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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Barodontalgia, commonly known as tooth squeeze and previously known as aerodontalgia, is a pain in tooth caused by a change in atmospheric pressure. The pain usually ceases at ground level. The most common victims are SCUBA divers because in deep dives pressures can increase by several atmospheres, and military pilots because of rapid changes. In pilots, barodontalgia may be severe enough to cause premature cessation of flights.

Most of the available data regarding barodontalgia is derived from high-altitude chamber simulations rather than actual flights. Barodontalgia prevalence was between 0.7% and 2% in the 1940s, and 0.3% in the 1960s.The rate of barodontalgia was about 1 case per 100 flight-years in the Israeli Air Force. During World War II, about one-tenth of American aircrews had one or more episodes of barodontalgia. In a recent study, 8.2% of 331 Israeli Air Force aircrews, reported at least one episode of barodontalgia.

Barodontalgia is a symptom of dental disease, for example inflammatory cyst in the mandible. Indeed, most of the common oral pathologies have been reported as possible sources of barodontalgia: dental caries, defective tooth restoration, pulpitis, pulp necrosis, apical periodontitis, periodontal pockets, impacted teeth, and mucous retention cysts. One exception is barodontalgia manifested as referred pain from barosinusitis or barotitis-media. The latter two conditions are generated from pressure changes rather than pressure-related flare-up of pre-existing conditions.

Dental Calculus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


What other examples of medical calculus do you know and how can they be treated?

Dental calculus = Heavy staining and calculus deposits exhibited on the lingual surface of the mandibular anterior teeth, along the gumline.

In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by the continual accumulation of minerals from saliva on plaque on the teeth. Its rough surface provides an ideal medium for further plaque formation, threatening the health of the gingiva (gums). Brushing and flossing can remove plaque from which calculus forms; however, once formed, it is too hard and firmly attached to be removed with a toothbrush. Calculus buildup can be removed with ultrasonic tools or unique hand instruments (such as a periodontal scaler).


Calcis, in Greek, was a term used for various kinds of stones, coming from the term for limestone. This spun off many modern words, including "calculate" (use stones for mathematical purposes), and "calculus", which came to be used, in the 18th century, for accidental or incidental mineral buildups in human and animal bodies, like kidney stones and minerals on teeth.

Fill in with the words below:

………….. accumulation causes the …………… to become irritated and inflamed, and this is referred to as ……………... When the gingiva become so irritated that there is a loss of the connective tissue …………. that attach the gums to the teeth and bone that surrounds the tooth, this is known as …………….. Because dental plaque is the sole cause of periodontitis, it is referred to as the primary …………... Plaque that remains in the oral cavity long enough will eventually calcify and become calculus. Calculus is ………. to gingival health because it serves as a ……… for increased plaque formation and retention; thus, calculus, along with everything else that causes a localized build-up of plaque, is referred to as a secondary ………… of periodontitis.

periodontitis gingiva fibers plaque

aetiology(2x) gingivitis trap detrimental


Calculus can form both along the gumline, where it is referred to as supragingival ("above the gum"), and within the narrow sulcus that exists between the teeth and the gingiva, where it is referred to as subgingival ("below the gum"). Calculus formation can result in a number of clinical manifestations, including bad breath, receding gums and chronically inflamed gingiva.

When plaque is supragingival, the bacterial content consists mostly of aerobic bacteria and yeast, or those bacteria which utilize and can survive in an environment containing oxygen. Subgingival plaque, however, is composed mainly of anaerobic bacteria, or those bacteria which cannot exist in an environment containing oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria are especially dangerous to the gingiva and the gingival fibers that attach the teeth to the gums, leading to periodontitis. Calculus tartar paste is commonly exhibited by humans. Almost all individuals with periodontitis exhibit considerable subgingival calculus deposits. These anaerobic bacteria have been linked to cardiovascular disease and mothers giving birth to pre-term low weight babies, but there is no conclusive evidence yet that periodontitis is a significant risk factor for either of these two conditions.

Prevention - The best way to prevent the build up of calculus is through twice daily toothbrushing and flossing and regular cleaning visits based on a schedule recommended by the dental health care provider. Calculus accumulates more easily in some individuals, requiring more frequent brushing and dental visits. There are also some external factors that facilitate the accumulation of calculus, including smoking and diabetes.


The gingival sulcus is an area of potential space between a tooth and the surrounding gingival tissue and is lined by sulcular epithelium. The depth of the sulcus (Latin for groove) is bounded by two entities: apically by the gingival fibers of the connective tissue attachment and coronally by the free gingival margin.


what are the clinical manifestations of dental calculus?

Which type of plaque consists of aerobic bacteria?

What is one visible sign of periodontitis?

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