Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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The objective of this work was to assess surface water toxicity by means of a zebrafish embryo-larval combined toxicity assay, which is based on a variety of toxicological endpoints, especially those related to neurodevelopment. For such a purpose, we selected the Tagus River in which a previous monitoring study revealed the presence of psychoactive drugs. Results showed that most of the toxicological endpoints evaluated remained unaltered in the exposed embryos, except for the tail length that was larger in the exposed larvae, and the locomotor activity in the 6-day larvae, which was decreased in four groups of exposure (n = 5 sampling points). In the absence of systemic toxicity, changes in larval locomotion are indicative of neurotoxicity. This result suggests that the Tagus River can convey neurotoxic compounds at levels that may represent an early and specific threat over the aquatic species of vertebrates, what can have dramatic consequences under the ecological point of view. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Surface water, Tagus River, Neurotoxicity, Zebrafish embryo, Zebrafish
ISI Document Delivery No.: 005TB

458. Garcia, M. L.; Byfield, R., and Robek, M. D. Hepatitis B Virus Replication and Release Are Independent of Core Lysine Ubiquitination.

Rec #: 50879
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin conjugation to lysine residues regulates a variety of protein functions, including endosomal trafficking and degradation. While ubiquitin plays an important role in the release of many viruses, the requirement for direct ubiquitin conjugation to viral structural proteins is less well understood. Some viral structural proteins require ubiquitin ligase activity, but not ubiquitin conjugation, for efficient release. Recent evidence has shown that, like other viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV) requires a ubiquitin ligase for release from the infected cell. The HBV core protein contains two lysine residues (K7 and K96), and K96 has been suggested to function as a potential ubiquitin acceptor site based on the fact that previous studies have shown that mutation of this amino acid to alanine blocks HBV release. We therefore reexamined the potential connection between core lysine ubiquitination and HBV replication, protein trafficking, and virion release. In contrast to alanine substitution, we found that mutation of K96 to arginine, which compared to alanine is more conserved but also cannot mediate ubiquitin conjugation, does not affect either virus replication or virion release. We also found that the core lysine mutants display wild-type sensitivity to the antiviral activity of interferon, which demonstrates that ubiquitination of core lysines does not mediate the interferon-induced disruption of HBV capsids. However, mutation of K96 to arginine alters the nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of core, leading to an accumulation in the nucleolus. In summary, these studies demonstrate that although ubiquitin may regulate the HBV replication cycle, these mechanisms function independently of direct lysine ubiquitination of core protein.
MESH HEADINGS: Acetylcysteine/analogs &
MESH HEADINGS: derivatives/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Line, Tumor
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Nucleolus/virology
MESH HEADINGS: DNA, Viral/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
MESH HEADINGS: Hepatitis B virus/genetics/metabolism/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Interferon-alpha/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Lysine/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
MESH HEADINGS: Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Transport
MESH HEADINGS: Ubiquitin/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *Ubiquitination
MESH HEADINGS: Viral Core Proteins/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Virion/genetics/metabolism/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: *Virus Replication eng

459. Garcia-Valcarcel, Ana Isabel; Tadeo, Jose Luis, and Garcia-Valcarcel, Ana Isabel. A Combination of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction With Lc-Ms/Ms for the Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Sludge. 2009 May; 641, (1-2): 117-123.

