Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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Results of these experiments and comparisons of recorded fate and effects with temperate studies have been published previously. The present paper discusses the pros and cons of the methodologies applied and provides indications for i) possible improvements; ii) important aspects that should be considered when performing model ecosystem experiments in the tropics; iii) future research.
Keywords: Linuron
Keywords: Thailand
Keywords: Tropical climates
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Sustainability Science Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Keywords: Environmental factors
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Environmental pollution
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Trophic structure
Keywords: M2 551.5:General (551.5)
Keywords: Q5 01505:Prevention and control
Keywords: Carbendazim
Keywords: Sampling
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pollution
Keywords: Modelling
Keywords: Climate models
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Climate
Keywords: Environmental impact
Keywords: Stress
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Tropical environment
Keywords: Tropical environments
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Fungicides
Keywords: Zoobenthos
Keywords: Side effects
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Thailand
Pages - 940-946
ProQuest ID - 855260358
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Insecticides; Trophic structure; Tropical environment; Fungicides; Pesticides; Herbicides; Zoobenthos; Environmental factors; Modelling; Linuron; Chlorpyrifos; Climate; Carbendazim; Sampling; Pollution; Side effects; Models; Environmental pollution; Climate models; Tropical climates; Tropical environments; Environmental impact; Stress; Thailand
Last updated - 2011-12-13
Corporate institution author - Daam, Michiel A
DOI - OB-756f85cd-c601-47b5-8443csamfg201; 14366302; CS1146249; 0269-7491 English

277. Dabrowski, J. M.; Murray, K.; Ashton, P. J., and Leaner, J. J. Agricultural impacts on water quality and implications for virtual water trading decisions: Participation and Evaluation for Sustainable River Basin Governance. 2009 Feb 15-; 68, (4): 1074-1082.


Rec #: 5810
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Research on the flow of virtual water associated with agricultural crop production and trade has focussed almost entirely on water quantity. It is pertinent to consider and quantify the opportunity costs in terms of reduced water quality associated with crop production. This paper investigates the impacts of water quality on virtual water trading by creating a proxy for water quality impacts by calculating the amount of water required to dilute nonpoint-source agrochemical inputs to relevant water quality guideline values. The quantity of water required for dilution of five agrochemicals (two nutrients; nitrogen and phosphorus and three insecticides; azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) was estimated for five crops in South Africa (maize, wheat, sugar cane, citrus and cotton) and compared to consumption of irrigation water (blue water) and rainfall (green water) for the same crops. Results indicate that the volume of water required for dilution is similar to the total sum of green and blue water required for crop production, but significantly greater than blue water use (irrigation use). For all crops phosphorus losses require greater amounts of water for dilution than for nitrogen, while pesticides result in the greatest water quality use. Estimates of water quality use are based on assumptions for a number of input variables (i.e. fertilizer application rates, percentage loss of agrochemicals from cropped areas). A Monte Carlo analysis (5000 iterations) was run to randomly select input variables from within defined ranges. Water quality use was calculated and expressed as a factor of blue water use. For all crops the average factor indicated that the volume of water required for dilution of all agrochemicals was greater than that required for irrigation. The results of this study clearly indicate that the impacts of agriculture on water quality need to be considered in virtual water trading scenarios. The incorporation of a method to predict impacts on water quality provides a comparative tool which generates a more holistic frame of reference for decision making with regard to impacts on the water resource and virtual water trading. Virtual water/ Water quality/ Green water/ Blue water

278. Daglioglu, Nebile; Akcan, Ramazan; Gulmen, Mete Korkut; Yener, Fadile; Efeoglu, Pinar, and Daglioglu, Nebile. Pesticide Intoxications in Cukurova, Turkey: Three Years Analysis. 2011 Dec; 30, (12): 1892-1895.


Rec #: 46999
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In Cukurova region, pesticide poisonings still remain an unfortunate cause of death, which led to the present study. The autopsy records of Adana Branch of the Council of Forensic Medicine, between 2006 and 2008, were evaluated retrospectively. Deaths that were attributed to pesticide poisoning were included in the scope of the study to identify the type of pesticide, and etiology of intoxication. The frequency and distribution of intoxications were also analyzed in terms of sex and age. In the studied period, a total of 4199 autopsies were referred to the forensic toxicology laboratory for pesticide analysis. Seventy-two cases were positive for pesticide analysis. Of these, 42 (58.33%) were male and 30 (41.67%) were female, with a mean age of 38.8 +/- 20.6 years. Among the inspected pesticides, endosulfan was found to be the most common with 47.2% of prevalence, followed by dichlorvos. This report showed that certain pesticides, endosulfan in particular, remains as common cause of poisonings in Cukurova region.
Keywords: Intoxication
Keywords: Autopsy
Keywords: Age
Keywords: Etiology
Keywords: Pharmacy And Pharmacology
Keywords: Poisoning
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Forensic science
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Dichlorvos
Keywords: Sex
Date revised - 2012-03-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1892-1895
ProQuest ID - 915449070
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Intoxication; Autopsy; Etiology; Age; Pesticides; Forensic science; Poisoning; Dichlorvos; Sex; Endosulfan
Last updated - 2012-03-08
Corporate institution author - Daglioglu, Nebile; Akcan, Ramazan; Gulmen, Mete Korkut; Yener, Fadile; Efeoglu, Pinar
DOI - OB-09b719aa-16f5-4539-b205mfgefd101; 16150569; 0960-3271 English

279. Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; London, Leslie, and Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel. Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in South African Raw Wheat. 2009 Oct; 28, (10): 864-869.


