Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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parathion determination. The sensitivity of the assay was 3.20ng/ml, with a detection limit of 0.40ng/ml, and the assay time was 1.5h. The average recoveries of parathion in river water, rice, cucumber, green soy bean, and cabbage were 98.56%, 89.46%, 99.25%, 118.57%, and 101.39%, respectively. In addition, when rice and cabbage extracts were analyzed by the assay and HPLC, the correlation was greater than 0.9.
Keywords: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), parathion, reaction format
ISI Document Delivery No.: 520AL

803. Liu, Y. H. Liu Y. H.; Chen, J. A.; Guo, Y. R.; Wang, C. M.; Liang, X. A., and Zhu, G. N. A sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chlorpyrifos residue determination in chinese agricultural samples. 2011; 46, (4): 313-320.


Rec #: 64189
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A monoclonal antibody-based competitive antibody-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and optimized for determining chlorpyrifos residue in agricultural products. The IC50 and IC10 of this ELISA were 3.3 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL respectively. The average recoveries in six agricultural products were between 79.5% and 118.0%, with the intra-assay coefficient of variation being less than 8 %. The limit of detection for all tested products was 30 ng/g. To the best of our knowledge, this assay has the best specificity among all the published research on ELISAs for chlorpyrifos.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, monoclonal antibody, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
ISI Document Delivery No.: 750UO

804. Liu, Z.; Yang, C., and Qiao, C. L. Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol and 4-chlorophenol by Stenotrophomonas sp. 2007; 277, (2): 150-156.


Rec #: 64199
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A bacterium named LZ-1 capable of utilizing high concentrations of p-nitrophenol (PNP) (up to 500 mg L(-1)) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy was isolated from an activated sludge. Based on the results of phenotypic features and phylogenetic similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain LZ-1 was identified as a Stenotrophomonas sp. Other p-substituted phenols such as 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) were also degraded by strain LZ-1, and both PNP and 4-CP were degraded via the hydroquinone pathway exclusively. Strain LZ-1 could degrade PNP and 4-CP simultaneously and the degradation of PNP was greatly accelerated due to the increased biomass supported by 4-CP. An indigenous plasmid was found to be responsible for phenols degradation. In soil samples, 100 mg kg(-1) of PNP and 4-CP in mixtures were removed by strain LZ-1 (10(6) cells g(-1)) within 14 and 16 days respectively, and degradation activity was maintained over a wide range of temperatures (4-35 degrees C). Therefore, strain LZ-1 can potentially be used in bioremediation of phenolic compounds either individually or as a mixture in the environment.
Keywords: simultaneous degradation, p-nitrophenol, 4-chlorophenol, hydroquinone
ISI Document Delivery No.: 234UV

805. Liyasova, M.; Li, B.; Schopfer, L. M.; Nachon, F.; Masson, P.; Furlong, C. E., and Lockridge, O. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers. 2011; 256, (3): 337-347.


Rec #: 64219
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such "fume events". Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Aerotoxic syndrome, Butyrylcholinesterase, Mass spectrometry, Tricresyl
ISI Document Delivery No.: 850GX

806. Liyasova, M. S.; Schopfer, L. M., and Lockridge, O. Cresyl Saligenin Phosphate, an Organophosphorus Toxicant, Makes Covalent Adducts with Histidine, Lysine, and Tyrosine Residues of Human Serum Albumin. 2012; 25, (8): 1752-1761.


Rec #: 64229
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: CBDP [2-(2-cresyl)-4H-1-3-2-benzodioxaphosphorin-2-oxide] is a toxic organophosphorus compound. It is generated in vivo from tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), a component of jet engine oil and hydraulic fluids. Exposure to TOCP was proven to occur on board aircraft by finding CBDP-derived phospho-butyrylcholinesterase in the blood of passengers. Adducts on BChE, however, do not explain the toxicity of CBDP. Critical target proteins of CBDP are yet to be identified. Our goal was to facilitate the search for the critical targets of CBDP by determining the range of amino acid residues capable of reacting with CBDP and characterizing the types of adducts formed. We used human albumin as a model protein. Mass spectral analysis of the tryptic digest of CBDP-treated human albumin revealed adducts on His-67, His-146, His-242, His-247, His-338, Tyr-138, Tyr-140, Lys-199, Lys-351, Lys-414, Lys-432, and Lys-525. Adducts formed on tyrosine residues were different from those formed on histidines and lysines. Tyrosines were organophosphorylated by CBDP, while histidine and lysine residues were alkylated. This is the first report of an organophosphorus compound with both phosphorylating and alkylating properties. The o-hydroxybenzyl adduct on histidine is novel. The ability of CBDP to form stable adducts on histidine, tyrosine, and lysine allows one to consider new mechanisms of toxicity from TOCP exposure.
Keywords: TANDEM MASS-SPECTROMETRY, ACTIVE-SITE SERINE, ATP-CITRATE LYASE,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 990IS

807. Lizotte Jr, Richard E; Knight, Scott S, and Bryant, Charles T. Sediment Quality Assessment of Beasley Lake: Bioaccumulation and Effects of Pesticides in Hyalella Azteca. 2010 Dec; 26, (6): 411-424.


Rec #: 47579
Keywords: SEDIMENT CONC
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Beasley Lake is a Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP) watershed in the intensively cultivated Mississippi Delta, USA. Lake sediment quality at three sites was evaluated in 2004 and 2008 for biological impairment and uptake (animal tissue pesticide residues) from 14 pesticides and three metabolites using Hyalella azteca (Saussure). Eleven pesticides and three metabolites were detected in sediment among the three sites in 2004 and all 17 compounds examined were detected among the three sites in 2008, with the herbicide atrazine having the greatest concentrations. Twenty-eight-day H. azteca survival and growth (mg w/w) indicated no survival effects at any site for either year, but growth impairment occurred in H. azteca exposed to sediments in 2004, whereas growth enhancement occurred in H. azteca exposed to sediments at one site in 2008. Pesticides observed in animal tissue pesticide residues occurred more frequently and in greater concentrations in 2004 compared with 2008. Thirteen pesticides were detected in animal tissue pesticide residues in 2004, with chlorpyrifos occurring in the greatest concentrations, and six pesticides were detected in 2008, with p,p'-DDT occurring in the greatest concentrations. H. azteca tissue pesticide residues of seven pesticides, two herbicides, three insecticides, one insecticide metabolite, and p,p'-DDT, were associated with growth.
Keywords: Biology--Biochemistry
Copyright - Copyright Taylor & Francis Ltd. Dec 2010
Language of summary - English
Pages - 411-424
ProQuest ID - 875248309
Last updated - 2011-09-13
Place of publication - Abingdon
Corporate institution author - Lizotte Jr, Richard E; Knight, Scott S; Bryant, Charles T
DOI - 2392995641; 59153031; 127425; CHEC; TYFRCHEC930670625 English