Rec #: 44769
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A method has been developed for the analysis of a wide polarity range of the currently used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and their metabolites in sewage sludge samples. Extraction was carried out using ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) with different solvents. The levels of OPs in sludge were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive or negative ion mode. Extraction with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid gave the best results with recoveries between 83.2% and 106.4% and RSD <= 8.7%. Evaluation of matrix effect showed high ion suppression for OPs of intermediate polarity, which decreased to approximately 50% by matrix dilution to an equivalent of 0.5 g of sludge per millilitre; however, for polar OPs, the matrix effect was negligible at the same concentration. Therefore, matrix-matched standards were used for OPs quantification. The limits of quantification were in the range of 1-14 ng g[super]-1. This method was successfully applied to real sludge samples collected from Madrid Province and chlorpyrifos along with its metabolite TCPY were the OPs found in sludge at the highest levels, 113-344 ng g[super]-1 and 33-307 ng g[super]-1, respectively.
Keywords: Spain, Castilla, Madrid
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Sludges
Keywords: Sewage sludge
Keywords: Solvents
Keywords: Mass spectrometry
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Q5 01502:Methods and instruments
Keywords: Sludge
Keywords: Acetic acid
Keywords: Mass spectroscopy
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Sewage
Keywords: Ultrasonics
Keywords: ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Polarity
Keywords: Acetonitrile
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Ionization
Date revised - 2009-06-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Spain, Castilla, Madrid
Pages - 117-123
ProQuest ID - 20645472
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sewage; Ultrasonics; Pesticides; Solvents; Sludge; Chlorpyrifos; Pesticides (organophosphorus); Sewage sludge; Sludges; Metabolites; Polarity; Acetonitrile; Ionization; Acetic acid; Mass spectroscopy; Mass spectrometry; Spain, Castilla, Madrid
Last updated - 2012-04-23
British nursing index edition - Analytica Chimica Acta [Anal. Chim. Acta]. Vol. 641, no. 1-2, pp. 117-123. May 2009.
Corporate institution author - Garcia-Valcarcel, Ana Isabel; Tadeo, Jose Luis
DOI - MD-0009739449; 9380492; CS0940091; 0003-2670 English

460. Garrett, N. E.; Stack, H. F., and Waters, M. D. Evaluation of the Genetic Activity Profiles of 65 Pesticides. N.E.Garrett, Environ. Health Res. Test., Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709//: 1986; 168, (3): 301-325.

Rec #: 840
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

461. Gasperi, Johnny; Rocher, Vincent; Gilbert, Solene; Azimi, Sam; Chebbo, Ghassan, and Gasperi, Johnny. Occurrence and Removal of Priority Pollutants by Lamella Clarification and Biofiltration. 2010 May; 44, (10): 3065-3076.

Rec #: 47929
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This study investigates the occurrence of all priority substances (naa=aa41) listed in the Water Framework Directive and additional substances (naa=aa47) in raw sewage, as well as the removal performance of lamella clarification and biofiltration techniques. Once the efficiency of both types of techniques has been assessed for typical wastewater parameters, the differences in each technique's ability to remove pollutants becomes obvious; nevertheless, pollutant removal in quantitative terms still depends on the physico-chemical properties of the compounds used and operating conditions within the selected facility. For lamella clarification, the removal of organic chemicals was found to be primarily correlated with their sorption potential and, hence, strongly dependent upon log Kow of the compound under study. Compounds with a strong hydrophobic character (logaaKowaa>aa4.5) are removed to a significant extent (approx. 85%), while hydrophilic compounds (log KowaaKeywords: Chemicals
Keywords: Prediction
Keywords: AQ 00006:Sewage
Keywords: SW 3040:Wastewater treatment processes
Keywords: Q5 01502:Methods and instruments
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Biotransformation
Keywords: Suspended Solids
Keywords: Volatile compounds
Keywords: Clarification
Keywords: ENA 19:Water Pollution
Keywords: Sorption
Keywords: Suspended solids
Keywords: Pollutant removal
Keywords: Biofilters
Keywords: Physicochemical properties
Keywords: Suspended particulate matter
Keywords: Biofiltration
Keywords: Filtration
Keywords: Sewage
Keywords: Priorities
Keywords: Water wells
Keywords: Wastewater
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 3065-3076
ProQuest ID - 810894664
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sorption; Filtration; Biofilters; Sewage; Pollutants; Volatile compounds; Suspended particulate matter; Chemicals; Biofiltration; Suspended solids; Pollutant removal; Physicochemical properties; Water wells; Wastewater; Prediction; Biotransformation; Suspended Solids; Priorities; Clarification
Last updated - 2011-12-17
Corporate institution author - Gasperi, Johnny; Rocher, Vincent; Gilbert, Solene; Azimi, Sam; Chebbo, Ghassan
DOI - OB-5c0faebc-76e0-4ff8-891ccsaobj202; 13071531; CS1143223; 0043-1354 English

462. Gawish, A. M. The Protective Role of alpha Lipoic Acid Against Pesticides Induced Testicular Toxicity - Histopathological and Histochemical Studies. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt,//: 2010; 1, (1): 7 p.

