Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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A mechanistic toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic model for acute toxic effects (immobilization, mortality) of the organothiophosphate insecticide diazinon in Daphnia magna is presented. The model was parameterized using measured external and internal (whole-body) concentrations of diazinon, its toxic metabolite diazoxon, and the inactive metabolite 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol, plus acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity measured during exposure to diazinon in vivo. The toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic model provides a coherent picture from exposure to the resulting toxic effect on an organism level through internally formed metabolites and the effect on a molecular scale. A very fast reaction of diazoxon with AChE (pseudo first-order inhibition rate constant ki?=?3.3?h-1) compared with a slow formation of diazoxon (activation rate constant kact?=?0.014?h-1) was responsible for the high sensitivity of D. magna toward diazinon. Recovery of AChE activity from inhibition was slow and rate-determining (99% recovery within 16 d), compared with a fast elimination of diazinon (99% elimination within 17?h). The obtained model parameters were compared with toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic parameters of Gammarus pulex exposed to diazinon from previous work. This comparison revealed that G. pulex is less sensitive because of a six times faster detoxification of diazinon and diazoxon and an approximately 400 times lower rate for damage accrual. These differences overcompensate the two times faster activation of diazinon to diazoxon in G. pulex compared to D. magna. The present study substantiates theoretical considerations that mechanistically based effect models are helpful to explain sensitivity differences among different aquatic invertebrates. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 20142022. (c) 2012 SETAC
Keywords: Diazinon, Daphnia magna, Gammarus pulex, Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic
ISI Document Delivery No.: 994NW

714. Krieg, E. F. The Relationships Between Pesticide Metabolites and Neurobehavioral Test Performance in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 2013; 68, (1): 39-46.

Rec #: 63149
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Regression analysis was used to estimate and test for relationships between urinary pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral test performance in adults, 20 to 59 years old, participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The 12 pesticide metabolites included 2 naphthols, 8 phenols, a phenoxyacetic acid, and a pyridinol. The 3 neurobehavioral tests included in the survey were simple reaction time, symbol-digit substitution, and serial digit learning. As the 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and the pentachlorophenol concentrations increased, performance on the serial digit learning test improved. As the 2,5-dichlorophenol concentration increased, performance on the symbol-digit substitution test improved. At low concentrations, the parent compounds of these metabolites may act at acetylcholine and ?-aminobutyric acid synapses in the central nervous system to improve neurobehavioral test performance.
Keywords: neurobehavioral tests, NHANES III, pesticide metabolites
ISI Document Delivery No.: 071SQ

715. Krieger, R. I.; Chen, L.; Ginevan, M.; Watkins, D.; Cochran, R. C.; Driver, J. H., and Ross, J. H. Implications of estimates of residential organophosphate exposure from dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and their relevance to risk. 2012; 64, (2): 263-266.

Rec #: 63159
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Recent epidemiological studies have claimed to associate a variety of toxicological effects of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) and residential OP exposure based on the dialkyl phosphates (DAPs; metabolic and environmental breakdown products of OPs) levels in the urine of pregnant females. A key premise in those epidemiology studies was that the level of urinary DAPs was directly related to the level of parent OP exposure. Specific chemical biomarkers and DAPs representing absorbed dose of OPs are invaluable to reconstruct human exposures in prospective occupational studies and even in non-occupational studies when exposure to a specific OP can be described. However, measurement of those detoxification products in urine without specific knowledge of insecticide exposure is insufficient to establish OP insecticide exposure. DAPs have high oral bioavailability and are ubiquitously present in produce at concentrations several-fold greater than parent OPs. Studies relying on DAPs as an indicator of OP exposure that lack credible information on proximate OP exposure are simply measuring DAP exposure and misattributing OP exposure. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Organophosphorus insecticide, Dialkyl phosphate, DAPs, Epidemiology,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 036VX

716. Krinke, G. J. Neuronal Vacuolation.

Rec #: 74909
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Comment on: Toxicol Pathol. 2010 Jun;38(4):554-9 (medline /20448080)
COMMENTS: Comment on: Toxicol Pathol. 2011 Feb;39(2):451-3 (medline /21422267)
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Cytoplasm/*drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Ganglia, Sensory/*drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Ganglia, Spinal/*pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Neurons/*pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Sensory Receptor Cells/*drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Tritolyl Phosphates/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Vacuoles/*drug effects/*metabolism eng

717. Kristenson, E. M.; Shahmiri, S.; Slooten, C. J.; Vreuls, R. J. J., and Brinkman, U. A. T. Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Micro-Extraction of Pesticides from Single Insects with Subsequent GC-MS Analysis. 2004; 59, (5-6): 315-320.

Rec #: 1000
Keywords: METHODS

718. Kuivila, K. M. and Foe, C. G. Concentrations, Transport and Biological Effects of Dormant Spray Pesticides in the San Francisco Estuary, California. 22604//: 1995; 14, (7): 1141-1150.

Rec #: 1010
Keywords: MIXTURE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ATZ,CBL,CPY,DZ,EPRN,MDT,MLN,PRN,SZ

719. Kulshrestha, G. and Kumari, A. Simultaneous Degradation of Mixed Insecticides by Mixed Fungal Culture Isolated from Sewage Sludge. 2010; 58, (22): 11852-11856.

