Bibliographies: Ancient Religions Including: Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Hebrew, Christianity, Graeco-Roman, Celtic, Zoroastrian, Gnostic, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Manichaeism, Gnosticism, and others



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Bibliographies: Ancient Religions

Including: Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Hebrew, Christianity, Graeco-Roman, Celtic, Zoroastrian, Gnostic, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Manichaeism, Gnosticism, and others....



  • This is a work-in-progress. If you have good citations, please send them. If you only want a portion, highlight it, then copy and paste the text into your word processor, then print.




  • THIS IS NOT MEANT TO BE EXHAUSTIVE!!! I don't have the six lifetimes it would take! But it is meant to be as thorough as I can make it and it should give you a good place to start on some of the larger areas of study. This could easily be split up into smaller or different categories (I swear I will get around to it!!! It will have to be done soon, because the download is getting too long.), but I want this stuff out there. Some citations may be "incomplete". For instance, they may lack the place of publication; I will get those added as I am able to find them. In the meantime, you can go though a section and mark what you are interested in. It won't take you but a minute to read through the section you are interested in, you know.... I will keeping adding cites as time allows.




  • Search this page: by author or key-word? Hit CONTROL + F, and the search dialogue box will come up.



Additional Readings for your future edification. These are the subject-sections added thus far. Use the search function to find them, as it is quicker than trying to scroll down and find a section.



  • Mesopotamian Religion

  • Egyptian Religion

  • Hittite Religion

  • Canaanite Religion

  • Zoroastrianism

  • Aegean and Minoan Religions

  • Greek Religion

  • Mystery Religions

  • Hellenistic Religions

  • Mithraism

  • Roman Religion

  • Roman Imperial Cult

  • Text, Textual Criticism, Literature: Hebrew

  • Israel: History to Babylon Captivity and Restoration

  • Israelite Religion

  • Prophetic Judaism

  • Apocalyptic Judaism

  • Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews

  • Jewish Sects

  • "Minimalist" Critique

  • General Histories: Judaism

  • The Bible-"Old Testament": Various Texts

  • The Bible-"New Testament": Various Texts

  • General Histories: Christianity

  • Texts, Textual Criticism, the Canon: New Testament

  • The Gospels: Synoptics

  • The Gospels: John

  • The "Q" Source

  • Historical Jesus

  • Early Christianity

  • Paul

  • Early Christianity: Social and Ethical

  • Gnosticism

  • Manichaeianism

  • The Patristic Age

  • Ancient Christianity

  • Apocalyptic Christianity

  • Augustine

  • Medieval Christianity

  • Hinduism: Primary Sources

  • Hinduism: General Works

  • Jainism

  • Taoism

  • Buddhism: General Histories

  • The Buddha

  • Buddhist Canon: Text and Criticism

  • Buddhist Monasticism

  • Early Buddhist Sects

  • Theravada (Hinayana) Buddhism

  • Mayahana Buddhism

  • The Bodhisttva

  • Buddhism in Southeast Asia

  • Tibetan Buddhism

  • Tantric Buddhism

  • Buddhism in China

  • Chan Buddhism

  • Pure Land Buddhism

  • Zen Buddhism

  • Shin Buddhism

Sort of General Stuff




  • Barton, George A. The Paleolithic Beginnings of Religion – An Interpretation, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Mar. 22, 1940, vol. 82, no. 2, p. 131-149.




  • Davies, Jon. Death, Burial, and Rebirth in the Religions of Antiquity, Routledge, 1999.

Mesopotamian Religion




  • Bottero, Jean. La religion babylonienne. Paris, 1952




  • Dhorme, Edouard. Les religions de Babylonie et d'Assyrie. Paris, 1945




  • Dijk, V. van. "Sumerische Religion." in Handbuch der Religionsgeschichte, vol. I, ed. Jes Peter Asmussen, Jorge Laessoe, and Carsten Colpe, 431-496. Gottingen, 1971.




  • Frankfort, Henri, et al. Before Philosophy. Harmondsworth, 1949. (Originally published as the Intellectual History of Ancient Man, Chicago, 1946)




  • Hooke, S.H. Babylonian and Assyrian Religion. New York, 1953.




  • Jacobesen, Thorkild. The Treasures of Darkness: A History of Mesospotamian Religion. New Haven, 1976




  • Laessoe, Jorgen. "Babylonische und assyrische Religion." in Handbuch der Religionsgeschichte, vol. I, edited by Jes Peter Asmussen, Jorgen Laessoe, and Carsten Colpe, 497-525. Gottingen, 1971.




  • Meissner, Bruno. Babylonien und Assyrien, vol. 2. Heidelberg, 1925.