Rec #: 2550
Keywords: MIXTURE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,FNT

463. Gazzotti, T.; Sticca, P.; Zironi, E.; Lugoboni, B.; Serraino, A., and Pagliuca, G. Determination of 15 Organophosphorus Pesticides in Italian Raw Milk. 2009; 82, (2): 251-254.

Rec #: 60469
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A study was conducted on raw cow's milk to measure the residues of 15 organophosphorus pesticides used as dairy cattle ectoparasiticides or as insecticides in crops used for animal feed. For this purpose a previously devised method was improved and validated. The samples were collected directly from tank trucks during delivery of 3,974 tonnes of raw milk at nine Italian dairy plants. Approximately 4.4% of the 298 samples analyzed contained residues only in traces. The main pollutant was chlorpyriphos.
Keywords: Organophosphorus pesticides, Milk, Gas chromatography
ISI Document Delivery No.: 394GB

464. Gebara, Ab; Ciscato, Chp; Monteiro, Sh; Souza, G S, and Ciscato, CHP. Pesticide Residues in Some Commodities: Dietary Risk for Children. 2011 May; 86, (5): 506-510.

Rec #: 43359
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify pesticides found in infantsa and childrenas diets. Fruits and vegetables were collected from 2004 to 2007 and analyzed using a multiresidue method. The most frequently detected residues were procymidone, captan, chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil. Twenty-eight percent of the samples contained pesticide residues. Strawberry, pear, apple, peach and tomato contained pesticide levels of concern. Twenty-one pesticides were found with the estimated total mean daily intake greater than the acceptable daily intake for four of the pesticides. Residues of carbaryl, diazinon and methidathion exceeded regulatory levels in (apple, strawberry, and orange).
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: Fruits
Keywords: Vegetables
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: fruits
Keywords: methidathion
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Carbaryl
Keywords: Fragaria
Keywords: Children
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Prunus
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Lycopersicon esculentum
Keywords: Chlorothalonil
Keywords: procymidone
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Malus
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: Captan
Date revised - 2011-06-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 506-510
ProQuest ID - 874189128
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Diets; Fruits; Vegetables; Pesticide residues; methidathion; Carbaryl; Children; Chlorpyrifos; Chlorothalonil; procymidone; Pesticides; Diazinon; Captan; fruits; Lycopersicon esculentum; Malus; Fragaria; Prunus
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology [Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.]. Vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 506-510. May 2011.
Corporate institution author - Gebara, AB; Ciscato, CHP; Monteiro, SH; Souza, G S
DOI - 45c56b3d-dc9d-400b-b5e1mfgefd101; 14763878; 0007-4861; 1432-0800 English

465. Gebremariam, S. Y. and Beutel, M. W. Effects of drain-fill cycling on chlorpyrifos mineralization in wetland sediment-water microcosms. 2010; 78, (11): 1337-1341.

Rec #: 60499
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Constructed treatment wetlands are efficient at retaining a range of pesticides, however the ultimate fate of many of these compound is not well understood. This study evaluated the effect of drain-fill cycling on the mineralization of chlorpyrifos, a commonly used organophosphate insecticide, in wetland sediment-water microcosms. Monitoring of the fate of (14)C ring-labeled chlorpyrifos showed that drain-fill cycling resulted in significantly lower mineralization rates relative to permanently flooded conditions. The reduction in mineralization was linked to enhanced partitioning of the pesticide to the sediment phase, which could potentially inhibit chlorpyrifos hydrolysis and mineralization. Over the nearly two-month experiment, less than 2.5% of the added compound was mineralized, While rates of mineralization in this experiment were higher than those reported for other soils and sediments, their low magnitude underscores how persistent chlorpyrifos and its metabolites are in aquatic environments, and suggests that management strategies and ecological risk assessment should focus more on ultimate mineralization rather than the simple disappearance of the parent compound. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Mineralization, Constructed treatment wetlands, Sediment,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 571RP

466. Gebremariam, S. Y.; Beutel, M. W.; Flury, M.; Harsh, J. B., and Yonge, D. R. Nonsingular Adsorption/Desorption of Chlorpyrifos in Soils and Sediments: Experimental Results and Modeling. 2012; 46, (2): 869-875.