808. Lizotte, Richard E; Knight, Scott S; Cooper, Charles M, and Lizotte, Richard E. Toxicity Evaluation of a Conservation Effects Assessment Program Watershed, Beasley Lake, in the Mississippi Delta, Usa. 2010 Apr; 84, (4): 422-426.


Rec #: 47969
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Beasley Lake was assessed monthly in 2005 for biological impairment from 17 historic and current-use pesticides in water and leaf litter using Hyalella azteca (Saussure). Sixteen pesticides were detected in both water and leaf litter with peak detections in spring and summer. Detections ranged from 1-125ng L super(-1) in water and 1-539ngg super(-1) OC in leaf litter. Ten-day H. azteca survival and growth (mg dw) bioassay results indicated no adverse effects on survival or growth in H. azteca exposed to water or leaf litter. Rather, enhanced growth occurred in both lake water and leaf litter exposures for 8 and 6months, respectively.
Keywords: Historical account
Keywords: Survival
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: ASW, USA, Louisiana, Mississippi Delta
Keywords: Deltas
Keywords: Watersheds
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Evaluation
Keywords: Lakes
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: deltas
Keywords: leaf litter
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Litter
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Hyalella azteca
Keywords: Leaf litter
Keywords: Bioassays
Keywords: Water Pollution Effects
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Conservation
Keywords: summer
Keywords: survival
Keywords: Side effects
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Location - ASW, USA, Louisiana, Mississippi Delta
Pages - 422-426
ProQuest ID - 810005362
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Leaf litter; Lakes; Pesticides; Conservation; Survival; Toxicity; Watersheds; Side effects; Historical account; Bioassays; deltas; summer; leaf litter; survival; Evaluation; Litter; Agricultural Chemicals; Water Pollution Effects; Deltas; Hyalella azteca; ASW, USA, Louisiana, Mississippi Delta
Last updated - 2011-10-25
Corporate institution author - Lizotte, Richard E; Knight, Scott S; Cooper, Charles M
DOI - OB-5d2dceaf-3357-4aed-870cmfgefd101; 12668426; 0007-4861; 1432-0800 English

809. Lockridge, O. and Schopfer, L. M. Review of tyrosine and lysine as new motifs for organophosphate binding to proteins that have no active site serine. 2010; 187, (1-3): 344-348.


Rec #: 64259
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The accepted target for organophosphorus agent (OP) binding to enzymes is the active site serine in the consensus sequence Gly X Ser X Gly. New motifs have been identified by using mass spectrometry to fragment OP-labeled peptides. It has been found that OP can make covalent bonds with tyrosine and lysine in proteins that have no active site serine. The OP-tyrosine bond is stable, and does not undergo the decay seen with OP-serine. Information on OP binding to tyrosine has been applied to diagnosis of OP exposure, through the use of mass spectrometry to detect OP-labeled albumin in human and animal plasma. It is expected that the new OP binding motif will aid in the search for a mechanism of low dose OP toxicity. It is hypothesized that proteins involved in axonal transport, especially proteins whose function depends on reversible phosphorylation, are prime candidates fora role in OP-induced neurodegeneration. Treatment of neurodegenerative disorders could be developed by identifying methods to reverse OP binding to tyrosine. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pesticides, Nerve agents, Organophosphorus agents, Tyrosine, Lysine
ISI Document Delivery No.: 641EW

810. Lockridge, O.; Xue, W. H.; Gaydess, A.; Grigoryan, H.; Ding, S. J.; Schopfer, L. M.; Hinrichs, S. H., and Masson, P. Pseudo-esterase activity of human albumin - Slow turnover on tyrosine 411 and stable acetylation of 82 residues including 59 lysines. 2008; 283, (33): 22582-22590.


Rec #: 64269
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Human albumin is thought to hydrolyze esters because multiple equivalents of product are formed for each equivalent of albumin. Esterase activity with p-nitrophenyl acetate has been attributed to turnover at tyrosine 411. However, p-nitrophenyl acetate creates multiple, stable, acetylated adducts, a property contrary to turnover. Our goal was to identify residues that become acetylated by p-nitrophenyl acetate and determine the relationship between stable adduct formation and turnover. Fatty acid-free human albumin was treated with 0.5mM p-nitrophenyl acetate for 5 min to 2 weeks, or with 10mMp-nitrophenyl acetate for 48 h to 2 weeks. Aliquots were digested with pepsin, trypsin, or GluC and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify labeled residues. Only Tyr-411 was acetylated within the first 5 min of reaction with 0.5 mM p-nitrophenyl acetate. After 0.5 -6 h there was partial acetylation of 16 -17 residues including Asp-1, Lys-4, Lys-12, Tyr-411, Lys-413, and Lys-414. Treatment with 10 mM p-nitrophenyl acetate resulted in acetylation of 59 lysines, 10 serines, 8 threonines, 4 tyrosines, and Asp-1. When Tyr-411 was blocked with diisopropylfluorophosphate or chlorpyrifos oxon, albumin had normal esterase activity with beta-naphthyl acetate as visualized on a nondenaturing gel. However, after 82 residues had been acetylated, esterase activity was almost completely inhibited. The half-life for deacetylation of Tyr-411 at pH 8.0, 22 degrees C was 61 +/- 4 h. Acetylated lysines formed adducts that were even more stable. In conclusion, the pseudo-esterase activity of albumin is the result of irreversible acetylation of 82 residues and is not the result of turnover.
Keywords: HUMAN-SERUM-ALBUMIN, ARYL ACYLAMIDASE ACTIVITY, PARA-NITROPHENYL
ISI Document Delivery No.: 335VR

811. Loewy, Ruth M; Monza, Liliana B; Kirs, Veronica E; Savini, Monica C, and Monza, Liliana B. Pesticide Distribution in an Agricultural Environment in Argentina. 2011; 46, (8): 662-670.


