Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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in phosmet residues oil blueberry fruit. Degradation was accompanied, by microbial proliferation of phosmet-adapted bacteria. Preferential utilization of phosmet as a carbon source was investigated in minimal salt solutions Inoculated with either E. agglomerans or P ftuorescens and supplemented with phosmet, or phosmet and glucose. Microbial degradation concurrent with the proliferation of P. fluorescens was similar in both liquid systems, indicative of preferential utilization of phosmet as an energy substrate. E. agglomerans exhibited the ability to degrade phosmet as a carbon source, yet in the presence of added glucose, phosmet degradation occurred within the 1st 24 h only followed by total population mortality resulting In no appreciable degradation. Characteristic utilization of glucose by this isolate suggests a possible switch in carbon substrate utilization away from phosmet, which resulted in toxicity from the remaining phosmet. Overall, microbial metabolism of phosmet as an energy source resulted in significant degradation of residues on blueberries and in minimal salt solutions, Thus, the role of adapted strains of E. agglomerans and P fluorescens in degrading phosmet on blueberries represents an extensive plant-microorganism relationship, which is essential to determination of phosmet persistence under pre- and postharvest conditions.
Keywords: degradation, Enterobacter agglomerans, microbial mineralization,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 223XJ

265. Csermely, T.; Kalasz, H.; Petroianu, G. A.; Kuca, K.; Darvas, F.; Ludanyi, K.; Mudhafar, A. A., and Tekes, K. Analysis of Pyridinium Aldoximes - A Chromatographic Approach. 2008; 15, (23 ): 2401-2418.

Rec #: 58459
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pyridinium aldoximes are used as antidotes to organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors. All pyridinium aldoximes (oximes) are highly polar quaternary ammonium compounds showing low to minimal blood-brain-barrier (BBB) penetration. Oximes are separated using reversed-phase (RP) HPLC methods and/or thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The chemical structures, elementary compositions, molecular sizes and the calculated logP values of several mono-and bis-pyridinium aldoximes are given. Chromatographic and electrophoretic analyses of oximes are detailed, including the stationary and mobile phase composition and the mode of detection. Degradation pathways and products are also discussed. To characterize oximes lipophilicity/hydrophilicity an in silico method was used and expanded as to describe organophosphorus compound adducts with several pyridinium aldoximes.
Keywords: Pyridinium aldoximes, lipophilicity, chromatography, blood-brain-barrier
ISI Document Delivery No.: 360CC

266. Cui, F.; Tan, Y., and Qiao, C. L. Filariasis Vector in China: Insecticide Resistance and Population Structure of Mosquito Culex pipiens Complex. 2007; 63, (5): 453-458.

Rec #: 580
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DDVP,EPRN,PPX,PRN

267. Cui, Y; Guo, J; Xu, B; Chen, Z, and Cui, Y. Genotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos and Cypermethrin to Icr Mouse Hepatocytes. 2011 Jan; 21, (1): 70-74.

Rec #: 40189
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Massive application of pesticides had generated a considerable concern in the public. Potentials of chlorpyrifos [0,0-diethyl-0-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphorothionate] and cypermethrin [(RS)- alpha -cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS)-cw-trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2, 2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] to induce the excision-repairable DNA damage, DNA strand breakage, and DNA hypomethylation in ICR mouse hepatocytes were investigated. It was showed that chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin didn't increase the incorporation of super(3)H-TdR into DNA of ICR mouse hepatocytes but increased the frequency of comet cells and decreased the 5MeC percentage of ICR mouse hepatocytes. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin induced no excision-repairable DNA damage but led to DNA strand breakage and DNA hypomethylation in ICR mouse hepatocytes.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: DNA damage
Keywords: cypermethrin
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Cypermethrin
Keywords: Hepatocytes
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Genotoxicity
Keywords: DNA
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Date revised - 2011-06-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 70-74
ProQuest ID - 874184252
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; DNA damage; Cypermethrin; Hepatocytes; Genotoxicity; Pesticides; cypermethrin; DNA
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods [Toxicol. Mech. Methods]. Vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 70-74. Jan 2011.
Corporate institution author - Cui, Y; Guo, J; Chen, Z
DOI - MD-0016456328; 14972719; 1537-6516 English

268. Culbreth, M. E.; Harrill, J. A.; Freudenrich, T. M.; Mundy, W. R., and Shafer, T. J. Comparison of chemical-induced changes in proliferation and apoptosis in human and mouse neuroprogenitor cells. 2012; 33, (6): 1499-1510.