Rec #: 63209
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The degradation of mixed (DDT and chlorpyrifos) insecticides by mixed insecticide enriched cultures was investigated. The mixed fungal population was isolated from mixed insecticide acclimatized sewage sludge over a period of 90 days. Gas chromatography was used to detect the concentration of mixed insecticides and calculate the degradation efficiency. The results showed that the degradation capability of the mixed microbial culture was higher in low concentrations than in high concentrations of the mixed insecticides. After 12 weeks of incubation, mixed pesticide enriched cultures were able to degrade 79.5-94.4% of DDT and 73.6-85.9% of chlorpyrifos in facultative cometabolic conditions. The fungal strains isolated from the mixed microbial consortium were identified as Fusarium sp. isolates GFSM-4 (ITCC 6841) and GFSM-5 (ITCC 6842). The fungal culture GFSM-4 could not utilize mixed insecticides as source of carbon and nitrogen, probably due to high combined toxicity of the mixed insecticides. Liquid media deficient in carbon (1% mannitol) and nitrogen (0.1% sodium nitrate) source increased the degradation efficiency of DDT and chlorpyrifos to 69 and 45%, respectively. The media with normal carbon and deficient nitrogen (0.1% sodium nitrate) sources extensively increased the degradation efficiencies of DDT (94%) and chlorpyrifos (69.2%). Traces of p,p'-dichlorobenzophenone and desdiethylchlorpyrifos were observed in the liquid medium, which did not accumulate probably due to further rapid degradation. This fungal isolate (GFSM-4) was able to degrade simultaneously DDT (26.94%) and chlorpyrifos (24.94%) in sterile contaminated (50 mg of each insecticide kg(-1)) soil in aerobic conditions.
Keywords: Mixed pesticides, DDT, chlorpyrifos, insecticide mixture,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 680AR

720. Kulshrestha, Gita; Kumari, Anupriya, and Kulshrestha, Gita. Fungal Degradation of Chlorpyrifos by Acremonium Sp. Strain (Gfrc-1) Isolated From a Laboratory-Enriched Red Agricultural Soil. 2011 Feb; 47, (2): 219-225.

Rec #: 39979
Keywords: NO EFFECT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos, has been widely applied in agriculture; in veterinary, against household pests; and in subterranean termite control. Due to its slow rate of degradation in soil, it can persist for extended periods in soil with a significant threat to environment and public health. The mixed and pure fungi were isolated from three soils by enrichment technique. The enriched mixed fungal cultures were capable of biodegrading chlorpyrifos (300mgL super(-1)) when cultivated in Czapek Dox medium. The identified pure fungal strain, Acremonium sp., utilized chlorpyrifos as a source of carbon and nitrogen. The highest chlorpyrifos degradation (83.9%) by Acremonium sp. strain GFRC-1 was found when cultivated in the nutrient medium with full nutrients. Desdiethyl chlorpyrifos was detected as a major biodegradation product of chlorpyrifos. The isolated fungal strain will be used for developing bioremediation strategy for chlorpyrifos-polluted soils.
Keywords: Environmental degradation
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Fertility
Keywords: Bioremediation
Keywords: Biodegradation
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: Fungi
Keywords: Z 05350:Medical, Veterinary, and Agricultural Entomology
Keywords: Entomology Abstracts; Microbiology Abstracts C: Algology, Mycology & Protozoology; Ecology Abstracts
Keywords: agricultural land
Keywords: Nutrients
Keywords: Public health
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Carbon
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Acremonium
Keywords: D 04040:Ecosystem and Ecology Studies
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pests
Keywords: K 03320:Cell Biology
Keywords: Nitrogen
Keywords: Isoptera
Date revised - 2011-07-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 219-225
ProQuest ID - 879470118
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Agriculture; Soil; Chlorpyrifos; Biodegradation; Insecticides; Bioremediation; Carbon; Fungi; Nutrients; Pests; Nitrogen; Public health; Environmental degradation; Fertility; Degradation; Pesticides; agricultural land; Acremonium; Isoptera
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Biology and Fertility of Soils [Biol. Fertility Soils]. Vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 219-225. Feb 2011.
Corporate institution author - Kulshrestha, Gita; Kumari, Anupriya
DOI - 744c8215-782b-4876-8be3mfgefd101; 14263656; 0178-2762; 1432-0789 English

721. Kumar, Anjani; Nayak, a K; Shukla, Arvind K; Panda, B B; Raja, R; Shahid, Mohammad; Tripathi, Rahul; Mohanty, Sangita, and Rath, P C. Microbial Biomass and Carbon Mineralization in Agricultural Soils as Affected by Pesticide Addition. 2012 Apr; 88, (4): 538-42.

