Bio 221 Lab 11 Respiratory System



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Bio 221 - Lab 11

Respiratory System


Identify all assigned organs and structures on all lab specimens in which they appear.

  1. Sagittal head (see digestive system for additional structures in the head)


    1. Frontal sinus

    2. Sphenoid sinus

    3. Nostril/external nares/anterior nasal aperture

    4. Nasal Cavity

    5. Concha(e)/turbinate bone(s)

    6. Internal nares/Posterior nasal aperture

    7. Nasopharynx

    8. Opening of Eustachian/auditory/pharyngotympanic tube



  1. Larynx


  1. Hyoid bone

  2. Epiglottis

  3. Thyroid cartilage

  4. Cricoid cartilage



  1. Bronchial Tree


  1. Larynx

  • Hyoid bone

  • Thyroid cartilage

  • Cricoid cartilage

  1. Thyroid gland

  2. Trachea

  3. Right & left primary/main bronchi (singular = bronchus)

  4. Right & left secondary/lobar bronchi

  5. Right & left tertiary/segmental bronchi


  1. Lungs


  1. Right lung

  • Right upper/superior lobe

  • Right middle lobe

  • Right lower/inferior lobe

  • Horizontal fissure

  • Right oblique fissure

  • Apex

  • Base

  1. Left lung

  • Left upper/superior lobe

  • Left lower/inferior lobe

  • Left oblique fissure

  • Cardiac notch

  • Apex

  • Base

  1. Diaphragm



  1. Lung Lobule


  1. Terminal bronchiole

  2. Respiratory bronchioles

  3. Alveolar duct

  4. Alveolar sac

  5. Alveolus/Alveoli

  6. Pulmonary capillary

  7. Pulmonary artery

  8. Pulmonary vein


Lab 11 Respiratory Physiology—Spirometry
It is important to understand how our lungs work; knowledge of the mechanics of breathing, but also nervous system controls, etc., are essential for health care professionals treating patients with breathing disorders such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). In addition to understanding these things, it is also helpful to have a measure of how efficient we are at moving air in and out of the lungs. This lab will give you an introduction to spirometry, which is the most common pulmonary function test measuring lung function.
While several different types of measurements can be taken in spirometry, the most common types are shown on the spirogram in Figure 1. You’ll see that there are both respiratory volumes and respiratory capacities; the differences between these are explained below.

Figure 1. Spirogram showing both respiratory volumes and capacities.


On the graph above, you’ll see that most of the breathing here is normal, quiet breathing, in which a small amount of air is being moved in and out of the lungs. This volume of air is called the tidal volume (TV) and averages about 500 ml in normal, healthy adults. However, you’ll also see on the graph—and you know from your own personal experience—that you can inhale much more air than you do during normal breathing. The amount of air you can inhale above and beyond a normal breath is called the inspiratory reserve volume (IRV). Similarly, the amount of air you can exhale beyond a normal breath is called the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). In normal, healthy adults, the IRV averages about 2000 ml and the ERV averages about 900 ml.
There is one more respiratory volume, the residual volume (RV), which represents the air left in the lungs even after a full exhalation. The average RV is 1150 ml, and represents the amount of air in the alveoli (which cannot collapse because of surfactants), and the bronchi and trachea, which are held open (patent) by C-shaped cartilage rings. Unless something really bad happened to you, you cannot void these spaces of air voluntarily.

You’ll see from Figure 1 that the respiratory volumes can be added together to produce respiratory capacities. For instance:


TV + IRV = inspiratory capacity (IC)
Capacities like the IC, or expiratory capacity (EC) can tell us a lot about the ability of a patient to move air in and out of the lungs. Table 1 summarizes the important volumes, capacities, the average value of each in normal, healthy adults, and the derivation of the respiratory capacities.
Table 1. Respiratory volumes and capacities, their average values in men and women, and derivation of respiratory capacities (reproduced from Ganong, William. "Fig. 34-7". Review of Medical Physiology (21st ed.)).

Volume

Average value (ml)

Derivation


Men

Women

Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

3300

1800




Tidal Volume (TV)

500

500




Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

1000

700




Residual Volume (RV)

1200

1100




Vital Capacity (VC)

4800

3100

IRV + TV + ERV

Inspiratory Capacity (IC)

3800

2400

IRV + TV

Expiratory Capacity (EC)







ERV + TV

Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

6000

4200

IRV + TV + ERV + RV

In lab today, you are going to measure several of these parameters on yourself, and compare your values to averages. To measure these respiratory volumes and capacities, you’ll be using a spirometer, which your lab instructor will show you how to use. After receiving instructions on how to use the spirometer, follow the instructions below to make your measurements.


In this lab, you will directly measure, or calculate, the following according to these directions:

  1. Tidal Volume

  1. Set the spirometer at “0” (zero)

  2. Breathing normally, first inhale (do not take a forceful or maximal breath), then place the spirometer’s mouthpiece in your mouth, pinch your nostrils closed, and breath a normal, relaxed breath into the spirometer.