Rec #: 58479
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: There is a need to develop rapid and efficient models to screen chemicals for their potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity. Use of in vitro neuronal models, including human cells, is one approach that allows for timely, cost-effective toxicity screening. The present study compares the sensitivity of human (ReN CX) and mouse (mCNS) neuroprogenitor cell lines to chemicals using a multiplex assay for proliferation and apoptosis, endpoints that are critical for neural development. Cells were exposed to 0.001-100 mu M concentrations of 11 chemicals (cadmium, chlorpyrifos oxon, dexamethasone, dieldrin, ketamine, lead, maneb, methylmercury, nicotine, trans-retinoic acid, and trimethyltin) reported in the literature to affect proliferation and/or apoptosis, and 5 chemicals (dimethyl pthalate, glyphosate, omeprazole, saccharin, and D-sorbitol) with no reports of effects on either endpoint. High-content screening of markers for proliferation (BrdU incorporation) and apoptosis (activated caspase 3 and p53) was used to assess the effect of chemicals in both cell lines. Of the chemicals tested, methylmercury, cadmium, dieldrin, chlorpyrifos oxon, trans-retinoic acid, and trimethyltin decreased proliferation by at least 50% of control in either the ReN CX or mCNS cells. None of the chemicals tested activated caspase 3 or p53 in the ReN CX cells, while methylmercury, cadmium, dieldrin, chlorpyrifos oxon, trimethyltin, and glyphosate all induced at least a doubling in these apoptotic markers in the mCNS cells. Compared to control, cadmium, trans-retinoic acid, and trimethyltin decreased cell viability (ATP levels) by at least 50% in the ReN CX cells, while cadmium, dieldrin, and methylmercury decreased viability by at least 50% in the mCNS cells. Based on these results, BrdU is an appropriate marker for assessing chemical effects on proliferation, and human cells are more sensitive than mouse cells for this endpoint. By contrast, caspase 3 and p53 were altered by environmental chemicals in mouse, but not in human cells. Therefore, these markers are not appropriate to assess the ability of environmental chemicals to induce apoptosis in the ReN CX cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Keywords: Neuroprogenitor cells, Species extrapolation, Developmental
ISI Document Delivery No.: 063UI

269. Cunha, Jo+úo Paulo; Chueca, Patricia; Garcer+í, Cruz, and Molt+¦, Enrique. Risk assessment of pesticide spray drift from citrus applications with air-blast sprayers in Spain. 2012 Dec; 42, (0): 116-123.

Rec #: 5410
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: There have been no previous risk assessment studies on citrus pesticides in Spain. The aim of this work was to estimate the risks caused by worst-case drift scenarios of the principal pesticides used on the crop, assessing possible damage to the environment and human health. A field survey was carried out, characterizing the specific conditions of plant protection product applications to citrus crops in Spain. Six targets were identified as being the most affected by droplet spray drift in Spain, and more broadly in most Mediterranean conditions: aquatic organisms, earthworms, bees, adult bystanders, child bystanders and residents. Three drift estimation models were used to assess the amount of drift at specific distances downwind of a field in order to calculate Risk Indicators. These showed safe conditions for earthworms and residents, but also indicated that some pesticides may pose a risk to aquatic organisms, even with a 20-ám buffer zone, and also to bees, and adult and child bystanders. In general, results generated similar consequences of hazard risk independent of the drift prediction model used, indicating that toxicological data are more relevant for predicting risks. Buffer zone/ Environmental risk/ Bystander exposure/ Drift models

270. Curtin, B. F.; Seetharam, K. I.; Dhoieam, P.; Gordon, R. K.; Doctor, B. P., and Nambiar, M. P. Resveratrol induces catalytic bioscavenger paraoxonase 1 expression and protects against chemical warfare nerve agent toxicity in human cell lines. 2008; 103, (5): 1524-1535.

