Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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cypermethrin was significantly enhanced in a coculture of Bacillus cereus ZH-3 and Streptomyces aureus HP-S-01. In the pure culture, longer half-lives (t(1/2) = 32.6-43.0 h) of cypermethrin were observed, as compared to the mixed cocultures (t(1/2)= 13.0 h). The optimal degradation conditions were determined to be 28.2 degrees C and pH 7.5 based on response surface methodology (RSM). Under these conditions, the mixed cultures completely metabolized cypermethrin (50 mg L(-1)) within 72 h. Analysis of degradation products of cypermethrin indicated that the microbial consortium converted cypermethrin to alpha-hydroxy-3-phenoxy-benzeneacetonitrile, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde and 4-phenoxyphenyl-2,2-dimethyl-propiophenone, and subsequently transformed these compounds with a maximum specific degradation rate (q(max)), half-saturation constant (K(s)) and inhibition constant (K(i)) of 0.1051 h(-1), 31.2289 mg L(-1) and 220.5752 mg L(-1), respectively. This is the first report of a proposed pathway of degradation of cypermethrin by hydrolysis of ester linkage and oxidization of 3-phenoxybenzyl in a coculture. Finally, this coculture is the first described mixed microbial consortium capable of metabolizing cypermethrin. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Degradation, Cypermethrin, Microbial consortium, Metabolites, Coculture
ISI Document Delivery No.: 966QO

216. Chen, S. H. ; Yang, L.; Hu, M. Y., and Liu, J. J. Biodegradation of fenvalerate and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by a novel Stenotrophomonas sp. strain ZS-S-01 and its use in bioremediation of contaminated soils. 2011; 90, (2): 755-767.

Rec #: 57829
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A bacterial strain ZS-S-01, newly isolated from activated sludge, could effectively degrade fenvalerate and its hydrolysis product 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). Based on the morphology, physiological biochemical characteristics, and 16 S rDNA sequence, strain ZS-S-01 was identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. Strain ZS-S-01 could also degrade and utilize deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, beta-cyfluthrin, and cyhalothrin as substrates for growth. Strain ZS-S-01 was capable of degrading fenvalerate rapidly without a lag phase over a wide range of pH and temperature, even in the presence of other carbon sources, and metabolized it to yield 3-PBA, then completely degraded it. No persistent accumulative product was detected by HPLC and GC/MS analysis. Studies on biodegradation in various soils showed that strain ZS-S-01 demonstrated efficient degradation of fenvalerate and 3-PBA (both 50 mg center dot kg(-1)) with a rate constant of 0.1418-0.3073 d(-1), and half-lives ranged from 2.3 to 4.9 days. Compared with the controls, the half-lives for fenvalerate and 3-PBA reduced by 16.9-156.3 days. These results highlight strain ZS-S-01 may have potential for use in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environment.
Keywords: Biodegradation, Fenvalerate, 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid, Stenotrophomonas
ISI Document Delivery No.: 737DC

217. Chen, W. Q.; Ma, H.; Bian, J. M.; Zhang, Y. Z., and Li, J. Hyper-Phosphorylation of GSK-3beta: Possible Roles in Chlorpyrifos-Induced Behavioral Alterations in Animal Model of Depression. Department of New Drug Evaluation, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850, PR China.//: 2012; 528, (2): 148-152.

Rec #: 2610
Keywords: REVIEW
Call Number: NO REVIEW (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

218. Chen, X. P.; Jin, J. L.; Li, C. W., and Wang, F. S. [Effects of Low Concentration of Chlorpyrifos Prenatal Exposure on Generation Mouse Brain Hippocampus and Somatosensory Cortex].

Rec #: 77749
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of low concentration of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) prenatal exposure on generation mouse brain development.
ABSTRACT: METHODS: 5 mg/kg CPF was administered daily on gestation days (GD) 7.5 - 11.5. On postnatal day (PD) 35, quantitative morphologic examines were measured in CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: After CPF prenatal exposure, selective morphology impairments were observed, showing 22.37%, 25.66% thinning of the CA1 and CA3 layers, 24.14% enlargement of the dentate guys and 81.77% to 74.61% decreasing of the ratio of neuron/glial of the somatosensory cortex.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: There maybe slight morphological changes after prenatal low concentration pesticide exposure even without obviously systemic toxicity.
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Hippocampus/*drug effects/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Insecticides/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: *Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
MESH HEADINGS: Somatosensory Cortex/*drug effects/pathology chi