Rec #: 42769
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A laboratory study was conducted with four pesticides, viz. a fungicide (carbendazim), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and cartap hydrochloride) and an herbicide (pretilachlor) applied to a sandy clay loam soil at a field rate to determine their effect on microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and carbon mineralization (C^sub min^). The MBC content of soil increased with time up to 30 days in cartap hydrochloride as well as chlorpyrifos treated soil. Thereafter, it decreased and reached close to the initial level by 90th day. However, in carbendazim treated soil, the MBC showed a decreasing trend up to 45 days and subsequently increased up to 90 days. In pretilachlor treated soil, MBC increased through the first 15 days, and thereafter decreased to the initial level. Application of carbendazim, chlorpyrifos and cartap hydrochloride decreased C^sub min^ for the first 30 days and then increased afterwards, while pretilachlor treated soil showed an increasing trend.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Pesticides -- analysis
Keywords: Carbamates -- chemistry
Keywords: Thiocarbamates
Keywords: Acetanilides -- chemistry
Keywords: Carbon -- chemistry
Keywords: Soil Pollutants -- chemistry
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Pesticides -- chemistry
Keywords: Soil Pollutants
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- analysis
Keywords: Carbon
Keywords: mecarzole
Keywords: carbamothioic acid, S,S'-(2-(dimethylamino)-1,3-propanediyl) ester
Keywords: Acetanilides
Keywords: Thiocarbamates -- chemistry
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- chemistry
Keywords: Acetanilides -- analysis
Keywords: Carbon -- metabolism
Keywords: Biomass
Keywords: Soil Pollutants -- analysis
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Benzimidazoles
Keywords: Soil Microbiology
Keywords: Carbamates -- analysis
Keywords: Thiocarbamates -- analysis
Keywords: Benzimidazoles -- chemistry
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Benzimidazoles -- analysis
Keywords: Carbamates
Keywords: Soil -- chemistry
Keywords: pretilachlor
Copyright - Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012
Language of summary - English
Pages - 538-42
ProQuest ID - 927069579
Document feature - References
Last updated - 2012-05-19
Place of publication - New York
Corporate institution author - Kumar, Anjani; Nayak, A K; Shukla, Arvind K; Panda, B B; Raja, R; Shahid, Mohammad; Tripathi, Rahul; Mohanty, Sangita; Rath, P C
DOI - 2606592571; 67905392; 108019; BVCX; 22310842; SPVLBVCX128884538
Aggarwal A, Sharma D, Parkash V, Sharma S, Gupta A (2005) Effect of bavistin and dithane M-45 on the mycorrhizae and rhizo-sphere microbes of sunower. Helia 28(42):7588
Alef, K., and P. Nannipieri. 1995. Soil respiration. p. 214-219. In K. Alef and P. Nannipieri (ed.) Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic Press, London.
Beelen, P. van, Doelman, P. 1997 "Significance and application of microbial toxicity tests in assessing ecotoxicological risks of contaminants in soil and sediment." Chemosphere 34 3 455-499
Berteau PE, Deen WA (1978) A comparison of oral and inhalation toxicities of four insecticides to mice and rats. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 19(1):113120
Doran, J.W., Doran, J.W. 1994 "Defining and assessing soil quality" SSSA Special Publication 35 3-21
Fabro L, Varca LM (2011) Pesticide usage by farmers in Pagsanjan-Lumban catchment of Laguna de Bay. Philipp Agric Water Manag. doi:
Gosselin RE, Smith RP, Hodge HC. 1984. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. pp III-23
Haney, R L, Senseman, SA 2000 "Effect of glyphosate on soil microbial activity and biomass" Weed Science 48 1 89-93
Handa SK, Agnihotri NP, Kulshreshtha G (1999) Pesticide residues; signicance, management and analysis. Research Periodicals and Book Publishing House, Texas
JOERGENSEN, R. G. 1996 "The fumigation-extraction method to estimate soil microbial biomass : calibration of the kEC value" Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28 1 25-31
Pandey S, Singh DK (2004) Total bacterial and fungal population after chlorpyrifos and quinalphos treatments in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) soils. Chemosphere 55:283290
Powlson DS (1994) The soil microbial biomass: before, beyond and back. In: Dighton J, Giller KE, Ritz K (eds) Beyond the biomass. Wiley, Chichester
Dwaipayan Sengupta, Aktar, M. W., Purkait, S., Ganguly, M., Dwaipayan Sengupta 2009 "Impact of quinalphos on microbial biomass and activities in tropical clay loam soil." Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 8 11 1127-1135
Sivasithamparam K (1969) Some effects of an insecticide (Dursban) and a weedicide (Linuron) on the microora of a submerged soil. Proc Ceylon Ass Advmt Sci 25:18
SIVASITHAMPARAM, K. 1970 "Some effects of an insecticide ("Dursban") and a weedicide ("Linuron") on the microflora of a submerged soil." Riso 19 339-46
Sommerville, L., (1987). Perspective on side effect testing. In L. Sommerville and M.P. Greaves (Eds.), Pesticide Effects on Soil Microflora. London: Taylor and Francis, 5-13.
Sudhakar P, Chaitopadhyay GN, Gangwar SK, Ghosh JK, Saratchandra B (2000) Effect of common pesticides on nitrogen xing bacteria of mulberry (morus alba L.). Indian J Agric Res 34(4):211216
Sylvestre GS, Fournier JC (1979) Effect of pesticides on the soil microora. In: Brady NC (ed) Advances in agronomy, USA. Academic Press, USA
Tomlin CDS (ed) (1997) The pesticide manuala world compendium. British Crop Protection Council, Surrey
Torstenssen L, Stenstorm J (1986) Basic respiration rate as a tool for prediction of pesticide persistence in soil. Toxic Assess 1:5772
Tu CM (1992) Effect of some herbicides on activities of microorganisms and enzymes in soil. J Environ Sci Health 27:695709
VANCE, E. D., BROOKES, P. C. 1987 "An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C" Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19 6 703-707
Voos G, Groffman PM (1997) Relationship between microbial biomass and dissipation of 2, 4-D and Dicamba in soil. Biol Fertil Soils 24:106110
ZELLES, L., SCHEUNERT, I. 1985 "Side effects of some pesticides on non-target soil microorganisms" Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes 20 5 457-488
Zibilski LM (1994) Carbon mineralization. In: Bingham JM, Mickelson SH (eds) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Micro-biological and biochemical properties. SSSA, Book Series No. 5. ASA, SSSA, Madison. English

722. Kumar, P.; Chandel, Y. S., and Kumar, S. Evaluation of Some Insecticides for the Management of Agrotis segetum. SOIL; 2009; 79, (3): 235-239 (Publ as EcoRef 155367).