Rec #: 58489
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Current advances in enzyme bioscavenger prophylactic therapy against chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure are moving towards the identification of catalytic bioscavengers that can degrade large doses of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents without self destruction. This is a preferred method compared to therapy with the purified stoichiometric bioscavenger, butyrylcholinesterase, which binds OPs 1:1 and would thus require larger doses for treatment. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is one such catalytic bioscavenger that has been shown to hydrolyze OP insecticides and contribute to detoxification in animals and humans. Here we investigated the effects of a common red wine ingredient, Resveratrol (RSV), to induce the expression of PON-1 in the human hepatic cell line HC04 and evaluated the protection against CWNA simulants. Dose-response curves showed that a concentration of 20 mu M RSV was optimal in inducing PON-1 expression in HC04 cells. RSV at 20 mu M increased the extracellular PON-1 activity approximately 150% without significantly affecting the cells. Higher doses of RSV were cytotoxic to the cells. Resveratrol also induced PON-1 in the human lung cell line A549. RSV pre-treatment significantly (P= 0.05) protected the hepatic cells against exposure to 2 x LD(50) of soman and sarin simulants. However, lung cells were protected against soman simulant exposure but not against sarin simulant exposure following RSV treatment. In conclusion, these studies indicate that dietary inducers, such as RSV, can up-regulate PON-1, a catalytic bioscavenger, which can then hydrolyze and protect against CWNA-induced toxicity, providing a prospective new method to protect against CWNA exposure.
Keywords: nerve agents, organophosphates, transcriptional inducers, paraoxonase
ISI Document Delivery No.: 285HP

271. Curwin, Brian D; Hein, Misty J; Barr, Dana B; Striley, Cynthia, and Curwin, Brian D. Comparison of Immunoassay and Hplc-Ms/Ms Used to Measure Urinary Metabolites of Atrazine, Metolachlor, and Chlorpyrifos From Farmers and Non-Farmers in Iowa. 2010 Mar; 20, (2): 205-212.

Rec #: 40729
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Urine samples were collected from 51 participants in a study investigating pesticide exposure among farm families in Iowa. Aliquots from the samples were sent to two different labs and analyzed for metabolites of atrazine (atrazine mercapturate), metolachlor (metolachlor mercapturate) and chlorpyrifos (TCP) by two different analytical methods: immunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). HPLC-MS/MS methods tend to be highly specific, but are costly and time consuming. Immunoassay methods are cheaper and faster, but can be less sensitive due to cross reactivity and matrix effects. Three statistical methods were employed to compare the two analytical methods. Each statistical method differed in how the samples that had results below the limit of detection (LOD) were treated. The first two methods involved an imputation procedure and the third method used maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). A fourth statistical method that modeled each lab separately using MLE was used for comparison. The immunoassay and HPLC-MS/MS methods were moderately correlated (correlation 0.40-0.49), but the immunoassay methods consistently had significantly higher geometric mean (GM) estimates for each pesticide metabolite. The GM estimates for atrazine mercapturate, metolachlor mercapturate, and TCP by immunoassay ranged from 0.16-0.98 mu gl super(-1[/s uperscript], 0.24-0.45 mu gl) super(-)1[/s uperscript] and 14-14 mu gl super(-1[/super script], respectively and by HPLC-MS/MS ranged from 0.0015-0.0039 mu gl) super(-) 1 0.12-0.16 mu gl super(-1[/s uperscript], and 2.9-3.0 mu gl) super(-)1[/sup erscript], respectively. Immunoassays tend to be cheaper and faster than HPLC-MS/MS, however, they may result in an upward bias of urinary pesticide metabolite levels.
Keywords: High-performance liquid chromatography
Keywords: Metolachlor
Keywords: Farms
Keywords: Statistics
Keywords: Mathematical models
Keywords: Mass spectrometry
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: EE 10:General Environmental Engineering
Keywords: Mass spectroscopy
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: USA, Iowa
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Atrazine
Keywords: Economics
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Immunoassays
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, Iowa
Pages - 205-212
ProQuest ID - 813595937
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - USA, Iowa; Immunoassays; Pesticides; Atrazine; Metabolites; Herbicides; Urine; Chlorpyrifos; Economics; Mass spectrometry; Metolachlor; Statistics; High-performance liquid chromatography; Mass spectroscopy; Farms; Mathematical models
Last updated - 2011-11-08
Corporate institution author - Curwin, Brian D; Hein, Misty J; Barr, Dana B; Striley, Cynthia
DOI - OB-MD-0012741857; 12503153; 1559-0631 English