219. Chen, Y.; Wen, G.; Rao, F.; Zhang, K.; Wang, L.; Rodriguez-Flores, J. L.; Sanchez, A. P.; Mahata, M.; Taupenot, L.; Sun, P.; Mahata, S. K.; Tayo, B.; Schork, N. J.; Ziegler, M. G.; Hamilton, B. A., and O'connor, D. T. Human Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase (Dbh) Regulatory Polymorphism That Influences Enzymatic Activity, Autonomic Function, and Blood Pressure.

Rec #: 50689
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) plays an essential role in catecholamine synthesis by converting dopamine into norepinephrine. Here we systematically investigated DBH polymorphisms associated with enzymatic activity as well as autonomic and blood pressure (BP)/disease phenotypes in vivo.
ABSTRACT: METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy genetic variants were discovered at the locus; across ethnicities, much of the promoter was spanned by a 5' haplotype block, with a larger block spanning the promoter in whites than blacks. DBH secretion was predicted by genetic variants in the DBH promoter, rather than the amino acid coding region. The C allele of common promoter variant C-970T increased plasma DBH activity, epinephrine excretion, the heritable change in BP during environmental stress in twin pairs, and also predicted higher basal BP in three independent populations. Mutagenesis and expression studies with isolated/transfected DBH promoter/luciferase reporters in chromaffin cells indicated that variant C-970T was functional. C-970T partially disrupted consensus transcriptional motifs for n-MYC and MEF-2, and this variant affected not only basal expression, but also the response to exogenous/co-transfected n-MYC or MEF-2; during chromatin immunoprecipitation, these two endogenous factors interacted with the motif.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that common DBH promoter variant C-970T plays a role in the pathogenesis of human essential hypertension: common genetic variation in the DBH promoter region seems to initiate a cascade of biochemical and physiological changes eventuating in alterations of basal BP. These observations suggest new molecular strategies for probing the pathophysiology, risk, and rational treatment of systemic hypertension.
MESH HEADINGS: African Continental Ancestry Group/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Aged, 80 and over
MESH HEADINGS: Autonomic Nervous System/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Blood Pressure/*genetics/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: *Genetic Predisposition to Disease
MESH HEADINGS: Genetic Variation
MESH HEADINGS: Heart Rate/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Hypertension/epidemiology/*genetics/physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: /epidemiology
MESH HEADINGS: *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
MESH HEADINGS: /epidemiology
MESH HEADINGS: Young Adult eng

220. Chen, Y. P. ; Ning, B. A.; Liu, N.; Feng, Y.; Liu, Z.; Liu, X. Y., and Gao, Z. X. A rapid and sensitive fluoroimmunoassay based on quantum dot for the detection of chlorpyrifos residue in drinking water. 2010; 45, (6): 508-515.

Rec #: 57919
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A rapid and sensitive indirect competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (cFLISA) method based on quantum dots as the fluorescence label coupled with secondary antibody (Ab2) for the detection of chlorpyrifos in drinking water has been developed. The cFLISA method allowed for chlorpyrifos determination in a liner working range of 15.2-205.5 ng mL-1. The 50 % inhibition value (IC50) and the limit of detection (LOD) of the cFLISA were 50.2 ng mL-1 and 8.4 ng mL-1, while the IC50 and the LOD of the conventhional enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were 95.3 ng- mL-1 and 16.2 ng mL-1, respectively. When the concentrations of chlorpyrifos were 200, 100 and 50 ng mL-1, the recoveries ranged from 90.8 % to 108.2 % with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 7.5 %-15.2 %. In water sample analysis, the results of cFLISA were similar to those obtained from a cELISA and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, while the detection time by cFLISA was reduced 0.5 h compared with ELISA. It showed that cFLISA could be used as a new screening method for the detection of pesticide residue.
Keywords: Quantum dots, fluorescence immunoassay, chlorpyrifos, drinking water
ISI Document Delivery No.: 615GA

221. Chen, Y. P. ; Ren, H. L.; Liu, N.; Sai, N.; Liu, X. Y.; Liu, Z.; Gao, Z. X., and Ning, B. A. A Fluoroimmunoassay Based on Quantum Dot-Streptavidin Conjugate for the Detection of Chlorpyrifos. 2010; 58, (16): 8895-8903.