Rec #: 43669
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An assessment of the off-site migration of pesticides from agricultural activity into the environment in the Neuquen River Valley was performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of pesticides in several compartments of a small agricultural sub-catchment. Soil, surface water, shallow groundwater and drift deposition were analyzed for pesticide residues. Results showed the presence of some pesticide residues in soil, surface water and shallow groundwater compartments. The highest detection frequencies in water (surface and subsurface) were found for azinphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos (>70%). In terms of concentration, the highest levels were observed in shallow groundwater for azinphos methyl (22.5 is a subset of g/L) and carbaryl (45.7 is a subset of g/L). In the soil, even before the application period had started, accumulation of residues was present. These residues increased during the period studied. Spray drift during pesticide application was found to be a significant pathway for the migration of pesticide residues in surface water, while leaching and preferential flows were the main transport routes contributing to subsurface contamination.
Keywords: migration
Keywords: Pollution detection
Keywords: Leaching
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Sprays
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Argentina
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Argentina, Neuquen, Neuquen R.
Keywords: Groundwater
Date revised - 2011-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Argentina; Argentina, Neuquen, Neuquen R.
Pages - 662-670
ProQuest ID - 907192199
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Soil; migration; Leaching; Pollution detection; Pesticide residues; Surface water; Sprays; Groundwater; Argentina; Argentina, Neuquen, Neuquen R.
Last updated - 2012-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes [J. Environ. Sci. Health, Pt. B: Pestic., Food Contam., Agric. Wastes]. Vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 662-670. 2011.
Corporate institution author - Loewy, Ruth M; Monza, Liliana B; Kirs, Veronica E; Savini, Monica C
DOI - b09b9175-976d-42d9-86cacsamfg201; 15680992; 0360-1234; 1532-4109 English

812. London, L.; Beseler, C.; Bouchard, M. F.; Bellinger, D. C.; Colosio, C.; Grandjean, P.; Harari, R.; Kootbodien, T.; Kromhout, H.; Little, F.; Meijster, T.; Moretto, A.; Rohlman, D. S., and Stallones, L. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures. 2012; 33, (4): 887-896.


Rec #: 64289
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and nonoccupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or prenatal exposure. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pesticides, Neurobehavioral, Neurodevelopmental, Toxicity, Acute
ISI Document Delivery No.: 990FU

813. Longley, M. A Review of Pesticide Effects upon Immature Aphid Parasitoids Within Mummified Hosts. 1999; 45, (2): 139-145.


Rec #: 200
Keywords: REFS CHECKED,REVIEW
Call Number: NO REFS CHECKED (ACP,AZ,BFT,CBL,CPY,CYF,CYP,DCTP,DM,DMT,DZ,EFV,ES,FNT,FNV,FPP,FVL,LCYT,MDT,MLN,MOM,MTM,MVP,TCF,TLM), NO REVIEW (ACP,AZ,BFT,CBL,CPY,CYF,CYP,DCTP,DM,DMT,DZ,EFV,ES,FNT,FNV,FPP,FVL,LCYT,MDT,MLN,MOM,MTM,MVP,TCF,TLM)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACP,AZ,BFT,CBL,CPY,CYF,CYP,DCTP,DEM,DM,DMT,DZ,EFV,EPRN,ES,ETN,FNT,FNV,FPP,FVL,HCCH,LCYT,MDT,MLN,MOM,MTM,MVP,PHSL,PIM,PPCP,PPHD,PRN,TCF,TLM

814. Lopez, Lylliam; Blanco, Luis; Aragon, Aurora; Partanen, Timo, and Lopez, Lylliam. Insecticide Residues on Hands: Assessment and Modeling With Video Observations of Determinants of Exposure--a Study Among Subsistence Farmers in Nicaragua. 2009 Mar; 6, (3): 157-164.


Rec #: 44999
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This investigation quantitatively assessed hand residues of chlorpyrifos and methamidophos in a field setting and sought to explain the residues through application volume and determinants of exposure using application data for 28 subsistence farmers in the Pacific Region of Nicaragua. Hand residues were estimated by recovery of the pesticides by standardized wipe sampling for both hands, analyzed with solvent extraction and gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Application volumes were based on data on individual spraying rates and mixing volumes. Eleven determinants of exposure, related to work practices during mixing and spraying of the pesticides, were assessed for each subject from videotapes. Correlation and regression analyses estimated the associations between hand residues, application volume, pesticide type, and determinants of exposure. Correlations between residues for different hand parts were high (r 0.75-0.98). Total hand residue (sum of residues of parts of both hands) correlated with application volume (r 0.43, p 0.02), not washing hands (r 0.41, p 0.04), spraying nozzle forward (r 0.26, p 0.17), manipulation of hose (r 0.32, p .09), and insecticide type (chlorpyrifos vs. methamidophos; r 0.31, p 0.10). A model that explained total hand residue with these five variables yielded a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.67 (p 0.01). Unmeasured determinants and/or narrow range of the exposure situation probably account for the unexplained variance of the residues.
Keywords: Solvent extraction
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: methamidophos
Keywords: Residues
Keywords: Solvents
Keywords: Hand
Keywords: H 1000:Occupational Safety and Health
Keywords: Spraying
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: ASW, Nicaragua
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Regression analysis
Keywords: I, Pacific
Keywords: Standards
Keywords: Sampling
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Environmental hygiene
Date revised - 2009-04-01
Language of summary - English
Location - ASW, Nicaragua; I, Pacific
Pages - 157-164
ProQuest ID - 20423126
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - ASW, Nicaragua; I, Pacific; Residues; Pesticides; Insecticides; Chlorpyrifos; Standards; Gas chromatography; Solvent extraction; Hand; Spraying; methamidophos; Data processing; Sampling; Models; Solvents; Environmental hygiene; Regression analysis
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene [J. Occup. Environ. Hyg.]. Vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 157-164. Mar 2009.
Corporate institution author - Lopez, Lylliam; Blanco, Luis; Aragon, Aurora; Partanen, Timo
DOI - MD-0009453591; 9095011; 1545-9624; 1545-9632 English

815. Lovasi, Gina S; Quinn, James W; Rauh, Virginia a; Perera, Frederica P; Andrews, Howard F; Garfinkel, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Whyatt, Robin; Rundle, Andrew, and Lovasi, Gina S. Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Urban Residential Environment Characteristics as Determinants of Early Childhood Neurodevelopment. 2011; 101, (1): 63-70.