272. Cyco+ä, Mariusz; ++mijowska, Agnieszka; W+¦jcik, Marcin, and Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia. Biodegradation and bioremediation potential of diazinon-degrading Serratia marcescens to remove other organophosphorus pesticides from soils. 2013 Mar 15-; 117, (0 ): 7-16.

Rec #: 2750
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The ability of diazinon-degrading Serratia marcescens to remove organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), i.e. chlorpyrifos (CP), fenitrothion (FT), and parathion (PT) was studied in a mineral salt medium (MSM) and in three soils of different characteristics. This strain was capable of using all insecticides at concentration of 50-ámg/l as the only carbon source when grown in MSM, and 58.9%, 70.5%, and 82.5% of the initial dosage of CP, FT, and PT, respectively was degraded within 14 days. The biodegradation experiment showed that autochthonous microflora in all soils was characterized by a degradation potential of all tested OPPs; however, the initial lag phases for degradation of CP and FT, especially in sandy soil, were observed. During the 42-day experiment, 45.3%, 61.4% and 72.5% of the initial dose of CP, FT, and PT, respectively, was removed in sandy soil whereas the degradation of CP, FT, and PT in the same period, in sandy loam and silty soils reached 61.4%, 79.7% and 64.2%, and 68.9%, 81.0% and 63.6%, respectively. S.-ámarcescens introduced into sterile soils showed a higher degradation potential (5Çô13%) for OPPs removal than those observed in non-sterile soil with naturally occurring attenuation. Inoculation of non-sterile soils with S.-ámarcescens enhanced the disappearance rates of all insecticides, and DT50 for CP, FT, and PT was reduced by 20.7, 11.3 and 13.0 days, and 11.9, 7.0 and 8.1 days, and 9.7, 14.5 and 12.6 days in sandy, sandy loam, and silty soils, respectively, in comparison with non-sterile soils with only indigenous microflora. This ability of S.-ámarcescens makes it a suitable strain for bioremediation of soils contaminated with OPPs. Chlorpyrifos/ Fenitrothion/ Parathion/ Serratia marcescens/ Bioremediation/ Soil

273. Cycon, M.; Wojcik, M., and Piotrowska-Seget, Z. Biodegradation of the organophosphorus insecticide diazinon by Serratia sp and Pseudomonas sp and their use in bioremediation of contaminated soil. 2009; 76, (4): 494-501.

Rec #: 58529
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An enrichment culture technique was used for the isolation of bacteria responsible for biodegradation of diazinon in soil. Three bacterial strains were screened and identified by MIDI-FAME profiling as Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas sp. All isolates were able to grow in mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with diazinon (50 mg L(-1)) as a sole carbon source, and within 14 d 80-92% of the initial dose of insecticide was degraded by the isolates and their consortium. Degradation of diazinon was accelerated when MSM was supplemented with glucose. However, this process was linked with the decrease of pH values, after glucose utilization. Studies on biodegradation in sterilized soil showed that isolates and their consortium exhibited efficient degradation of insecticide (100 Ing kg(-1) soil) with a rate constant of 0.032-0.085 d(-1), and DT(50) for diazinon was ranged from 11.5 d to 24.5 d. In contrast, degradation of insecticide in non-sterilized soil, non-supplemented earlier with diazinon, was characterized by a rate constant of 0.014 d(-1) and the 7-d lag phase, during which only 2% of applied dose was degraded. The results suggested a strong correlation between microbial activity and chemical processes during diazinon degradation. Moreover, isolated bacterial strains may have potential for use in bioremediation of diazinon-contaminated soils. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Bioremediation, Organophosphorus insecticides, Diazinon, Serratia sp.,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 462NU

274. Daam, M. A. ; Cerejeira, M. J.; Van den Brink, P. J., and Brock, T. C. M. Is it possible to extrapolate results of aquatic microcosm and mesocosm experiments with pesticides between climate zones in Europe? 2011; 18, (1): 123-126.