  • Pritchard, J.B. ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts relation to the Old Testament. 3rd. ed. Princeton, 1969.




  • Ringgren, Helmer. Religions of the Ancient Near East. trans. John Sturdy. Philadelphia, 1973.

Egyptian Religion




  • Allen, Thomas George. The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day. Chicago, 1974




  • Anthes, Rudolf. "Egyptian Theology in the Third Millennium B.C." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 18 (1959), 170-212.




  • Assmann, Jan. Agyptische Hymnen und Gebete. Zurich, 1975.




  • Bell, H. Idris. Cults and Creeds of Graeco-Roman Egypt. Liverpool, 1953.




  • Breasted, James Henry. The Development of Religion and Thought of Ancient Egypt. New York, 1912.




  • Cerny, Jaroslav. Ancient Egyptian Religion. London, 1952.




  • Englund, Gertie. Akh: Une notion religieuse dans l'Egypte pharaonique. Uppsala, 1978.







  • Faulkner, Raymond. The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts. 3 vols. Oxford, 1973-1978.




  • Frankfort, Henri. Kingship and the Gods. Chicago, 1948.




  • Frankfort, Henri. Before Philosophy. Baltimore, 1954.




  • Frankfort, Henri. Ancient Egyptian Religion. New York, 1961.




  • Greven, Liselotte. Der Ka in Theologie und Konigskult der Agypter des Alten Reiches. Gluckstadt, 1952.




  • Hornung, Erik. Altagyptische Hollenworstellung. Leipzig, 1968.




  • Hornung, Erik. Agyptische Unterwelscbucher. Zurich, 1972.




  • Hornung, Erik. Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt. Ithaca, N.Y., 1982.




  • Junker, Hermann. Die Gotterlehre von Memphis (Schabaka-Inschrift). Berlin, 1940.




  • Kees, Hermann. Das Priestertum in agyptischen Statt vom Neuen Reich bis zur Spatzeit. Leiden, 1953.




  • Kees, Hermann. Der Gotterglaube im Alten Agypten. 2nd. ed. Berlin, 1956.




  • Kees, Hermann. Totenglauben und Jenseitsvorstellungen der alten Agypter. 2nd. ed. Berlin, 1956.




  • Lesko, Leonard H. "Some Observations on the Compositon of the Book of Two Ways." Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1971), 30-43.




  • Lesko, Leonard H. "The field of Hetep in Egyptian Coffin Texts." Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. 9 (1971-1972), 89-101.




  • Morenz, Siegfried. Egyptian Religion. Ithaca, N.Y., 1973.




  • Morenz, Siegfried. Religion und Geschichte des alten Agypten: Gesammelte Aufsatze. Weimar, 1975.




  • Morenz, Siegfried and Dieter Muller. Untersuchungen zur Rolle des Schicksals in der agyptischen Religion. Berlin, 1960.




  • Moret, Alexandre. Le rituel du culte divin journalier en Egypte d'apres les papyrus de Berlin et les textes du temple de Seti Premier a Abydos. Paris, 1902.




  • Mueller, Dieter. "An Early Egyptian guide to the Hereafter." Journal of Egyptian Archaeololgy 58 (1972), 99-125.




  • Otto, Eberhard. Das Agypische Mundoffnungsritual. Wiesbaden, 1960.




  • Piankoff, Alexandre. Shrines of Tut-Ankh-Amon. Princeton, 1955.




  • Piankoff, Alexandre. The Wandering of the Soul. Princeton, 1974.




  • Poesner, Georges. De la divinite du Pharaon. Paris, 1960.




  • Sauneron, Serge. Les Pretres de l'ancienne Egypte. Paris, 1957.




  • Sauneron, Serge. Les fetes religieuses d'Esna. Cairo, 1962.




  • Schweitzer, Ursula. Das Wesen des Ka im Diesseits und Jenseits der alten Agypter. Gluckstadt, 1956.




  • Sethe, Kurt H. Dramatische Texte zu den altagyptischen Mysterienspielen. Leipzig, 1928.







  • Sethe, Kurt H. Urgeschichte und alteste Religion der Agypter. Leipzig, 1930.




  • Spiegel, Joachim. "Das Auferstehungsritual der Unaspyramide." Annales du Service des Anti




  • Vandier, Jacques. La religion egyptinne. Paris, 1944.




  • Vandier, Jacques. Le Papyuus Jumilhac. Paris, 1961.




  • Westendorf, Wolfhart, ed. Aspekte der spatagyptischen Religion. Wiesbaden, 1979.




  • Wilson, John A. The Burden of Egypt. Chicago, 1951.




  • Wolf, Walther. Das schone Fest von Opet. Leipzig, 1931.