Rec #: 40039
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether neighborhood characteristics correlated with early neurodevelopment and whether these characteristics confounded the previously reported association between exposure to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate insecticide) and neurodevelopment. METHODS: We obtained prenatal addresses, chlorpyrifos exposure data, and 36-month Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) scores for a birth cohort in New York City (born 1998-2002). We used data from the 2000 US Census to estimate measures of physical infrastructure, socioeconomic status, crowding, demographic composition, and linguistic isolation for 1-kilometer network areas around each child's prenatal address. Generalized estimating equations were adjusted for demographics, maternal education and IQ, prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, caretaking environment quality, and building dilapidation. RESULTS: Of 266 children included as participants, 47% were male, 59% were Dominican, and 41% were African American. For each standard deviation higher in neighborhood percent poverty, the PDI score was 2.6 points lower (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.7, -1.5), and the MDI score was 1.7 points lower (95% CI = -2.6, -0.8). Neighborhood-level confounding of the chlorpyrifos-neurodevelopment association was not apparent. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood context and chlorpyrifos exposure were independently associated with neurodevelopment, thus providing distinct opportunities for health promotion.
Keywords: demography
Keywords: Prenatal experience
Keywords: Public health
Keywords: Demography
Keywords: USA, New York, New York City
Keywords: X 24380:Social Poisons & Drug Abuse
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: poverty
Keywords: Tobacco
Keywords: Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; CSA Neurosciences Abstracts
Keywords: Urban areas
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Mathematical models
Keywords: Crowding
Keywords: N3 11003:Developmental neuroscience
Keywords: H 12000:Epidemiology and Public Health
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Smoke
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Socio-economic aspects
Keywords: Intelligence
Keywords: prenatal experience
Keywords: Standard deviation
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Africa
Keywords: Census
Keywords: Language
Keywords: Mental development
Date revised - 2011-03-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, New York, New York City; Africa
Pages - 63-70
ProQuest ID - 856765191
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Prenatal experience; Data processing; Mathematical models; Crowding; organophosphates; Children; Public health; Chlorpyrifos; Demography; Smoke; Intelligence; Socio-economic aspects; Insecticides; Standard deviation; Tobacco; Language; Census; Mental development; demography; prenatal experience; poverty; Pesticides; Urban areas; USA, New York, New York City; Africa
Last updated - 2012-04-06
British nursing index edition - American Journal of Public Health [Am. J. Public Health]. Vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 63-70. 2011.
Corporate institution author - Lovasi, Gina S; Quinn, James W; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Andrews, Howard F; Garfinkel, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Whyatt, Robin; Rundle, Andrew
DOI - 597201bc-55ce-4a02-a6a8csamfg201; 14047282; 0090-0036 English

816. Lu, C; Ban, D B; Pearson, Ma; Waller, La, and Lu, C. Dietary Intake and Its Contribution to Longitudinal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure in Urban/Suburban Children. 2008 Apr; 116, (4): 537-542.


Rec #: 46009
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background: The widespread use of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides has led to frequent exposure in adults and children. Because such exposure may cause adverse health effects, particularly in children, the sources and patterns of exposure need to be studied further. Objectives: We assessed young urban/suburban children's longitudinal exposure to OP pesticides in the Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES) conducted in the greater Seattle, Washington, area, and used a novel study design that allowed us to determine the contribution of dietary intake to the overall OP pesticide exposure. Methods: Twenty-three children 3-11 years of age who consumed only conventional diets were recruited for this 1-year study conducted in 2003-2004. Children switched to organic diets for 5 consecutive days in the summer and fall sampling seasons. We measured specific urinary metabolites for malathion, chlorpyrifos, and other OP pesticides in urine samples collected twice daily for a period of 7, 12, or 15 consecutive days during each of the four seasons. Results: By substituting organic fresh fruits and vegetables for corresponding conventional food items, the median urinary metabolite concentrations were reduced to nondetected or close to non-detected levels for malathion and chlorpyrifos at the end of the 5-day organic diet intervention period in both summer and fall seasons. We also observed a seasonal effect on the OP urinary metabolite concentrations, and this seasonality corresponds to the consumption of fresh produce throughout the year. Conclusions: The findings from this study demonstrate that dietary intake of OP pesticides represents the major source of exposure in young children.
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Fruits
Keywords: Age
Keywords: Vegetables
Keywords: Food
Keywords: fruits
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Ingestion
Keywords: P 6000:TOXICOLOGY AND HEALTH
Keywords: Dietary intake
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Sulfur dioxide
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: intervention
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: summer
Keywords: INE, USA, Washington, Seattle
Keywords: Sampling
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Seasonal variations
Date revised - 2008-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - INE, USA, Washington, Seattle
Pages - 537-542
ProQuest ID - 20659355
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pesticides (organophosphorus); Fruits; Vegetables; Age; Food; Metabolites; Children; Dietary intake; Malathion; Chlorpyrifos; Urine; Pesticides; Sampling; Seasonal variations; Diets; fruits; Ingestion; Sulfur dioxide; intervention; summer; INE, USA, Washington, Seattle
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Environmental Health Perspectives [Environ. Health Perspect.]. Vol. 116, no. 4, pp. 537-542. Apr 2008.
Corporate institution author - Ban, D B; Pearson, MA; Waller, LA
DOI - MD-0008078154; 8179598; 0091-6765 English

817. Lu, Chensheng; Holbrook, Christina M, and Andres, Leo M. The Implications of Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Model for Pesticide Risk Assessment. 2010 Jan; 118, (1): 125-30.


