right and left lateral lobes, thyroid isthmus. The thyroid gland is surrounded by a fibrous capsule (true capsule) external to this is a sheath of pretracheal fascia (false capsule). Between the true and false capsules, there are parathyroid glands and blood vessels and nerves of the thyroid.

5. On section, the suprarenal cortex is an outer portion and the suprarenal medulla is an inner portion. The suprarenal cortex produces mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids. The suprarenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.

6. The pineal body lies in the depression between the superior colliculi. It is attached to the roof of the third ventricle near its junction with the mid-brain. Secretion of its principal hormone is melatonin which is thought to affect the hypothalamus by stimulating the secretion of certain releasing factors. These factors in turn affect the secretion of gonadotrophin and the ACTH from the adenohypophysis.

7. Pancreatic islets are most common in the tail of the pancreas and consist of scattered clusters of cells. The endocrine function of the pancreas is to produce and secrete the hormones glucagon and insulin.

8. The thymus is a bilobed organ positioned in the upper mediastinum, in front of the aorta and behind the manubrium of the sternurm The thymus is associated with the lymphatic system in maintaining body immunity through the maturation and discharge of T cells. The thymus also secretes a hormone called thymosin, which is believed to stimulate the T cells after they leave the thymus.



9. The interstitial cells of the testes produce and secrete the male sex hormone testosterone. Estrogens are produced in the ovarian follicles and corpus luteum of the ovaries. Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum.

(Xu Jiajun)


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