Rec #: 44569
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The presence of pesticide residues in wheat produced and imported in South Africa was determined and their health risks assessed. Pesticides were detected in all local (median = 1, range: 1-3, n = 71) and imported (median = 1, range: 1-6, n = 13) samples. Multiple pesticides (>1 pesticide) were detected in about 30% local samples and 39% imported samples. Eight different pesticides were detected in total. The most frequently detected pesticides were mercaptothion (99%), permethrin (19%) and chlorpyrifos (17%). Nine (11%) samples exceeded the EU wheat MRL for permethrin (0.05 mg/kg) which included 7 (10%) local samples and 2 (15%) imported samples. The highest fenitrothion level (0.65 mg/kg) corresponds to an intake that was below but near the estimated short-term safety threshold. The results call for an investigation into the levels of pesticide residues in cereal-based food and for tighter regulation and regular monitoring by government and industry.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: wheat
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Triticum aestivum
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: permethrin
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Keywords: South Africa
Keywords: Crops
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Date revised - 2009-09-01
Language of summary - English
Location - South Africa
Pages - 864-869
ProQuest ID - 20806715
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Triticum aestivum; South Africa; Pesticide residues; wheat; permethrin; Pesticides; Risk assessment; Chlorpyrifos; Crops
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Crop Protection [Crop Prot.]. Vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 864-869. Oct 2009.
Corporate institution author - Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; London, Leslie
DOI - MD-0010463630; 10917659; 0261-2194 English

280. Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Naik, Ina; Channa, Kalavati; London, Leslie, and Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Levels Before and After First Season Chlorpyrifos Spraying Amongst Farm Workers in the Western Cape, South Africa. 2011 Feb; 46, (2): 163-172.


Rec #: 40009
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The study investigated urinary levels of dialkyl phosphates resulting from pesticide exposure amongst 40 farm workers. Workers were tested (urinary dialkyl phosphate levels, anthropometry, short exposure questionnaire) before and after the first day of seasonal chlorpyrifos spraying. Median baseline urinary dialkyl phosphates was high amongst both non-applicators (1587.5 mu g/g creatinine, n = 8) and applicators (365.6 mu g/g creatinine, n = 9). There was not much evidence of an increase in post-spray dialkyl phosphates levels from pre-spray levels amongst both applicators and non-applicators. Hours mixing, spraying, driving a tractor and hours worked by non-applicators were not significantly associated with an increase in post-spray dialkyl phosphate levels, adjusting for age, height, weight, gender, use of empty pesticide containers and self-reported kidney problems. Past applicator status was weakly positively associated with pre-spray dialkyl phosphate levels adjusting for age, height, weight, and gender, self-reported kidney problems, smoking and alcohol ( beta = 1019.5, p = 0.307, R2= 0.28). The high dialkyl phosphate levels call for an epidemiological investigation into the health effects of organophosphorous pesticides.
Keywords: Age
Keywords: South Africa, Western Cape
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: H 1000:Occupational Safety and Health
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Phosphates
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: farms
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Gender
Keywords: Kidney
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Date revised - 2011-04-01
Language of summary - English
Location - South Africa, Western Cape
Number of references - 50
Pages - 163-172
ProQuest ID - 860378395
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Age; Phosphates; Urine; farms; Gender; Pesticides; Kidney; Occupational exposure; South Africa, Western Cape
Last updated - 2012-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes [J. Environ. Sci. Health, Pt. B: Pestic., Food Contam., Agric. Wastes]. Vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 163-172. Feb 2011.
Corporate institution author - Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Naik, Ina; Channa, Kalavati; London, Leslie
DOI - 3f7e2b9f-c6bd-435b-9696mfgefd108; 14432023; 0360-1234; 1532-4109
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Dalvie, M. A. , Africa, A. and London, L. (2009) Change in the quantity and toxicity of pesticides sold in South African Crop sectors, 1994-1999. Environ. Int., 35:4, pp. 683-687.
Dalvie, M. A. and London, L. (2001) Unwanted agricultural chemicals in Stellenbosch: A need for public health intervention. South African Journal of Science, 97:7, pp. 309-312.
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Duncan, R. C. and Griffith, J. (1985) Monitoring study of urinary metabolites and selected symptomatology among Florida citrus workers. J Toxicol Environ Health., 16, pp. 509-521.
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281. Dance-Barnes, S. T.; Kock, N. D.; Floyd, H. S.; Moore, J. E.; Mosley, L. J.; D'agostino, R. B. Jr; Pettenati, M. J., and Miller, M. S. Effects of Mutant Human Ki-Ras(G12c) Gene Dosage on Murine Lung Tumorigenesis and Signaling to Its Downstream Effectors.


Rec #: 51169
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Studies in cell culture have suggested that the level of RAS expression can influence the transformation of cells and the signaling pathways stimulated by mutant RAS expression. However, the levels of RAS expression in vivo appear to be subject to feedback regulation, limiting the total amount of RAS protein that can be expressed.
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