Rec #: 60509
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: At environmentally relevant concentrations in soils and sediments, chlorpyrifos, a hydrophobic organic insecticide, showed strong adsorption that correlated significantly with organic matter content. Chlorpyrifos desorption followed a nonsingular falling desorption isotherm that was estimated using a memory-dependent mathematical model. Desorption of chlorpyrifos was biphasic in nature, with a labile and nonlabile component. The labile component comprised 18-28% of the original solid-phase concentration, and the residue was predicted to slowly partition to the aqueous phase, implying long-term desorption from contaminated soils or sediments. The newly proposed mechanism to explain sorption/desorption hysteresis and biphasic desorption is the unfavorable thermodynamic energy landscape arising from limitation of diffusivity of water molecules through the strongly hydrophobic domain of soils and sediments. Modeling results suggest that contaminated, soils and sediments could be secondary long-term sources of pollution. Long-term desorption may explain the detection of chlorpyrifos and other hydrophobic organic compounds in aquatic systems far from application sites, an observation that contradicts conventional transport predictions.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 876VQ

467. Gebremariam, S. Y.; Beutel, M. W.; Yonge, D. R.; Flury, M., and Harsh, J. B. Adsorption and Desorption of Chlorpyrifos to Soils and Sediments.

Rec #: 74779
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Chlorpyrifos, one of the most widely used insecticides, has been detected in air, rain, marine sediments, surface waters, drinking water wells, and solid and liquid dietary samples collected from urban and rural areas. Its metabolite, TCP, has also been widely detected in urinary samples collected from people of various age groups. With a goal of elucidating the factors that control the environmental contamination, impact, persistence, and ecotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, we examine, in this review, the peer-reviewed literature relating to chlorpyrifos adsorption and desorption behavior in various solid-phase matrices. Adsorption tends to reduce chlorpyrifos mobility, but adsorption to erodible particulates, dissolved organic matter, or mobile inorganic colloids enhances its mobility. Adsorption to suspended sediments and particulates constitutes a major off-site migration route for chlorpyrifos to surface waters, wherein it poses a potential danger to aquatic organisms. Adsorption increases the persistence of chlorpyrifos in the environment by reducing its avail- ability to a wide range of dissipative and degradative forces, whereas the effect of adsorption on its ecotoxicity is dependent upon the route of exposure. Chlorpyrifos adsorbs to soils, aquatic sediments, organic matter, and clay minerals to differing degrees. Its adsorption strongly correlates with organic carbon con- tent of the soils and sediments. A comprehensive review of studies that relied on the batch equilibrium technique yields mean and median Kd values for chlorpyrifos of 271 and 116 L/kg for soils, and 385 and 403 L/kg for aquatic sediments. Chlorpyrifos adsorption coefficients spanned two orders of magnitude in soils. Normalizing the partition coefficient to organic content failed to substantially reduce variability to commonly acceptable level of variation. Mean and median values for chlorpyrifos partition coefficients normalized to organic carbon, K, were 8,163 and 7,227 L/kg for soils and 13,439 and 15,500 L/kg for sediipents. This variation may result from several factors, including various experimental artifacts, variation in quality of soil organic matter, and inconsistencies in experimental methodologies. Based on this review, there appears to be no definitive quantification of chlorpyrifos adsorption or desorption characteristics. Thus, it is difficult to predict its adsorptive behavior with certainty, without resorting to experimental methods specific to the soil or sediment of interest. This limitation should be recognized in the context of current efforts to predict the risk, fate, and transport of chlorpyrifos based upon published partition coefficients. Based on a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature related to adsorption and desorption of chlorpyrifos, we propose the following key areas for future research. From this review, it becomes increasingly evident that pesticide partitioning cannot be fully accounted for by the fraction of soil or solid-matrix organic matter or carbon content. Therefore, research that probes the variation in the nature and quality of soil organic matter on pesticide adsorption is highly desirable. Pesticide persistence and bioavailability depend on insights into desorption capacity. Therefore, understanding the fate and environmental impact of hydrophobic pesticides is incomplete without new research being performed to improve insights into pesticide desorption from soils and sediments. There is also a need for greater attention and consistency in developing experimental methods aimed at estimating partition coefficients. Moreover, in such testing, choosing initial concentrations and liquid-solid ratios that are more representative of environmental conditions could improve usefulness and interpretation of data that are obtained. Future monitoring efforts should include the sampling and analysis of suspended particulates to account for suspended solid-phase CPF, a commonly underestimated fraction in surface water quality monitoring programs. Finally, management practices related to the reduction of off-site migration of CPF should be further evaluated, including alternative agricultural practices leading to reduction in soil erosion and structural best management practices, such as sedimentation ponds, treatment wetlands, and vegetated edge-of-field strips.
MESH HEADINGS: Agriculture
MESH HEADINGS: Aluminum Silicates/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/adverse effects/analysis/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Chromatography, Reverse-Phase
MESH HEADINGS: Chromatography, Thin Layer
MESH HEADINGS: Environmental Monitoring
MESH HEADINGS: Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects
MESH HEADINGS: Geologic Sediments/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Insecticides/adverse effects/analysis/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Soil/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Soil Pollutants/adverse effects/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Water Quality eng