  • Zabkar, Louis V. A Study of the Ba Concept in Ancient Egyptian Text. Chicago, 1968.




  • Zandee, Jan. Death as an Enemy. Leiden, 1960.

Hittite Religion




  • Bittel, Kurt. Hattusha: the Capital of the Hittites. New York, 1970.







  • Gurney, O. R. Some Aspects of Hittite Religion. London, 1977.




  • Guterbock, Hans G. "Hittite Religion." in Forgotten Religons ed. Vergilius Ferm, 83-109, New York, 1950.




  • Guterbock, Hans G. "The Song of Ullikummi." Journal of Cuneiform Studies 5 (1951), 135-161 and 6 (1952), 8-42.




  • Guterbock, Hans G. "Religion und Kultus der Hethiter." in Neuere Hethiterforschung. ed. Gerold Walser, , 54-73. Wiesbaden, 1964.




  • Guterbock, Hans G. Les Hieroglyphes de Yazilikara: A propos d'un travail recent. Paris, 1982.




  • Hoffner, Harry A. Jr. "Hittite Mythological Texts: A Survey." in Unity and Diversity, ed. Hans Goedicke and J.J.M. Roberts, pp, 136-145. Baltimore, 1975.




  • Hoffner, Harry A. Jr. "A Prayer of Mursili II about his Stepmother." Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (1983), 187-192




  • Kammenhuber, Annelies. "Hethitische Rituale." in Kindlers Literatur-Lexikon, ed. Gert Woerner, et. al., vol. 3. Zurich, 1965-1967.




  • Masson, Emila. Le Pantheon de Yazilikaya: Nouvelle lectures. Paris, 1981.




  • Moyer, James C. "The Concept of Ritual Purity among the Hittites." Ph.D. diss., Brandeis University, 1969.




  • Otten Heinrich. Hethitische Totenrituale. Berlin, 1958.




  • Otten Heinrich. "The Religion of the Hittites." in Historia Religionum ed. C. Jouco Bleeker and Geo Widengren, vol. I, Religions of the Past, , 318-322. Leiden, 1969.




  • Sturtevant, Edgar, H. and George, Bechtel. A Hitite Chrestomathy Philadelphia, 1935.




  • Surenhagen, Dietrich. "Zwei Gebete Hattusilis und der Puduhepa."Altorientalsiche Forschungen 8(1981), 83-168.




  • Ten Cate Houwink, Ph. H.J. "Hittite Royal Prayers" Numen 16 (1969), 81-98.

Canaanite Religion







  • Driver, G.R. Canaanite Myths and Legends. Edinburgh, 1956.




  • Gese, Harmut. "Die Religioinen Altsyriens" in Die Religionen altsyriens, altarabiens und der Mandaer Stuttgart, 1970, 3-181




  • Gray. "Sacral kingship in Ugarit" Ugaritica. Paris, 6 (1960), 289-302.




  • Gray, John. The Canaanites. London, 1964.




  • Lete, Gregorio del Olmo. Mitos y leyendas de Canaan segun la tradicion de Ugarit, Madrid, 1981.




  • Lete, Gregorio del Olmo. Interpretacion de la mitologia cananea, Valencia, 1984.




  • Mullen, E.T. The Divine Council in Canaanite and Early Hebrew Literature. Chico, California, 1980.




  • Oldenburg, U. The Conflict Between El and Ba'al in Canaanite Religion, Leiden, 1969. See Review by M.J. Mulder in Ugarit-Forschungen 2 (1970) 359-366.




  • Peterson, David L. and Mark Woodward. "Northwest Semitic Religion: A Study in Relational Structures," Ugarit-Forschungen, 9 (1977), 232-248.




  • Pope, Marvin and Wolfgang Rollig. "Syrien" in Worterbuch der Mythologie, ed. H.W. Haussig, vol. 1. Stuttgart, 1965.




  • Tarragon, Jean-Michel de. Le culte a Ugarit Paris, 1980.




  • Xella Paolo. I testi rituali de Ugarit, Rome 1981.




  • Redford, D. Egypt, Cannan, and Israel in Ancient Times,

Zoroastriansim




  • Bailey, H.W. Zoroastrian Problems in the Ninth Century Books. Oxford, 1943.




  • Benveniste, Emile. The Persian Religion according to the Chief Greek Texts. Paris, 1929.




  • Besant, Annie Wood. Zoroastrianism, Kessinger Publishing Company, 2005.




  • Bianchi, Ugo. Zaman i Ohrmazd: Lo zoroastrismo nelle sue origini e nella sua essenza. Turin, 1958.