Rec #: 44329
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model would make it possible to simulate the dynamics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) from different routes of exposures and, in theory, could be used to evaluate associations between exposures and biomarker measurements in blood or urine. We used a PBPK model to predict urinary excretion of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), the specific metabolite of chlorpyrifos (CPF), in young children. We developed a child-specific PBPK model for CPF using PBPK models previously developed for rats and adult humans. Data used in the model simulation were collected from 13 children 36 years of age who participated in a cross-sectional pesticide exposure assessment study with repeated environmental and biological sampling. The model-predicted urinary TCPY excretion estimates were consistent with measured levels for 2 children with two 24-hr duplicate food samples that contained 350 and 12 ng/g of CPF, respectively. However, we found that the majority of model outputs underpredicted the measured urinary TCPY excretion. We concluded that the potential measurement errors associated with the aggregate exposure measurements will probably limit the applicability of PBPK model estimates for interpreting urinary TCPY excretion and absorbed CPF dose from multiple sources of exposure. However, recent changes in organophosphorus (OP) use have shifted exposures from multipathways to dietary ingestion only. Thus, we concluded that the PBPK model is still a valuable tool for converting dietary pesticide exposures to absorbed dose estimates when the model input data are accurate estimates of dietary pesticide exposures.
Keywords: Pyridones -- urine
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Child
Keywords: Models, Biological
Keywords: Risk Assessment
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Pesticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Rats
Keywords: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol
Keywords: Pyridones
Keywords: Pesticide Residues -- urine
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- pharmacokinetics
Keywords: Food Contamination -- analysis
Keywords: Pesticide Residues
Keywords: Pesticides -- pharmacokinetics
Keywords: Child, Preschool
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Environmental Monitoring
Keywords: Cross-Sectional Studies
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Environmental Exposure
Keywords: Biological Markers
Keywords: Biological Markers -- urine
Copyright - Copyright National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Jan 2010
Language of summary - English
Pages - 125-30
ProQuest ID - 222650927
Last updated - 2012-10-24
Place of publication - Research Triangle Park
Corporate institution author - Lu, Chensheng; Holbrook, Christina M; Andres, Leo M
DOI - 1943895781; 50348511; 67001; ENHP; 20056589; INODENHP0006208120
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Zhang X, Tsang AM, Okino MS. Power FW, Knaak JB, Dary CC. 2007. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for carbofuran in Sprague-Dawley rats using the Exposure Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM). Toxicol Sci 100(2):345-359.
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Blancato JN. 1994. Pharmacokinetics, chemical interactions, and toxicological risk assessment in perspective. Environ Health Perspect 102(suppl 9):133-137.
Chensheng Lu, Kathryn Toepel, Rene Irish, and Richard A Fenske. "Organic Diets Significantly Lower Children's Dietary Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides." Environmental Health Perspectives 114:2 Feb 2006: 260-3
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Fenske, Richard A., Kedan, Golan 2002 "Assessment of organophosphorous pesticide exposures in the diets of preschool children in Washington State" Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 12 1 21-28
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Griffin P, Mason H, Heywood K, Cocker J. 1999. Oral and dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos: a human volunteer study. Occup Environ Med 56(1):10-13.
Kissel, John C., Curl, Cynthia L. 2005 "Comparison of organophosphorus pesticide metabolite levels in single and multiple daily urine samples collected from preschool children in Washington State" Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 15 2 164-171
Koch D, Lu CA, Fisker-Andersen J, Jolley L, Fenske RA. 2002. Temporal association of children's pesticide exposure and agricultural spraying: report of a longitudinal biological monitoring study. Environ Health Perspect 110:829-833.
Lu, Chensheng, Knutson, Dianne E. 2001 "Biological monitoring survey of organophosphorous pesticide exposure among preschool children in the Seattle metropolitan area" Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 109 3 299-303
Lu, Chensheng, Pearson, Melanie A. 2008 "Dietary intake and its contribution to longitudinal organophosphorus pesticide exposure in urban/suburban children" Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 116 4 537-542
Lu C, Bravo R. Callable no LM, Irish RM, Weerasekera G, Barr DB. 2005. The presence of dialkylphosphates in fresh fruit juices: implication for organophosphorus pesticide exposure and risk assessments. J Toxicol Environ Health A 68(3):209-227.
Lu, C. S., Kedan, G. 2004 "Multipathway organophosphorus pesticide exposures of preschool children living in agricultural and nonagricultural communities." Environmental Research 96 3 283-289
Morgan, Marsha K., Sheldon, Linda S. 2005 "Exposures of preschool children to chlorpyrifos and its degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in their everyday environments" Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 15 4 297-309
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Rigas, Marc L., Okino, Miles S. 2001 "Use of a pharmacokinetic model to assess chlorpyrifos exposure and dose in children, based on urinary biomarker measurements" Toxicological Sciences 61 2 374-381
Simmons, JE, Boyes, W K 2002 "A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for trichloroethylene in the male Long-Evans rat" Toxicological Sciences 69 1 3-15
Timchalk, C., Nolan, R.J. 2002 "A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in rats and humans" Toxicological Sciences 66 1 34-53
Timchalk, C, Poet, T S 2005 "Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction for a binary mixture of chlorpyrifos and diazinon in the rat" Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 205 1 31-42
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Whyatt, Robin M., Barr, Dana B. 2001 "Measurement of organophosphate metabolites in postpartum meconium as a potential biomarker of prenatal exposure: A validation study" Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 109 4 417-420
Zhang X, Driver JH, Li Y, Ross JH, Krieger RI. 2008. Dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in fruits and vegetables may confound biomonitoring in organophosphorus insecticide exposure and risk assessment. J Agric Food Chem 56(22):10638-10645.
Zhang, Xiaofei, Tsang, Andy M. 2007 "A physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for carbofuran in Sprague-Dawley rats using the exposure-related dose estimating model" Toxicological Sciences 100 2 345-359 English

818. Lu, Chensheng; Rodriguez, Teresa; Thiravirojana-Thetkathuek, Anamai; Pearson, Melanie, and Lu, Chensheng. Feasibility of Using Salivary Biomarkers to Assess Human Exposure to Chlorpyrifos. 2008 Apr; 90, (2): 315-325.