468. Gebremariam, Seyoum Yami and Beutel, Marc W. Mineralization, Sorption and Desorption of Chlorpyrifos in Aquatic Sediments and Soils. 2011: (UMI# 3460385 ).

Rec #: 51659
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Increased utilization of agrochemicals poses a substantial public health and ecological concern should they be transported to aquatic ecosystems. This dissertation presents a comprehensive literature review and results of a series of laboratory experiments investigating the mineralization, sorption and desorption of chlorpyrifos, a widely used organophosphorus insecticide. An extensive review of literature found that published sorption coefficients for chlorpyrifos in soils and sediments spanned up to two orders of magnitude. Normalizing the partition coefficient to organic content failed to substantially reduce variability, indicating the difficulty in predicting the sorptive behavior of chlorpyrifos without resorting to experimental methods specific to the soil or sediment of interest. Mineralization was studied using laboratory microcosms operated under drain-fill and permanently flooded conditions. Drain-fill cycling resulted in significantly lower mineralization rates relative to the permanently flooded condition due to enhanced partitioning of the pesticide to the sediment phase. Mineralization half-lives were 5-6 years and confirmed that chlorpyrifos and its metabolites can persist in aquatic environments for decades before they completely dissipate, particularly if sorbed to sediment. Sorption and desorption was studied using eight different aquatic soils and sediments using the batch equilibrium method. Sorption significantly correlated with organic content. The K d values varied from 35.2 L/kg in low organic reservoir sediment to 123.3 L/kg in moderately organic cranberry soils. The Koc values varied from 3,606 to 5,983 L/kg. Desorption of chlorpyrifos exhibited hysteresis that increased with organic content and occurred in a dual mode with a labile and non-labile fraction. A mathematical model was used to determine the fraction of the labile component and the long-term fate of the non-labile component. The model quantified the long-term desorption of chlorpyrifos under repeated desorption events and predicted that contaminated aquatic soils and sediments can serve as a secondary and long-term source for chlorpyrifos pollution. Results also suggested that unfavorable energy changes during desorption, along with limitation on diffusivity of water molecules through the hydrophobic region of the organic fraction, may explain the observed hysteresis and biphasic nature of chlorpyrifos desorption.
Start Page: 216
ISSN/ISBN: 9781124721712
Keywords: Sorption
Keywords: 0543:Civil engineering
Keywords: Applied sciences
Keywords: Hysteresis
Keywords: Mineralization
Keywords: Soil pollution
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: 0470:Environmental Health
Keywords: Insecticide desorption
Keywords: 0481:Soil sciences
Keywords: Wetlands
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Keywords: Biological sciences
Keywords: 0775:Environmental engineering
Gebremariam, Seyoum Yami
0543: Civil engineering
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2011
Insecticide desorption
Health and environmental sciences
Applied sciences
Soil pollution
0775: Environmental engineering
0470: Environmental Health
0481: Soil sciences
Biological sciences English

469. Gencer, N; Arslan, O, and Gencer, N. In Vitro Effects of Some Pesticides on Pon1q192 and Pon1r192 Isoenzymes From Human Serum. 2011 Feb; 20, (3): 590-596.