Rec #: 2170
Keywords: PUBL AS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,IMC,LCYT,PFF

723. Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, S P; Ahmad, Ah; Rao, Vdp, and Kumar, Pradeep. Determination of Chlorpyrifos Residues in Buffalo Meat Samples Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. 2009 Feb 7; 1, (2): 189-199.

Rec #: 41429
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorous compound, is widely used to improve the yield of agricultural produce in India. Public concern over pesticide residues in foods has been increasing such that it has become a significant food safety issue. The present study was conducted to screen 254 buffalo meat samples collected from different slaughter houses for chlorpyrifos residues. The putative chlorpyrifos residues were extracted by homogenising and sonicating the samples with acetonitrile. The extract was cleaned up by performing alumina column chromatography. The cleaned up extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography. The residues were eluted in isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:water (67:33) at the flow rate of 1 mlitre min − 1 and run time of 18 min. The wavelength of detection was set at 202 nm with 360 nm as the reference wavelength. Chlorpyrifos residues were detected in 18 (7.08% of the total samples) samples. Of these positive samples, only 2 (0.78% of the total samples) exceeded codex maximum residue limit of chlorpyrifos in meat.
Keywords: Housing
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Chromatography
Keywords: Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Food contamination
Keywords: Flow rates
Keywords: India
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Liquid chromatography
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Residential areas
Keywords: H 4000:Food and Drugs
Keywords: Public concern
Date revised - 2009-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - India
Pages - 189-199
ProQuest ID - 20506580
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - India; Chlorpyrifos; Pesticides; Liquid chromatography; Food contamination; Housing; Public concern; Residential areas; Chromatography; Pesticide residues; Flow rates
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - International Journal of Food Safety Management. Vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 189-199. 7 Feb 2009.
Corporate institution author - Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, S P; Ahmad, AH; Rao, VDP
DOI - MD-0009425705; 9196160; 1479-3911; 1479-392X English

724. Kumar, Sumit. Effect of Soil Physicochemical Properties on Chlorpyrifos Tolerant Bacteria From Cultivated Soils. 2011; 4, 17-23.

Rec #: 40079
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The present study investigated the effect of various soil physicochemical properties on the native chlorpyrifos-tolerant bacterial density in the cultivated soils of Rajkot district of Gujarat. Out of the four soil physical properties considered, bulk density showed negative correlation while the rest three viz. porosity, soil moisture and electrical conductivity showed positive correlation. However, except soil moisture (R^sup 2^ = 0.625), none of the soil physical properties showed significant effect on chlorpyrifos-tolerant bacterial density, as indicated by their lower values of R-square. Similarly, out of four soil chemical properties examined, only pH showed negative correlation and the remaining three viz. organic C, organic N and available P showed positive correlation. Except soil pH, the three other chemical properties of soil showed very significant effect on the abundance of chlorpyrifos-tolerant bacteria in the soil. The results of the present study can be utilized for the development of effective bioremediation process for chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Copyright - Copyright CTR Journals 2011
Language of summary - English
Pages - 17-23
ProQuest ID - 870633514
Document feature - Graphs; Tables; References
Last updated - 2011-06-08
Place of publication - Rijkot
Corporate institution author - Kumar, Sumit
DOI - 2369038381; 62086411; 111809; EJNV; INNNEJNV0000669102
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725. Kunal and Sharma, P. Influence of Pesticide-Treated Seeds on Survival of Mesorhizobium sp. Cicer, Symbiotic Efficiency and Yield in Chickpea. SOIL; 2012; 48, (1): 37-43.

Rec #: 2780
Notes: EcoReference No.: 160348
Chemical of Concern: CPY,Captan,ES

726. Kunz, Stefan; Minca, Mihaela; Luginb++hl, Edith; Bregy, Patrick, and Seebeck, Thomas. Chapter 189 - Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling in the Kinetoplastids. Ralph A. Bradshaw and Edward A. Dennis. Handbook of Cell Signaling (Second Edition). San Diego: Academic Press; 2010: 1543-1547.

Rec #: 4170
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ISSN/ISBN: 978-0-12-374145-5 Publisher Summary

727. Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Teixeira, Camilla; Small, Jeff; Muir, Derek, and Bidleman, Terry F. Current-Use Pesticides in Inland Lake Waters, Precipitation, and Air From Ontario, Canada. 2011 Jul; 30, (7): 1539-1548.