Rec #: 42229
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using salivary biomarkers to assess chlorpyrifos exposure using data collected from laboratory controlled animal study, as well as from farmers in Thailand and Nicaragua who applied chlorpyrifos in the field. Time-matched saliva and arterial blood samples were collected from rats and adult agricultural workers, while spot saliva samples were collected from children. Specimen samples were analyzed for chlorpyrifos using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results from both animal and farmer studies show that chlorpyrifos is excreted into saliva. Nevertheless, salivary excretion of chlorpyrifos seems to differ from other pesticides, as evidenced by the lack of correspondence of chlorpyrifos levels between saliva and plasma samples. The lower chlorpyrifos concentrations in saliva collected from rats, and from farmers and their children, may have resulted from the rapid hydrolysis of chlorpyrifos during the intracellular passive diffusion in the salivary gland. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos is excreted into saliva; however, the majority of chlorpyrifos that is excreted in saliva may have been metabolized due to base-dependent hydrolysis. Because of this finding, it was hypothesized that it would be ideal to measure its metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol, in saliva as the biomarker for chlorpyrifos exposure.
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Salivary gland
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Hydrolysis
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Diffusion
Keywords: Excretion
Keywords: Saliva
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Date revised - 2009-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 315-325
ProQuest ID - 20289749
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Saliva; biomarkers; Hydrolysis; Children; Occupational exposure; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Excretion; Data processing; Diffusion; Metabolites; Salivary gland; Pesticides; Agriculture
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry [Toxicol. Environ. Chem.]. Vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 315-325. Apr 2008.
Corporate institution author - Lu, Chensheng; Rodriguez, Teresa; Thiravirojana-Thetkathuek, Anamai; Pearson, Melanie
DOI - MD-0009198819; 8882947; 0277-2248 English

819. Lu, D. S.; Qiu, X. L.; Feng, C.; Jin, Y.; Lin, Y. J.; Xiong, L. B.; Wen, Y. M.; Wang, D. L., and Wang, G. Q. Simultaneous determination of 45 pesticides in fruit and vegetable using an improved QuEChERS method and on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometer. 2012; 895, 17-24.


Rec #: 64449
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In this study, a method was developed to determine 45 selected pesticides (of different chemical families) in fruit and vegetable (including apple, spinach and cucumber). Samples were extracted using an improved QuEChERS method with salting out and phase separation in two steps. The target pesticides in concentrated extracts were analyzed by an on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (online-CPC-CC/MS). Online GPC effectively removed matrix interferences and greatly improved the method sensitivity, recoveries and automation. Method limits of quantification were 10 ng/g for uniconazole and metalaxyl, and 5 ng/g for other 43 target analytes. In three fruit and vegetable matrices each spiked with 45 pesticides (0.01 p,mu g/g), mean recoveries ranged from 80 to 118% for most of the tested pesticides except for profenofos (77% in apple) and chlorpyrifos (68% in apple and 75% in cucumber), with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 14%. The results of the proficiency testing showed that the method is very successful in measuring the certified pesticides with less than 1.3 of the absolute value of Z-score. This method has been applied for routinely monitoring pesticides in fresh fruit and vegetable. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: QuEChERS, On-line GPC-GC/MS, Pesticides, Fruit and vegetable
ISI Document Delivery No.: 936ZL

820. Lu, Jinky Leilanie and Lu, Jinky Leilanie. Insecticide Residues in Eggplant Fruits, Soil, and Water in the Largest Eggplant-Producing Area in the Philippines. 2011 Sep; 220, (1-4): 413-422.


Rec #: 39479
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This study looked into the insecticide residues in eggplant, soil, and water samples in the largest eggplant-producing community in the Philippines as well as to analyze the fate of insecticides. The study area consisted of eggplant farms in a community in the largest eggplant producer in the Philippines. A total of 20 of the environmental samples were taken from the farms and analyzed using gas chromatography. The samples were distributed spatially over a mean distance of 451 m (s.d.=20.2 m). For eggplant pesticide application, the mean spraying time of the farmers was 1.4 (sdv=0.53)h/day, 4.13 (sdv=1.9)days/week, 3.79 (sdv=0.22)weeks/month, and 1 year/cropping season. Forty percent of the farm samples of eggplants had positive reading of insecticides cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos between 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg. There was no positive reading for the 20 water samples. There was only one positive reading of chlorpyrifos in one farm out of 20 soil samples at 0.03 mg/kg. Although Prevathon and Malathion were used by all the farms for eggplant pesticide application, the liter-years of exposure to pesticide was very low for both (0.06, 0.56). Although Brodan and Magnum were not prevalently used, they had the highest liter-years of exposure to pesticide at 4.73 for chlorpyrifos, and 6.09 for cypermethrin. The amount and duration of use of insecticide is important in the determination of its persistence in vegetables and in the environment. In this study, Brodan was the largest and longest used insecticide for eggplants which explains why there was reading for both cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in the eggplants, but none for Malathion and chlorantraniliprole. The presence of insecticide in water, soil, and plants is also based on its environmental fate. Pesticide regulation and pesticide residue monitoring have been pursued to varying degrees of success in the Philippines, but implementation is considered inadequate. The study also suggests for better implementation of pesticide regulation.
Keywords: Philippines
Keywords: Atmospheric pollution
Keywords: Water sampling
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Insecticide residues
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Soil pollution
Keywords: cypermethrin
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: farms
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: M2 551.5:General (551.5)
Keywords: Seasonal variability
Keywords: ENA 01:Air Pollution
Date revised - 2011-09-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Philippines
Pages - 413-422
ProQuest ID - 888100410
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Soil pollution; Atmospheric pollution; Gas chromatography; Seasonal variability; Soil; Chlorpyrifos; cypermethrin; Insecticides; Water sampling; farms; Pesticides; Insecticide residues; Malathion; Philippines
Last updated - 2012-07-13
British nursing index edition - Water, Air, & Soil Pollution [Water, Air, Soil Pollut.]. Vol. 220, no. 1-4, pp. 413-422. Sep 2011.
Corporate institution author - Lu, Jinky Leilanie
DOI - 26f4b1c2-6b15-42fa-bbadmfgefd101; 15454168; 0049-6979; 1573-2932 English

821. Lu, Jinky Leilanie Del Prado and Lu, Jinky Leilanie Del Prado. Multipesticide Residue Assessment of Agricultural Soil and Water in Major Farming Areas in Benguet, Philippines. 2010 Aug; 59, ( 2): 175-181.