Rec #: 58539
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
ISI Document Delivery No.: 703IO

275. Daam, Michiel a; Den Brink, Paul J, and Daam, Michiel A. Implications of Differences Between Temperate and Tropical Freshwater Ecosystems for the Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticides. 2010 Jan; 19, (1): 24-37.

Rec #: 48149
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Despite considerable increased pesticide use over the past decades, little research has been done into their fate and effects in surface waters in tropical regions. In the present review, possible differences in response between temperate and tropical freshwaters to pesticide stress are discussed. Three underlying mechanisms for these differences are distinguished: (1) climate related parameters, (2) ecosystem sensitivity, and (3) agricultural practices. Pesticide dissipation rates and vulnerability of freshwaters appear not to be consistently higher or lower in tropical regions compared to their temperate counterparts. However, differences in fate and effects may occur for individual pesticides and taxa. Furthermore, intensive agricultural practices in tropical countries lead to a higher input of pesticides and spread of contamination over watersheds. Field studies in tropical farms on pesticide fate in the enclosed and surrounding waterways are recommended, which should ultimately lead to the development of surface water scenarios for tropical countries like developed by the Forum for the co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their use for temperate regions. Future tropical effect assessment studies should evaluate whether specific tropical taxa, not represented by the current standard test species in use, are at risk. If so, tropical model ecosystem studies evaluating pesticide concentration ranges need to be conducted to validate whether selected surrogate indigenous test species are representative for local tropical freshwater ecosystems.
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Farms
Keywords: agricultural practices
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Ecosystems
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Agricultural pollution
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Tropical Regions
Keywords: Surface Water
Keywords: taxa
Keywords: Watersheds
Keywords: Risks
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Agricultural practices
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Assessments
Keywords: Ecotoxicology
Keywords: farms
Keywords: Vulnerability
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: EE 40:Water Pollution: Monitoring, Control & Remediation
Keywords: Sensitivity
Keywords: Freshwater environments
Keywords: Climate
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: Stress
Keywords: Q5 01504:Effects on organisms
Keywords: Inland water environment
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Model Studies
Keywords: Risk
Keywords: Freshwater ecosystems
Keywords: Reviews
Keywords: Tropical environment
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Tropical environments
Keywords: Agricultural Practices
Keywords: vulnerability
Keywords: aquatic ecosystems
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 24-37
ProQuest ID - 809785322
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Ecotoxicology; Tropical environment; Agricultural pollution; Climate; Pesticides; Vulnerability; Watersheds; Inland water environment; Risks; Risk assessment; Farms; Contamination; Freshwater environments; Surface water; Stress; Models; Agricultural practices; Freshwater ecosystems; Reviews; Sensitivity; agricultural practices; taxa; farms; Tropical environments; vulnerability; aquatic ecosystems; Risk; Agricultural Chemicals; Assessments; Ecosystems; Agricultural Practices; Tropical Regions; Surface Water; Model Studies
Last updated - 2011-10-25
Corporate institution author - Daam, Michiel A; den Brink, Paul J
DOI - OB-MD-0011941471; 11834370; CS1013408; 0963-9292; 1573-3017 English

276. Daam, Michiel a; Van Den Brink, Paul J, and Daam, Michiel A. Conducting Model Ecosystem Studies in Tropical Climate Zones: Lessons Learned From Thailand and Way Forward. 2011 Apr; 159, (4): 940-946.

Rec #: 43459
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Little research has been done so far into the environmental fate and side effects of pesticides in the tropics. In addition, those studies conducted in tropical regions have focused almost exclusively on single species laboratory tests. Hence, fate and effects of pesticides on higher-tier levels have barely been studied under tropical conditions. To address this lack of knowledge, four outdoor aquatic model ecosystem experiments using two different test systems were conducted in Thailand evaluating the insecticide chlorpyrifos, the herbicide linuron and the fungicide carbendazim.
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