Ballston spa high school advanced Placement United States History spring semester january 2012



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Chapter #38: The Stormy Sixties – Big Picture Themes


1. John Kennedy bumbled over foreign policy with his failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba; then redeemed himself by standing up to the U.S.S.R. in the Cuban Missile Crisis.

2. JFK also sent U.S. “advisors” to South Vietnam. The goal was to prevent communist North Vietnam from taking over non-communist South Vietnam.

3. The Civil Rights Movement gained steam and reached full boil with Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream Speech.” The Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act were large steps forward toward ending discrimination.

4. Lyndon Baines Johnson fought two “wars”: (a) at home, he started the “Great Society” in attempt to make America the place everyone had dreamt it would be, (b) he significantly escalated the U.S. presence in Vietnam after the Tonkin Gulf Incident.

5. Culturally, young people rebelled against the conformity of the 50s. In the 60s, the norm for many became to not follow the norm. This was seen mostly in the hippies, in music, in drug use, and in the idea of “questioning authority.”

Chapter #38: IDENTIFCATIONS
Robert F. Kennedy
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Robert S. McNamara
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Martin Luther King, Jr
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Lee Harvey Oswald
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Barry Goldwater


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Malcolm X
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Stokely Carmichael
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Eugene McCarthy
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Hubert H. Humphrey
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George Wallace
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Flexible response
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Credibility Gap
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New Frontier
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Peace Corps


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Alliance of Progress
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Bay of Pigs Invasion
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Cuban Missile Crisis
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Great Society
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Tonkin Gulf Resolution
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Civil Right Act of 1964
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Voting Rights Act
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Tet Offensive
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Chapter #38 Guided Reading Questions
Kennedy's "New Frontier" Spirit

Know: John F. Kennedy, Jacqueline Kennedy, Bobby Kennedy, J. Edgar Hoover, Robert McNamara, Peace Corps

1. What was new about the New Frontier?
The New Frontier at Home

2. Assess the effectiveness of New Frontier domestic policies.


Rumblings in Europe

Know: Berlin Wall, Common Market, Trade Expansion Act, Charles de Gaulle

3. Describe Kennedy's relationship with Western Europe.


Foreign Flare-ups and "Flexible Response"

Know: Congo, Laos, Robert McNamara, Flexible Response

4. Why did Kennedy believe that a policy of flexible response could better meet the foreign problems of the 1960s?


Stepping into the Vietnam Quagmire

Know: Ngo Dinh Diem, Viet Cong

5. Why was it difficult to use flexible response to deal with the situation in South Vietnam?

Cuban Confrontations

Know: Alliance for Progress, Fidel Castro, Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis, Nikita Khrushchev, Quarantine, Hot Line

6. How could Cuba be considered the low and the high of Kennedy's foreign policy?

The Struggle for Civil Rights

Know: Freedom Riders, Martin Luther King Jr., SNCC, James Meredith, Birmingham, March on Washington, "I Have a Dream," Medgar Evers

7. Were Kennedy's civil rights actions more the cause of events or a reaction to events in the civil rights movement?

The Killing of Kennedy

Know: Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby, Warren Commission

8. What was the reaction to Kennedy's assassination? Why?


The LBJ Brand on the Presidency

Know: Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Johnson Treatment, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Affirmative Action, War on Poverty, Great Society, The Other America

9. Did Johnson provide good leadership to the country in his first term? Explain.


Johnson Battles Goldwater in 1964

Know: Barry Goldwater, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

10. Your book says that the 1964 election was a contest between distinctly different political philosophies. Explain this idea?
The Great Society Congress

Know: Department of Housing and Urban Development, Medicare, Medicaid, Entitlements, Immigration and Nationality Act, Head Start

11. In what ways could it be said that 1964-68 marked some of the most liberal years for government in American history?


Battling for Black Rights

Know: Voting Rights Act of 1965, The Twenty-fourth Amendment, Freedom Summer, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, Selma

12. What forward steps toward voting for African-Americans were made in the mid-1960s?

Black Power

Know: Watts, Malcolm X, Elijah Muhammed, Black Panthers, Stokely Carmichael

13. Why did African-Americans turn from non-violence in the late 1960s?

Combating Communism in Two Hemispheres

Know: Operation Rolling Thunder, Guerrilla Warfare

14. Why did President Johnson increase America's military presence in Vietnam?

Vietnam Vexations

Know: Six-Day War, Teach-ins, William Fulbright, Credibility Gap, Cointelpro

15. Describe the negative consequences of the Vietnam War.

Vietnam Topples Johnson

Know: Tet Offensive, Eugene McCarthy

16. Why did President Johnson decide not to run for re-election in 1968?

The Presidential Sweepstakes of 1968

Know: Hubert Humphrey, Robert Kennedy, Democratic Convention, Richard Nixon, George Wallace

17. Why was the 1968 presidential election an interesting one?

Victory for Nixon

18. "Nixon had received no clear mandate to do anything [in the 1968 election]." Explain.




The Obituary of Lyndon Johnson

19. It could be said that few presidents were as great a success or as great a failure as Lyndon Johnson. Assess.




The Cultural Upheaval of the 1960s

Know: Berkeley, Sexual Revolution, Stonewall Inn, Students for a Democratic Society, LSD

20. Why did a 1960s counterculture develop and how was it expressed?
Varying Viewpoints: The Sixties: Constructive or Destructive?

21. How do you answer the question in the title of this section? Explain.



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