Rec #: 43559
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) contains two polymorphic forms, Q (glutamine) or R (arginine) located at codon 192. The Q isoform has a higher activity for hydrolysis of diazoxon, sarin, and soman; whereas the R isoform has a higher activity for hydrolysis of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon. In this study, the in vitro effects of commonly used pesticides (Purtapyr, Roundup, Agrofarm and Practicur) on purified human serum Q and R isoen-zymes were investigated. Q and R isoforms were separately purified with ammonium sulphate precipitation and hy-drophobic interaction chromatography, and the in vitro effects of the pesticides on purifying Q and R were determined using paraoxon as a substrate. IC sub(50) values of these pesticides ex-hibiting inhibition effects were found from graphs of paraoxonase activity percentage by plotting their concentrations. The inhibition kinetics (Ki) interaction of these pesticides with the human serum Q and R isoen-zymes were also determined.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Sulfates
Keywords: Ammonium
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Chromatography
Keywords: Kinetics
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Hydrolysis
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 590-596
ProQuest ID - 918041167
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Sulfates; Ammonium; Chromatography; Kinetics; Pesticides; Hydrolysis
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Fresenius Environmental Bulletin [Fresenius Environ. Bull.]. Vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 590-596. Feb 2011.
Corporate institution author - Gencer, N; Arslan, O
DOI - MD-0015856187; 14690807; 1018-4619 English

470. Gennari, M. ; Messina, C.; Abbate, C.; Baglieri, A., and Negre, M. Adsorption of chlorpyrifos-methyl on some soil components. Influence of pH, ionic strength and organic acids. 2007; 16, (7): 764-769.

Rec #: 60539
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Research was carried out on the adsorption of chlorpyrifos- methyl (CLP-m) by some soil colloids in both pure and associated forms. A preliminary screening shows a good affinity of CLP-m for humic acid and smectite (93% and 75%, respectively), but little affinity for ferrihydrite (25%). Among the binary associations tested, smectite with addition of 4% humic acid produced the best results (85% adsorption). Pure smectite and the smectite-4% humic acid binary system were used for a more detailed examination of the effects of pH, ionic strength and organic acids in the solution on adsorption capacity of CLP-m. Adsorption appeared to be inversely correlated to pH, with mean values of 52% and 65% under alkaline pH on smectite and the binary association, respectively. When ionic strength increased, so did adsorption, which was hypothesised as being of the cooperative type. The organic acids, added to the liquid phase, reduced the adsorption of CLP-m on both colloids with a more marked effect on the smectite.
Keywords: chlorpyrifos-methyl, adsorption, soil colloids, pH, ionic strength,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 197QW

471. Gennari, Mara; Messina, Cristina; Abbate, Cristina; Baglieri, Andrea; Boursier, Carlotta, and Gennari, Mara. Solubility and Adsorption Behaviors of Chlorpyriphos-Methyl in the Presence of Surfactants. 2009 Mar; 44, (3): 235-240.