  3. Repeat step “b” twice more; do not re-set the dial at zero.

  4. Divide the resultant volume displayed on the dial by three (3) to obtain your TV.

  1. Expiratory Reserve Volume

  1. Set the spirometer at 1000ml

  2. Breath in normally, then breath out relaxed tidal volume, then close your mouth around the mouthpiece, plug your nose, and forcibly breath out all of your remaining air into the spirometer for as long as you are able (without taking another breath).

  3. Subtract 1,000 from the measured volume to obtain your first ERV.

  4. Repeat steps a-c twice, add the three results, and divide the sum by three. The result is your average ERV.

  1. Vital Capacity is normally a calculated value, but must be measured directly with our spirometers as follows –

  1. Set the spirometer at “0” (zero).

  2. Take the deepest breath you can, close your mouth around the mouthpiece and plug your nose, then breath into the spirometer for as long as you can until you run out of air.

  3. Repeat steps a & b once or twice then average the results to determine your average VC.

  1. Minute Respiratory Volume

  1. You are now done with the spirometer. Determine your subject’s respiratory rate by counting how many times your subject breathes in one minute.

  2. Multiply that number (their respiratory rate) by your subject’s TV.

  1. Inspiratory Capacity -

  1. Calculate IC by subtracting ERV from VC (IC = VC - ERV).

  1. Inspiratory Reserve Volume

  1. Calculate IRV by subtracting TV from IC (IRV = IC – TV).


Questions


  1. What do you think accounts for the differences in respiratory volumes and capacities between men and women?




  1. Why do you think vital capacity might differ with height?




  1. How might the volume measurements change if your data were collected right after vigorous exercise?




  1. Can you think of other factors that might affect lung capacity?




  1. Based on your answers to the above questions, how does your lung capacity compare to the average values listed? Why do you think this may be?

In general, what is the difference between volume measurements and capacities?


Bio 221 - Lab 11

Digestive System

Identify all assigned organs and structures on all lab specimens in which they appear.



  1. Sagittal Head


  1. Oral cavity

  2. Tongue

  3. Hard palate

  4. Soft palate

  5. Uvula

  6. Pharyngeal tonsil

  7. Palatine tonsil

  8. Lingual tonsil

  9. Oropharynx

  10. Laryngopharynx

  11. Esophagus



  1. Tongue


    1. Sublingual gland

    2. Submandibular gland

    3. Mandible



  1. Esophagus




  1. Stomach


  1. Cardia/Cardiac region

  2. Fundus

  3. Body

  4. Pylorus/Pyloric region

  5. Lesser curvature

  6. Greater curvature

  7. Greater omentum

  8. Cardioesophageal sphincter/lower esophageal sphincter

  9. Pyloric sphincter

  10. Ruga(e)

  11. Muscularis externa

  • Longitudinal layer

  • Circular layer

  • Oblique layer

  1. Duodenum



  1. Small Intestine


  1. Duodenum

  • Duodenal papilla(e)

  1. Jejunum

  2. Ileum

  3. Ileocecal valve



  1. Wall of Small Intestine


  1. Tunics (layers)

    • Mucosa

    • Submucosa

    • Muscularis

    • Longitudinal fibers

    • Circular fibers

    • Serosa

  1. Villus/Villi

  • Absorptive cells

  • Goblet cells

  • Lacteal

  • Blood capillary

  • Intestinal gland

  • Artery

  • Vein

  • Lymph vessel

  • Nerve

  • Lymph nodule/Peyer’s patch

  • Submucosal gland/Brunner’s gland



  1. Large Intestine


  1. Ileocecal valve

  2. Cecum

  3. Appendix

  4. Ascending colon

  5. Right colic flexure/Hepatic flexure

  6. Transverse colon

  7. Left colic flexure/Splenic flexure

  8. Descending colon

  9. Sigmoid colon (difficult to see until next week’s models)

  10. Rectum

  11. Anus



  1. Accessory Digestive Organs

  1. Salivary Glands


    • Parotid gland

    • Submandibular gland

    • Sublingual gland



  1. Liver


  1. Lobes

    • Right lobe

    • Left lobe

    • Quadrate lobe

    • Caudate lobe

  1. Falciform ligament

  2. Round ligament/Ligamentum teres hepatis (Umbilical vein in the fetus)

  3. Ligamentum venosum (see sectioned liver model; ductus venosus in the fetus)

  4. Inferior vena cava

  5. Hepatic vein(s)

  6. Hepatic portal vein/Portal vein

  7. Hepatic artery proper/Hepatic artery (from common hepatic A. to liver)

  8. Biliary tract

    • Common hepatic duct

    • Cystic duct

    • Common bile duct (only ½ credit for “Bile Duct”)



  1. Gallbladder

  2. Pancreas


    1. Head

    2. Body

    3. Tail

    4. Pancreatic duct

    5. Common bile duct



  1. Additional structures to identify (see spleen, pancreas, duodenum model)


    1. Spleen

    2. Celiac trunk

    • Common hepatic artery (between celiac trunk & hepatic artery proper)

    • Splenic artery

    • Left gastric artery

    1. Superior mesenteric artery

    2. Hepatic Portal Circuit

    • Inferior mesenteric vein

    • Splenic vein

    • Superior mesenteric vein

    • Hepatic portal vein/portal vein




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