Rec #: 43269
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Concentrations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in water, zooplankton, precipitation, and air samples as well as stereoisomer fractions (SF; herbicidally active/total stereoisomers) of metolachlor were determined in water samples collected from 10 remote inland lakes in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2005. The most frequently detected chemicals in lake water, precipitation, and air were α-endosulfan, atrazine, metolachlor, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, and trifluralin, and α-endosulfan and chlorpyrifos were the chemicals detected frequently in zooplankton. Air concentrations of these CUPs were within the range of previously reported values for background sites in the Great Lakes basin. High detection frequency of CUPs in lake water and precipitation was attributed to high usage amounts, but some CUPs such as ametryn and disulfoton that were not used in Ontario were also detected. Mean bioaccumulation factors (wet wt) in zooplankton for endosulfan ranged from 160 to 590 and from 20 to 60 for chlorpyrifos. The overall median SF of metolachlor in precipitation samples (0.846) was similar to that of the commercial S-metolachlor (0.882). However, the median SF of metolachlor in water from all sampled inland lakes (0.806) was significantly lower compared with Ontario rivers (0.873) but higher compared with previous measurements in the Great Lakes (0.710). Lakes with smaller watershed areas showed higher SFs, supporting the hypothesis of stereoselective processing of deposited metolachlor within the watersheds, followed by transport to the lakes. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.
Keywords: Pesticides -- analysis
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Atmosphere -- chemistry
Keywords: X0I01K05X2
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: 115-29-7
Keywords: Air Pollutants -- metabolism
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical -- analysis
Keywords: Zooplankton -- metabolism
Keywords: Rain -- chemistry
Keywords: Air Pollutants -- analysis
Keywords: 1912-24-9
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- analysis
Keywords: Acetamides -- analysis
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical
Keywords: Trifluralin -- metabolism
Keywords: Fresh Water -- chemistry
Keywords: Environmental Pollution -- statistics & numerical data
Keywords: Climate
Keywords: Air Pollutants
Keywords: Atrazine -- analysis
Keywords: metolachlor
Keywords: 1582-09-8
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Acetamides
Keywords: Ontario
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Environmental Monitoring
Keywords: Pesticides -- metabolism
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Canada
Keywords: Endosulfan -- analysis
Keywords: Endosulfan -- metabolism
Keywords: Atrazine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Acetamides -- metabolism
Keywords: Isomerism
Keywords: Trifluralin
Keywords: Atrazine -- metabolism
Keywords: Trifluralin -- analysis
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical -- metabolism
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- metabolism
Date completed - 2011-09-16
Date created - 2011-06-07
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1539-1548
ProQuest ID - 871003220
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, July 2011, 30(7):1539-1548
Corporate institution author - Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Teixeira, Camilla; Small, Jeff; Muir, Derek; Bidleman, Terry F
DOI - MEDL-21472774; 21472774; 1552-8618 eng

728. Kuskova, Petra; Gingrich, Simone, and Krausmann, Fridolin. Long term changes in social metabolism and land use in Czechoslovakia, 1830Çô2000: An energy transition under changing political regimes. 2008 Dec 1-; 68, (1Çô2): 394-407.

Rec #: 4160
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Industrialisation goes along with sweeping changes in society's interrelations with its environment. The transition from an agrarian to an industrial society leads to fundamentally new patterns in social metabolism, a process which has been described as socio-metabolic transition. This paper investigates this transition for the case of the current Czech and Slovak Republics and presents a dataset on the development of key variables related to social metabolism during the last 170-áyears. The dataset includes time series data on the extraction of biomass and fossil fuels, energy consumption and land use. Combining data on Bohemia and Moravia (1830Çô1915) with data on Czechoslovakia (1918Çô1992) and the Czech and Slovak Republics (1993Çô2002), the study covers a period of consecutive political and institutional changes. It includes the feudal regime of the late period of the Habsburg Empire and its disintegration with WWI, the short period of the Czechoslovak Republic in the interwar period, the era of a planned economy under a communist regime, the collapse of this regime and the subsequent turn towards a market economy and European integration in the 1990s. The period was characterized by economic and physical growth. It saw a doubling of population and a growth in GDP by a factor 20. Domestic energy consumption (DEC) increased by a factor 10 and the share of biomass in DEC declined from more than 98% to less than 20%. All in all the observed changes closely resemble the characteristic path of the socio-metabolic transition as observed in other Western European economies. Major political and economic changes did not result in fundamental alterations of the socio-metabolic transition until the mid-20th century. The communist era (1945Çô1989) was characterized by rapid physical growth and changes in the energy and land use system very similar to those of other Western European economies in the same period, however leading to DEC values substantially higher than those of other European countries at around 300-áGJ/cap in the mid-1980s. The disturbances caused by the Velvet Revolution resulted in short term turbulences in social metabolism and structural adaptations, and around the year 2000, the Czech and Slovak Republics show biophysical features very similar to those of other Western European countries. Social metabolism/ Energy flow analysis/ Land use/ Czechoslovakia/ Industrialization/ Physical economy

729. Kusvuran, Erdal; Yildirim, Deniz; Mavruk, Funda, and Ceyhan, Mehmet. Removal of chloropyrifos ethyl, tetradifon and chlorothalonil pesticide residues from citrus by using ozone. 2012 Nov 30-; 241Çô242, (0): 287-300.

Rec #: 250
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The removal of chloropyrifos ethyl, tetradifon and chlorothalonil pesticide residues from the lemon, orange and grapefruit matrices were achieved by ozonation. All of chlorothalonil residues adsorbed onto the orange matrix were completely removed after 5 min ozonation. The highest removal percentages of tetradifon and chloropyrifos ethyl were achieved as 98.6 and 94.2%, respectively for the lemon and grapefruit matrices. All of diffused chlorothalonil and chloropyrifos ethyl residues were completely removed from both orange and grapefruit matrices after 5 min ozonation. Increasing of applied ozone dosage was not significantly effect on the removal percentages of pesticides whereas increasing of ozonation temperature caused a negative effect on the removal percentages of pesticides. The washing of the matrices with tap water was not as effective as ozonation in the removal of residual pesticides. Our results show that ozone treatment has a great potential for removing of residual pesticides from lemon, orange and grapefruit matrices. Citrus/ Ozone/ Chloropyrifos ethyl/ Tetradifon/ Chlorothalonil

730. Kuswandi, Bambang; Fikriyah, Chulaifah Indah; Gani, Agus Abdul, and Kuswandi, Bambang. An Optical Fiber Biosensor for Chlorpyrifos Using a Single Sol-Gel Film Containing Acetylcholinesterase and Bromothymol Blue. 2008 Jan; 74, (4): 613-618.