Rec #: 41419
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In the present work changes in the adsorption of the pesticide chlorpyrifos-methyl (CLP-m) on soil colloids induced by application of surfactants were determined using a batch equilibrium method. The surfactants used were sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), Tween 20, and dihexadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DHAB). The adsorption isotherms of CLP-m in aqueous medium and in surfactant solutions at concentration equal to the critical micelle concentration (CMC) fitted the Freunlich adsorption equation generally with R2 values greater than 0.96. While the addition of SDS and DHAB decreased the pesticide adsorption, the addition of Tween 20 increased the pesticide adsorption. The increases or decreases in the adsorption in the experiment revealed that the behavior of CLP-m in soil water-systems mainly depends on the type of surfactant. Moreover water solubility of CLP-m changes by the three surfactants below and above their CMC were studied. While the solubility of CLP-m was enhanced by SDS both below and above the CMC, the solubility of the pesticide was enhanced by DHAB only above the CMC. Tween 20 did not influence the solubility of CLP-m.
Keywords: Sodium
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Sulfates
Keywords: Behavior
Keywords: Colloids
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: Agricultural wastes
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Adsorption
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Surfactants
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Date revised - 2009-06-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 235-240
ProQuest ID - 20669703
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sulfates; Sodium; Soil; Colloids; Behavior; Agricultural wastes; Pesticides; Adsorption; Surfactants
Last updated - 2012-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes [J. Environ. Sci. Health, Pt. B: Pestic., Food Contam., Agric. Wastes]. Vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 235-240. Mar 2009.
Corporate institution author - Gennari, Mara; Messina, Cristina; Abbate, Cristina; Baglieri, Andrea; Boursier, Carlotta
DOI - MD-0009875945; 9448533; 0360-1234 English

472. Georgakopoulos, Panagiotis; Mylona, Aggeliki; Athanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Drosinos, Eleftherios H., and Skandamis, Panagiotis N. Evaluation of cost-effective methods in the pesticide residue analysis of non-fatty baby foods. 2009 Aug 1-; 115, (3): 1164-1169.

Rec #: 5850
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Three non-fatty ready-to-eat baby food matrices (fruits: juice, pur+_e and cocktail plus rice flour/starch and sugar) were fortified with 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg of dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, methidathion, phosalone and diazinon. Simple methods including extraction by ethyl acetate [EtAc] and acetone partition and determination by gas chromatography with NitrogenÇôPhosphorus Detector (GCÇôNPD) were used. Acceptable pesticides recoveries (70Çô110%), low detection and quantification limits (0.001 to >0.1 mg/kg and 0.005 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) and repeatabilities (%RSDs), in 0.01 mg/kg, within 2.9Çô13.9% were observed. However, analytes recoveries were affected (p < 0.05) by both the baby food formulation and the extraction method used. Specifically, fruits pur+_e and cocktail EtAc extracts gave excessively over-(dimethoate recoveries of 119.7Çô153.5%) or underestimation (phosalone and especially diazinon recoveries of 19.3Çô79.2%) in contrast to fruits juice (e.g., 61.3Çô87.9%). Also, EtAc extracts showed higher amount of lipophilic compounds and provided lower recoveries for non-polar analytes than those of acetone partition. Consequently, the examined methods may be successfully applied in non-fatty baby foods with the matrix-matched standards determination, following improvements of certain parameters in relation to the clean-up of samples. Baby food/ Pesticide residues/ Gas chromatography

473. Georgakopoulos, Panagiotis; Zachari, Rodanthi; Mataragas, Marios; Athanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Drosinos, Eleftherios H., and Skandamis, Panagiotis N. Optimisation of octadecyl (C18) sorbent amount in QuEChERS analytical method for the accurate organophosphorus pesticide residues determination in low-fatty baby foods with response surface methodology. 2011 Sep 15-; 128, (2): 536-542.

Rec #: 4140
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Three low-fatty baby food matrices were fortified with 0.01Çô0.2 mg/kg of phorate, diazinon, chlorpyrifos and methidathion. A ÇŁquick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safeÇĄ Çô like method (QuEChERS) was used. Quantities of octadecyl (C18) sorbent differed with fortification level and matrix fat, based on central composite experimental design. Quantification was performed by NitrogenÇôPhosphorus Detector gas chromatography, using matrix-matched standards. The highest (p < 0.05) recoveries were observed for methidathion, the lowest fortification levels for a specific C18 amount and the lowest C18 amounts. In meals containing vegetables (1.9% fat) and lamb (3.0% fat), 180Çô210 mg C18 gave recoveries from 67.0% to 105.0% and absence of co-extracts. Yogurt dessert (4.5% fat) required 200Çô230 mg C18 for similar results. Recoveries could also be predicted with <20% error by a polynomial model. The results suggest that modified QuEChERS could be effectively used in the low-fatty baby meals residue analysis. Baby food/ Pesticide residues/ QuEChERS/ Octadecyl/ Gas chromatography/ Central composite design

474. Georgopoulos, P. G.; Wang, S. W.; Yang, Y. C.; Xue, J. P.; Zartarian, V. G.; McCurdy, T., and Ozkaynak, H. K. Biologically based modeling of multimedia, multipathway, multiroute population exposures to arsenic. 2008; 18, (5): 462-476.