Rec #: 43939
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This study investigated the concentration and presence of pesticide residues in water and soil in Benguet, which is a vegetable producing region in the Philippines. Seventy-eight samples and 49 water samples were taken from different farms covering three municipalities in the province of Benguet and were analyzed using gas chromatography. Meteorological conditions of temperature and humidity were also taken. Thirty-four of the soil samples were found to be positive for pesticide residues. The most significant pesticide type with the highest concentration was technical endosulfan, with a mean concentration of 0.025mg/kg, followed by endosulfan sulfate (0.015mg/kg), chlorpyrifos (0.01mg/kg), profenofos (0.003mg/kg), chlorothanil, cypermethrin, and cylohathrin (all at 0.002mg/kg). One water sample was found to be positive for pesticide residue of chlorpyrifos in municipality 2 at a concentration of 0.07mg/L. The data also showed that endosulfan, which is restricted in the Philippines and banned in other countries, was found to be the most prevalent pesticide used (17.7%) and the second highest in concentration (0.015mg/kg) in soil samples. The study also showed a relationship between temperature and pesticide concentration in soil. In conclusion, pesticide residues were found in soil and water samples in the farming areas of Benguet.
Keywords: Environmental Engineering Abstracts (EN); CSA / ASCE Civil Engineering Abstracts (CE)
Date revised - 2013-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 175-181
ProQuest ID - 754880537
Last updated - 2013-01-07
British nursing index edition - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology [Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.]. Vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 175-181. Aug 2010.
DOI - b3ffb00f-a5c6-4b61-a60fmfgefd101; 13400705; 0090-4341; 1432-0703 English

822. Lu, Peng; Li, Qinfen; Liu, Hongming; Feng, Zhaozhong; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing, and Li, Shunpeng. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by Cupriavidus sp. DT-1. 2013 Jan; 127, (0): 337-342.


Rec #: 1430
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: A bacterial strain, Cupriavidus sp. DT-1, capable of degrading chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and using these compounds as sole carbon source was isolated and characterized. Investigation of the degradation pathway showed that chlorpyrifos was first hydrolyzed to TCP, successively dechlorinated to 2-pyridinol, and then subjected to the cleavage of the pyridine ring and further degradation. The mpd gene, encoding the enzyme responsible for chlorpyrifos hydrolysis to TCP, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Inoculation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with strain DT-1 resulted in a degradation rate of chlorpyrifos and TCP of 100% and 94.3%, respectively as compared to a rate of 28.2% and 19.9% in uninoculated soil. This finding suggests that strain DT-1 has potential for use in bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated environments. Cupriavidus sp. DT-1/ Chlorpyrifos/ 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol/ Degradation pathway

823. Lu, Q.; Chen, X.; Nie, L.; Luo, J.; Jiang, H.; Chen, L.; Hu, Q.; Du, S., and Zhang, Z. Tuning of the Vinyl Groups' Spacing at Surface of Modified Silica in Preparation of High Density Imprinted Layer-Coated Silica Nanoparticles: a Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction Materials for Chlorpyrifos.


Rec #: 77299
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: This paper reports the preparation of high density imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles toward selective recognition and fast enrichment of chlorpyrifos (CP) from complicated matrices. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were successfully coated at the surface of modified silica through using the chemical immovable vinyl groups at the nanoparticles' surface, followed by the graft copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of templates CP. It has been demonstrated that the space of end vinyl groups at the surface of silica can be controlled by changing the condition of chemical modification, regulating the thickness of imprinted shells and the density of efficient imprinted sites. After removal of templates by solvent extraction, the recognition sites of CP were created in the polymer coating layer. The CP-imprinted nanoparticles exhibited high recognition selectivity and binding affinity to CP analyte. When the CP-imprinted nanoparticles were used as dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) materials, the high recovery yields of 76.1-93.5% from various spiked samples with only 1microg/mL analyte were achieved by one-step extraction. These results reported herein provide the possibility for the separation and enrichment of CP from complicated matrices by the molecular imprinting modification at the surface of common silica nanoparticles.
MESH HEADINGS: Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Methacrylates/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Imprinting/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Nanoparticles/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Nanotechnology/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Pesticide Residues/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Pesticides/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Phosphates/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Polymers/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Silicon Dioxide/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Solid Phase Extraction/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Solvents/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Thermogravimetry eng

824. Luo, Y; Zhang, M, and Luo, Y. Management-Oriented Sensitivity Analysis for Pesticide Transport in Watershed-Scale Water Quality Modeling Using Swat. 2009 Dec; 157, (12): 3370-3378.


Rec #: 48249
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed.
Keywords: Freshwater
Keywords: Environmental Engineering Abstracts (EN); CSA / ASCE Civil Engineering Abstracts (CE)
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 3370-3378
ProQuest ID - 21083721
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Freshwater
Last updated - 2012-08-07
British nursing index edition - Environmental Pollution [Environ. Pollut.]. Vol. 157, no. 12, pp. 3370-3378. Dec 2009.
Corporate institution author - Luo, Y; Zhang, M
DOI - MD-0011005862; 11200845; CS1000097; 0269-7491 English

825. Luo, Y; Zhang, M, and Luo, Y. Multimedia Transport and Risk Assessment of Organophosphate Pesticides and a Case Study in the Northern San Joaquin Valley of California. 2009 May; 75, (7): 969-978.