Rec #: 42359
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An optical fiber biosensor consisting of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and bromothymol blue (BTB) doped sol-gel film was employed to detect organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos. The main advantage of this optical biosensor is the use of a single sol-gel film with immobilized AChE and BTB. The compatibility of this mixture (AChE and BTB) with the sol-gel matrix has prevented leaching of the film. The immobilization of the enzyme and indicator was simple without chemical modification. The biosensing element on single sol-gel film has been placed inside the flow-cell for flow system. In the presence of a constant AChE, a color change of the BTB and the measured reflected signal at wavelength 622 nm could be related to the pesticide concentration in the sample solutions. The performance of optical biosensor in the flow system has been optimized, including chemical and physical parameters. The response time of the biosensor is 8 min. A linear calibration curve of chlorpyrifos against the percentage inhibition of AChE was obtained from 0.05 to 2.0 mg/L of chlorpyrifos (18-80% inhibition, R super(2) = 0.9869, n = 6). The detection limit for chlorpyrifos was 0.04 mg/L. The results of the analysis of 0.5-1.5 mg/L of chlorpyrifos using this optical biosensor agreed well with chromatographic method.
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Leaching
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Color
Keywords: Biosensors
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Fibers
Keywords: Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: W 30955:Biosensors
Keywords: Wavelength
Keywords: Immobilization
Keywords: Chemical modification
Date revised - 2009-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 613-618
ProQuest ID - 19548752
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Biosensors; Acetylcholinesterase; Fibers; Color; Leaching; Chemical modification; Wavelength; Immobilization; Enzymes; Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Talanta [Talanta]. Vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 613-618. Jan 2008.
Corporate institution author - Kuswandi, Bambang; Fikriyah, Chulaifah Indah; Gani, Agus Abdul
DOI - MD-0008899661; 8687966; 0039-9140 English

731. Kuwabara, K. and Kashimoto, T. Studies on Toxicity Tests of Environmental Pollutants Using the Artemia salina Dry Cyst and Adult. K.Kuwabara, Osaka Furitsu Koshu Eisei Kenkyusho, Osaka, Japan//: 1984; 7, (2): 33-39(JPN).

Rec #: 1020
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

732. LacourcišRe, Y.; Taddei, S.; Konis, G.; Fang, H.; Severin, T., and Zhang, J. Clinic and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Lowering Effect of Aliskiren/Amlodipine/Hydrochlorothiazide Combination in Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Hypertension: a Randomized Active-Controlled Trial.

Rec #: 50029
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy and safety of an aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) triple combination compared with the component dual combinations, in patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension.
ABSTRACT: METHODS: This 8-week, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled study, after 1-4 weeks single-blind placebo run-in period, randomized 1191 patients to receive once-daily aliskiren/amlodipine 150/5 mg (n = 287), aliskiren/HCT 150/12.5 mg (n = 298), amlodipine/HCT 5/12.5 mg (n = 296), or aliskiren/amlodipine/HCT 150/5/12.5 mg (up-titrated from aliskiren/HCT 150/12.5 mg after initial 3 days) (n = 310) for 4 weeks, followed by forced titration to double the initial dose for the next 4 weeks.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: Baseline mean sitting SBP and DBP (msSBP/msDBP) was comparable among treatment groups. The aliskiren/amlodipine/HCT combination resulted in significant least squares mean reduction in msSBP/msDBP from baseline to endpoints (week 4, -30.7/-15.9  mmHg; week 8, -37.9/-20.6  mmHg), superior (P  <  0.001) to each of the dual combinations. The triple combination was associated with -27.8  mmHg reduction in msSBP at week 2, significantly better than the dual combinations (P  <  0.05). Significantly greater mean SBP/DBP-lowering effect for triple vs. dual combinations was also demonstrated through 24-h, daytime, and night-time ambulatory BP measurements. Significantly greater (P  <  0.001) BP control (msSBP/msDBP  <  140/90  mmHg) was achieved with triple combination in patients with moderate-to-severe (62.3%) and severe (57.5%) hypertension.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: Aliskiren/amlodipine/HCT at 150/5/12.5 mg (week 4) and 300/10/25 mg (week 8) provided statistically superior reductions in msSBP/msDBP and greater BP control rates vs. the dual combinations, and was well tolerated. The improved efficacy of BP reduction was evident within 2 weeks of initiating triple therapy even at low dose.
MESH HEADINGS: Amides/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Amlodipine/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Antihypertensive Agents/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/adverse effects/*therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Double-Blind Method
MESH HEADINGS: Drug Therapy, Combination
MESH HEADINGS: Fumarates/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Hydrochlorothiazide/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Hypertension/*drug therapy/physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Severity of Illness Index
MESH HEADINGS: Single-Blind Method eng

733. Lahr, Joost ; MăĽNier, Bernd; De Lange, Hendrika J; Faber, Jack F, and Să¸Rensen, Peter Borgen. Wildlife Vulnerability and Risk Maps for Combined Pollutants. 2010 Aug 15; 408, (18): 3891-3898.