  • Boyce, Mary. A History of Zoroastrianism. 2 vols. Leiden, 1975,1982. (Excellent recent study.)




  • Boyce, Mary. A Persian Stronghold of Zoroastrianism, Oxford, 1977. (Modern Zoroastrianism in Islamic Iran.)




  • Boyce, Mary. Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, London, 1979. (Medieval Zoroastrianism in medival, Islamic Iran.)




  • Boyce, Mary. Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism. Manchester, 1984.(Texts from various periods.)




  • Boyce, Mary. History of Zoroastrianism: Zoroastrianism under Macedonian and Roman Rule, vol. 3., Handbuch der Orientalistik Series, Brill, 1991.




  • Dhalla, M.N. Zoroastrian Theology. New York, 1914. (Old, a bit dated, but useful.)




  • Dhalla, M.N. History of Zoroastrianism. New York, 1938.(Old, a bit dated, but useful.)




  • Duchesne-Guillelmin, Jaques. La religion de l'Iran ancien. Paris, 1962.(Excellent recent study.)




  • Duchesne-Guillelmin, Jaques. Zoroastre: Etude critique avec une traduction commentee des Gathas. Paris, 1948. (Following Dumezil.)




  • Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques. Symbolik des Parsismus. Stuttgart, 1961.




  • Duchesne-Guillemin, Jaques. The Western Response to Zoroaster. Oxford, 1958.




  • Duchesne-Guillemin, Jaques. "L'Iran antique et Zoroastre," Histoire des Religions, vol.1 (Paris, 1970), 625-694.




  • Duchesne-Guillemin, Jaques. "L'eglise sassanide et le mazdeisme," Histoire des Religions, vol.2 (Paris, 1970), 3-32.




  • Eliade, Micea. "Zarathustra and the Iranian Religion,"History of Religions Ideas, vol. 1 (Chicago, 1982), 302-333.



  • Eliade, Micea. "New Iranian Syntheses," History of Religions, vol. 2 (Chicago 1982>, 306-329.




  • Gnoli, Gherardo. Zoroaster's Time and Homeland: A Study on the Origins of Mazdeism and Related Problems. Naples, 1980.







  • Herzfeld, Ernst. Zoroaster and His World, 2 vols.(1947; reprintNew York, 1973).




  • Kingsley, P. "The Greek Origin of the sixth-century dating of Zoroaster," Bulletin of the Society of Oriental and African Studies, 53 (1990), 245-64.




  • Lommel, Herman. Die Religion Zarathustras nach dem Awesta dargestellt. Tubingen, 1930.




  • Modi, J.J. The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees, 2nd. ed. Bombay, 1937.




  • Mole, Marijan. L'Iran ancien. Paris, 1965.




  • Moulton, J.H. Early Zoroastrianism. London, 1913.




  • Neusner, Jacob. Judaism and Zoroastrianism at the Dusk of Late Antiquity: How Two Ancient Faiths Wrote Down Their Great Traditions, USF Studies in the History of Judaism, #87, 1993.




  • Nyberg, H. S. Irans forntida religioner. Stockholm, 1937.




  • Nyberg, H.S. "Questions de cosmogonie et de cosmologie mazdeennes," Journal Asiatique, (1929), 193-139 and (1931), 1-134, 193-244.







  • Pettazzoni, Raffaele. La religione di Zarathustra nella storia religiosa dell'Iran. Bologna, 1920.




  • Waterhouse, John W. Zoroastrianism, Pierides Press, 2007.




  • Widengren, Geo. Die Religionen Irans. Stutgart, 1965. (Excellent recent study.)




  • Widengren, G. Hochgottglaube im alten Iran. Uppsala, 1938.




  • Widengren, G. "Leitende Ideen und Quellen der iranischen Apokalyptik," Apocalypticism in the Mediterranean World and the Near East, Tubingen, 1983, 77-162.




  • Wikander, Stig. Feuerpriester in Lkeinasien und Iran. Lund, 1946.




  • Zaehner, R.C. Zurvan: A Zoroastrian Dilemma. Oxford, 1955.




  • Zaehner, R.C. The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism. London, 1961, rept.London, 1976).

Aegean and Minoan Religions







  • Evans, Arthur. The Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult and Its Mediterranean Relations. London, 1901.




  • Evans, Arthur. The Palace of Minos. 4 vols. London, 1921-1936.




  • Hockmann, Olof. "Cycladic Religion," Art and Culture of the Cyclades in the Third Millenium B.C. ed. Thimme, J. et. al., Chicago, 1970.




  • Marinatos, Nanno. Art and Religion in Thera, Athens, 1984.




  • Nilsson, Martin P. The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in Greek Religion, 2nd ed., Lund, 1950.
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