Rec #: 48589
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This paper presents a framework for cumulative risk characterization of human exposure to pesticides through multiple exposure pathways. This framework is illustrated through a case study of selected organophosphate (OP) pesticides in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California. Chemical concentrations in environmental media were simulated using a multimedia environmental fate model, and converted to contamination levels in exposure media. The risk characterization in this study was based on a residential-scale exposure to residues of multiple pesticides through everyday activities. Doses from a mixture of OP pesticides that share a common mechanism of toxicity were estimated following US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for cumulative risk analysis. Uncertainty in the human exposure parameters was included in the Monte Carlo simulation in order to perform stochastic calculations for intakes and corresponding risks of OP pesticides. Risk of brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition was reported as margins of exposure (MOEs) of the 99.9th population percentile for two age groups living in the northern San Joaquin Valley during 1992-2005. Diet was identified as the dominant exposure pathway in cumulative exposure and risk, while the temporal trend and spatial variation in total MOE levels were associated with exposures to contaminated drinking water and ambient air. Uniformly higher risks were observed for children because of their greater inhalation and ingestion rates per body weight, relative to adults. The results indicated that exposures for children were about twice of those estimated for adults. Concerns over children's exposure to OP pesticide through food and water ingestion were suggested based on the spatiotemporal variations predicted for the subchronic MOEs at the 99.9th percentile of exposure in the study area.
Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation
Keywords: Inhalation
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Age
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Media (transport)
Keywords: Food
Keywords: USA, California, San Joaquin Valley
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Models
Keywords: spatial distribution
Keywords: spatial variations
Keywords: Body weight
Keywords: guidelines
Keywords: Risk factors
Keywords: USA, California
Keywords: body weight
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: age groups
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Residues
Keywords: valleys
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Brain
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: W 30935:Food Biotechnology
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Food contamination
Keywords: Ingestion
Keywords: Stochasticity
Keywords: case studies
Keywords: EPA
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: Drinking water
Date revised - 2009-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, California, San Joaquin Valley; USA, California
Pages - 969-978
ProQuest ID - 289647024
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - USA, California, San Joaquin Valley; USA, California; Pesticides; Toxicity; valleys; Children; Ingestion; case studies; Organophosphates; EPA; Drinking water; guidelines; body weight; spatial distribution; age groups; Monte Carlo simulation; Diets; Risk assessment; Brain; Inhalation; Residues; Media (transport); spatial variations; Acetylcholinesterase; Food; Food contamination; Stochasticity; Pesticides (organophosphorus); Risk factors; Models; Age; Body weight; organophosphates
Last updated - 2011-11-07
Corporate institution author - Luo, Y; Zhang, M
DOI - OB-MD-0009541345; 9211420; 0045-6535 English

826. Luo, Y; Zhang, X; Liu, X; Ficklin, D; Zhang, M, and Luo, Y. Dynamic Modeling of Organophosphate Pesticide Load in Surface Water in the Northern San Joaquin Valley Watershed of California. 2008 Dec; 156, (3): 1171-1181.


Rec #: 45369
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The hydrology, sediment, and pesticide transport components of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were evaluated on the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for monthly stream flow and sediment load ranged from 0.49 to 0.99 over the watershed during the study period of 1992-2005. The calibrated SWAT model was applied to simulate fate and transport processes of two organophosphate pesticides of diazinon and chlorpyrifos at watershed scale. The model generated satisfactory predictions of dissolved pesticide loads relative to the monitoring data. The model also showed great success in capturing spatial patterns of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads according to the soil properties and landscape morphology over the large agricultural watershed. This study indicated that curve number was the major factor influencing the hydrology while pesticide fate and transport were mainly affected by surface runoff and pesticide application and in the study area.
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: M3 1010:Issues in Sustainable Development
Keywords: USA, California, San Joaquin Valley
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: transport processes
Keywords: Watersheds
Keywords: Streams
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Pesticide applications
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Hydrologic Models
Keywords: Organophosphorus Pesticides
Keywords: Assessments
Keywords: soil properties
Keywords: Soil properties
Keywords: Hydrology
Keywords: Cadmium
Keywords: Sediment transport
Keywords: Transport processes
Keywords: USA, California
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pollution
Keywords: EE 40:Water Pollution: Monitoring, Control & Remediation
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Sediment pollution
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: valleys
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Landscape
Keywords: AQ 00003:Monitoring and Analysis of Water and Wastes
Keywords: Environmental Engineering Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Sustainability Science Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: Stream flow
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Morphology
Keywords: stream flow
Keywords: Sediment load
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: Runoff
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, California; USA, California, San Joaquin Valley
Pages - 1171-1181
ProQuest ID - 294624091
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Agricultural Chemicals; Pesticides; Watersheds; Hydrologic Models; Hydrology; Diazinon; Organophosphorus Pesticides; Cadmium; Assessments; USA, California; USA, California, San Joaquin Valley; Organophosphates; valleys; Chlorpyrifos; Sediment pollution; stream flow; transport processes; Soil; soil properties; Surface water; Landscape; Morphology; Sediment transport; Sediment load; Stream flow; Transport processes; Models; Sediments; Pesticides (organophosphorus); Soil properties; Data processing; Pollution; Streams; Runoff; Pesticide applications
Last updated - 2011-11-10
Corporate institution author - Luo, Y; Zhang, X; Liu, X; Ficklin, D; Zhang, M
DOI - OB-MD-0009002274; 8801600; CS0907423; 0269-7491 English

827. Luo, Yuzhou and Zhang, Minghua. A Geo-Referenced Modeling Environment for Ecosystem Risk Assessment: Organophosphate Pesticides in an Agriculturally Dominated Watershed. 2009; 38, (2): 664-674.


Rec #: 48719
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A geo-referenced modeling system was developed in this study to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of pesticide distributions and associated ecosystem risks. In the modeling system, pesticide fate and transport processes in soil-canopy system were simulated at field scale by the pesticide root zone model (PRZM). Edge-of-field mass fluxes were up-scaled with a spatially distributed flow-routing model to predict pesticide contaminations in surface water. The developed model was applied to the field conditions of the Orestimba Creek watershed, an agriculturally-dominated area in California's Central Valley during 1990 through 2006, with the organophosphate insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos as test agents. High concentrations of dissolved pesticides were predicted at the watershed outlet during the irrigation season of April through November, due to the intensive pesticide use and low stream flow. Concentration violations, according to the California aquatic life criteria, were observed for diazinon before 2001, and for chlorpyrifos during the entire simulation period. Predicted pesticide exposure levels showed potential adverse effects on certain genera of sensitive aquatic invertebrates in the ecosystem of the Orestimba Creek. Modeling assessments were conducted to identify the factors governing spatial patterns and seasonal trends on pesticide distribution and contamination potentials to the studied aquatic ecosystem. Areas with high pesticide yields to surface water were indicated for future research and additional studies focused on monitoring and mitigation efforts within the watershed. Improved irrigation techniques and management practices were also suggested to reduce the violations of pesticide concentrations during irrigation seasons.
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Pesticides -- analysis
Keywords:
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