Rec #: 43919
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Ecological risk and vulnerability maps can be used to improve the analysis of pollutant risks and communication to stakeholders. Often, such maps are made for one pollutant at the time. We used the results of wildlife vulnerability analysis, a novel trait-based risk assessment approach, to map overall vulnerability of habitats in Denmark to various metals and one insecticide. These maps were combined with maps of estimated soil concentrations for the same compounds divided by their Maximum Permissible Concentrations. This combination yielded relative risk maps that can be used to assess where the highest risk conditions to wildlife from these individual pollutants in Denmark occur (hot spot identification). In order to show how cumulative risk maps can be made, the maps of the individual pollutants were combined assuming different mechanisms of joint toxicity: no addition, concentration addition, antagonism and synergism. The study demonstrated that with an accurate set of geographical and ecological data one can use the results of vulnerability analysis to make relevant ecological risk maps that show hot spot areas for risks of single or cumulative risks from soil pollutants. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Environmental Exposure -- statistics & numerical data
Keywords: Nickel
Keywords: Environmental Exposure -- analysis
Keywords: Copper
Keywords: Metals -- analysis
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- analysis
Keywords: Ecosystem
Keywords: 7440-43-9
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Zinc
Keywords: Cadmium -- toxicity
Keywords: Denmark
Keywords: Cadmium
Keywords: 7440-02-0
Keywords: Geography
Keywords: Insecticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Metals
Keywords: 7440-50-8
Keywords: Nickel -- analysis
Keywords: Cadmium -- analysis
Keywords: Environmental Pollution -- statistics & numerical data
Keywords: Zinc -- toxicity
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants -- analysis
Keywords: Risk Assessment -- methods
Keywords: Insecticides -- analysis
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Zinc -- analysis
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Risk Factors
Keywords: 7440-66-6
Keywords: Copper -- analysis
Keywords: Nickel -- toxicity
Keywords: Geographic Information Systems
Keywords: Copper -- toxicity
Keywords: Environmental Monitoring -- methods
Keywords: Metals -- toxicity
Date completed - 2010-10-29
Date created - 2010-07-26
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 3891-3898
ProQuest ID - 749020705
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - The Science of the total environment, August 15, 2010, 408(18):3891-3898
Corporate institution author - Lahr, Joost; Münier, Bernd; De Lange, Hendrika J; Faber, Jack F; Sørensen, Peter Borgen
DOI - MEDL-20060570; 20060570; 1879-1026 eng

734. Lakshmi, C. V.; Kumar, M., and Khanna, S. Blotransformation of chlorpyrifos and bioremediation of contaminated soil. 2008; 62, (2): 204-209.

Rec #: 63339
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Five aerobic consortia capable of degrading chlorpyrifos as a sole carbon source in aqueous medium showed degradation in the range of 46-72% after 20 days. Pseudomonas fluorescence, Brucella melitensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus. Klebsiella species, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeroginosa, isolated from these consortium, showed 75-87% degradation of chlorpyrifos as compared to 18% in control after 20 days of incubation. Bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with P. fluorescence, B. melitensis, B. subtilis and P. aeroginosa individually showed 89%, 87%, 85% and 92% degradation, respectively, as compared to 34% in control after 30 days. Population dynamics of the introduced isolates based on antibiotic resistance survival and REP-PCR indicated 60-70% survival based on antibiotic resistance, but only 35-45% of the inoculated population based on REP-PCR. During bioremediation studies, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was detected as metabolite of chlorpyrifos degradation by 1 aeroginosa after 20 days, which was utilized and disappeared after 30 days. Whole-cell studies also showed that P. aeroginosa gave TCP as the product of chlorpyrifos degradation, which was further metabolized to unknown polar metabolites. Scientific relevance: Potential application in sites for effective in situ bioremediation of chlorpyrifos, a neurotoxic insecticide widely used in India. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: chlorpyrifos degradation, bioremediation, microcosm, REP-PCR, population
ISI Document Delivery No.: 349XP

735. Lakshmi, C Vidya; Kumar, Mohit, and Khanna, Sunil. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos in Soil by Enriched Cultures. 2009 Jan; 58, (1): 35-38.

Rec #: 41509
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Three aerobic bacterial consortia, AC, BC, and DC, developed from pesticide-contaminated soils of Punjab were able to degrade chlorpyrifos after 21 days of incubation in basal medium by 54, 46, and 61% and chlorpyrifos (50 mg/L) in soil after 30 days by 50, 56, and 64%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella sp., and Serratia marscecens obtained from these consortia showed 84, 84, 81, and 80% degradation of chlorpyrifos (50 mg/L) in liquid medium after 20 days and 92, 60, 56, and 37% degradation of chlorpyrifos (50 mg/L) in soil after 30 days. Populations of Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella sp., and Serratia marscecens remained steady in soil experiments except for P. aeruginosa, where the population showed a substantial increase. Formation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, the major metabolite of chlorpyrifos degradation, was observed during the degradation of chlorpyrifos by P. aeruginosa, which disappeared to negligible amounts.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Pyridones -- metabolism
Keywords: Bacteria, Aerobic -- classification
Keywords: Bacteria, Aerobic -- metabolism
Keywords: 6515-38-4
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Soil Microbiology
Keywords: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Pyridones
Keywords: Biodegradation, Environmental
Keywords: Bacteria, Aerobic -- isolation & purification
Keywords: Time Factors
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- metabolism
Date completed - 2009-01-30
Date created - 2008-12-16
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 35-38
ProQuest ID - 66741554
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Current microbiology, January 2009, 58(1):35-38
Corporate institution author - Lakshmi, C Vidya; Kumar, Mohit; Khanna, Sunil
DOI - MEDL-18815830; 18815830; 1432-0991 eng