Rec #: 60599
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
ISI Document Delivery No.: 339DJ

475. Georgopoulos, Panos G; Sasso, Alan F; Isukapalli, Sastry S; Lioy, Paul J; Vallero, Daniel a; Okino, Miles; Reiter, Larry, and Georgopoulos, Panos G. Reconstructing Population Exposures to Environmental Chemicals From Biomarkers: Challenges and Opportunities. 2009 Feb; 19, (2): 149-171.

Rec #: 45079
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A conceptual/computational framework for exposure reconstruction from biomarker data combined with auxiliary exposure-related data is presented, evaluated with example applications, and examined in the context of future needs and opportunities. This framework employs physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modeling in conjunction with numerical "inversion" techniques. To quantify the value of different types of exposure data "accompanying" biomarker data, a study was conducted focusing on reconstructing exposures to chlorpyrifos, from measurements of its metabolite levels in urine. The study employed biomarker data as well as supporting exposure-related information from the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS), Maryland, while the MENTOR-3P system (Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk with Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic modeling for Populations) was used for PBTK modeling. Recently proposed, simple numerical reconstruction methods were applied in this study, in conjunction with PBTK models. Two types of reconstructions were studied using (a) just the available biomarker and supporting exposure data and (b) synthetic data developed via augmenting available observations. Reconstruction using only available data resulted in a wide range of variation in estimated exposures. Reconstruction using synthetic data facilitated evaluation of numerical inversion methods and characterization of the value of additional information, such as study-specific data that can be collected in conjunction with the biomarker data. Although the NHEXAS data set provides a significant amount of supporting exposure-related information, especially when compared to national studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), this information is still not adequate for detailed reconstruction of exposures under several conditions, as demonstrated here. The analysis presented here provides a starting point for introducing improved designs for future biomonitoring studies, from the perspective of exposure reconstruction; identifies specific limitations in existing exposure reconstruction methods that can be applied to population biomarker data; and suggests potential approaches for addressing exposure reconstruction from such data.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2009) 19, 149-171; doi:10.1038/jes.2008.9; published online 26 March 2008
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Physiology
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Computer applications
Keywords: Nutrition
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: Pharmacokinetics
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Epidemiology
Keywords: Inversion
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Risk Abstracts
Keywords: biomonitoring
Keywords: R2 23060:Medical and environmental health
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: USA, Maryland
Keywords: Internet
Date revised - 2010-09-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, Maryland
Pages - 149-171
ProQuest ID - 754885463
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Data processing; Metabolites; Computer applications; biomarkers; Nutrition; Pharmacokinetics; Models; Chlorpyrifos; Epidemiology; Inversion; Urine; biomonitoring; Internet; Chemicals; Bioindicators; Pesticides; Physiology; USA, Maryland
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 149-171. Feb 2009.
Corporate institution author - Georgopoulos, Panos G; Sasso, Alan F; Isukapalli, Sastry S; Lioy, Paul J; Vallero, Daniel A; Okino, Miles; Reiter, Larry
DOI - 6aff6d8f-ea08-4ff9-b6e8mfgefd108; 13443684; 1559-0631 English

476. Geter, David R; Kan, H Lynn; Lowe, Ezra R; Rick, David L; Charles, Grantley D; Gollapudi, Bhaskar B; Mattsson, Joel L, and Geter, David R. Investigations of Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Response, and Protein Binding in Chlorpyrifos Exposed Rat Neuronal Pc12 Cells. 2008 Jan; 18, (1): 17-23.

Rec #: 42369
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide. In addition to its known properties of cholinesterase inhibition, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested as a possible toxic mechanism. To investigate CPF-generated ROS,
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