736. Lambert, M. R. K. Effects of Pesticides on Amphibians and Reptiles in Sub-Saharan Africa. 1997; 150, 31-73.

Rec #: 180

737. Lammer, E.; Carr, G. J.; Wendler, K.; Rawlings, J. M.; Belanger, S. E., and Braunbeck, T. Is the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test (FET) with the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) a Potential Alternative for the Fish Acute Toxicity Test? 2009; 149, (2): 196-209.

Rec #: 1880
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: EcoReference No.: 116394

738. Land, L. F. and Brown, M. F. Water-Quality Assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Pesticides in Streams Draining an Urban and an Agricultural Area, 1993-95. 22603//: 1996: 22 p.

Rec #: 1030
Keywords: NO SPECIES

739. Landrigan, Philip J. What Causes Autism? Exploring the Environmental Contribution. 2010 Apr; 22, (2): 219-225.

Rec #: 47979
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Autism is a biologically based disorder of brain development. Genetic factors--mutations, deletions, and copy number variants--are clearly implicated in causation of autism. However, they account for only a small fraction of cases, and do not easily explain key clinical and epidemiological features. This suggests that early environmental exposures also contribute. This review explores this hypothesis. Indirect evidence for an environmental contribution to autism comes from studies demonstrating the sensitivity of the developing brain to external exposures such as lead, ethyl alcohol and methyl mercury. But the most powerful proof-of-concept evidence derives from studies specifically linking autism to exposures in early pregnancy - thalidomide, misoprostol, and valproic acid; maternal rubella infection; and the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos. There is no credible evidence that vaccines cause autism. Expanded research is needed into environmental causation of autism. Children today are surrounded by thousands of synthetic chemicals. Two hundred of them are neurotoxic in adult humans, and 1000 more in laboratory models. Yet fewer than 20% of high-volume chemicals have been tested for neurodevelopmental toxicity. I propose a targeted discovery strategy focused on suspect chemicals, which combines expanded toxicological screening, neurobiological research and prospective epidemiological studies.
Keywords: Autistic Disorder -- etiology
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Environmental Exposure
Keywords: Female
Keywords: Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Keywords: Pregnancy
Date completed - 2010-06-10
Date created - 2010-03-19
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 219-225
ProQuest ID - 733255197
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Current opinion in pediatrics, April 2010, 22(2):219-225
Corporate institution author - Landrigan, Philip J
DOI - MEDL-20087185; 20087185; 1531-698X eng

740. Larrayoz, I. M.; Pang, T.; Benicky, J.; Pavel, J.; S Nchez-Lemus, E., and Saavedra, J. M. Candesartan Reduces the Innate Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Human Monocytes.

Rec #: 50729
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) reduces chronic inflammation associated with hypertension. We asked whether AT1 receptor inhibition would reduce the innate inflammatory response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
ABSTRACT: METHODS: We used unstimulated human circulating monocytes obtained from healthy donors by counterflow centrifugal elutriation. Monocytes were studied in vitro after incubation with LPS (50 ng/ml) with and without 1 mumol/l candesartan, an AT1 receptor blocker. Angiotensin II receptor mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR and receptor binding by autoradiography; inflammatory factor mRNA expression was studied by reverse transcriptase-PCR and cytokine release by ELISA.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: Human monocytes did not express detectable AT1 receptors, and angiotensin II did not induce inflammatory factor mRNA expression or cytokine release. However, candesartan substantially reduced the LPS-induced expression of the mRNAs for the LPS recognition protein cluster of differentiation 14, the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 and the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor. In addition, candesartan reduced the activation of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway, the tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 secretion, and the ROS formation induced by LPS, without affecting the secretion of interleukin-10.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that the anti-inflammatory effects of candesartan in these cells are likely mediated by mechanisms unrelated to AT1 receptor blockade. Our results demonstrate that candesartan significantly reduces the innate immune response to LPS in human circulating monocytes. The anti-inflammatory effects of candesartan may be of importance not only in hypertension but also in other inflammatory disorders.
MESH HEADINGS: Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Benzimidazoles/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Cells, Cultured
MESH HEADINGS: Cytokines/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Drug Therapy, Combination
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Immunity, Innate/*drug effects/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Lipopolysaccharides/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Monocytes/*drug effects/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Messenger/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/*drug effects/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Tetrazoles/*pharmacology eng

741. Laskowski, Ryszard; Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Kramarz, Paulina E; Loureiro, Susana; Scheil, Volker; Kudĺ‚Ek, Joanna, and Holmstrup, Martin. Interactions Between Toxic Chemicals and Natural Environmental Factors--a Meta-Analysis and Case Studies. 2010 Aug 15; 408, (18): 3763-3774.

Rec #: 43909
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The paper addresses problems arising from effects of natural environmental factors on toxicity of pollutants to organisms. Most studies on interactions between toxicants and natural factors, including those completed in the EU project NoMiracle (Novel Methods for Integrated Risk Assessment of Cumulative Stressors in Europe) described herein, showed that effects of toxic chemicals on organisms can differ vastly depending purely on external conditions.
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