Rec #: 57929
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A rapid and sensitive competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (cFLISA) based on quantum dot-streptavidin conjugate (QDs-SA) was developed for the detection of chlorpyrifos in drinking water. The QDs-SA conjugate, which consists of 3-mercaptopropyl acid-stabilized CdTe nanoparticle QDs and streptavidin (SA) made through the active ester method, was employed to improve the sensitivity of QDs-SA-cFLISA. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) and the limit of detection (LOD) were 28.5 and 3.8 ng mL(-1), respectively. QDs-SA-cFLISA increased sensitivity 5.5-fold and reduced detection time by 1 h compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). With chlorpyrifos concentrations of 100, 50, and 20 ng mL-1, recoveries ranged from 85.9% to 105.3% with coefficients of variation ranging from 6.3% to 13.5%. This study demonstrated that QDs-SA-cFLISA was more rapid and sensitive than conventional ELISA. Therefore, it can be used as a novel screening method for the detection of pesticide residues.
Keywords: Quantum dot-streptavidin, fluoroimmunoassay, chlorpyrifos
ISI Document Delivery No.: 638BV

222. Chen, Z-D; Chen, J-M; Han, M-S; Wang, W-J; Cao, W, and Chen, Z-D. Difference of Chlorpyrifos Residue in Fruits of Various Apple Cultivars and Bagging Effect on the Residue. 2011 Nov 20; 30, (11): 2197-2201.

Rec #: 39259
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Apple is one of important fruits exported in China. The pesticide residue in apple fruit directly impacts the export trade of agricultural products and safety of consumer. Chlorpyrifos is one of organophosphorous pesticides permitted to be used in apple production. In order to evaluate the difference of chlorpyrifos residue in fruits of various apple cultivars and effects of fruit bagging on fruit chlorpyrifos residue, chlorpyrifos residue quantity in different tissues of fruit of various apple cultivars was determined with gas chromatography(GC- FPD). The results showed that there was a significant difference among apple cultivars in chlorpyrifos residue in the fruit, Red Fuji belonged to the cultivar with high pesticide residues, while Gala, Red General and 83-1-70-3 to the cultivars with low pesticide residues. Chlorpyrifos residues showed significant difference in different fruit tissues of apple, the final residue of pesticide in the pericarp was the highest, followed in the whole fruit, lowest in the pulp. Chlorpyrifos residue in apple fruit was significantly decreased with bagging. Regardless of the pesticide concentration applied, and sampling time, pesticide residue in bagged apple fruit reduced by 33% as compared with that in fruit without being bagged.
Keywords: ENA 06:Food & Drugs
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: exports
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: fruits
Keywords: cultivars
Keywords: Malus
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: China, People's Rep.
Date revised - 2012-03-01
Language of summary - English
Location - China, People's Rep.
Pages - 2197-2201
ProQuest ID - 915430019
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; exports; Pesticide residues; Pesticides; fruits; cultivars; Malus; China, People's Rep.
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Chen, Z-D; Chen, J-M; Han, M-S; Wang, W-J; Cao, W
DOI - OB-MD-0017960601; 16145134; 1672-2043 English

223. Chen, Z-D; Ji, Y-L; Zhang, Q-Z; Wang, W-J; Liu, H-Y; Chen, J-M, and Chen, Z-D. Effects of Rare Earths Nitrate on Degradation of Chlorpyrifos Residue in Spinach. 2009 Jun 20; 28, (6): 1307-1312.

Rec #: 41169
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Spinach(Spinacia oleracea L.) is an important variety for the vegetable export in China. The chlorpyrifos residue in spinach is directly related to the export trade of agricultural products and safety of consumer. In this work, the residue of chlorpyrifos was determined by GC(Gas Chromatograph) with NPD detector. The dynamic analysis of chlorpyrifos residue in spinach sprayed with rare earths nitrate was also carried out. The results indicated that the different rare earths nitrate help to reduce the pesticide residue in spinach, whether 2 d before or after spraying pesticide. However, different degradation efficiencies of chlorpyrifos were found when the spinach was treated with different rare earths nitrate. After spraying, the concentration of chlorpyrifos residue in spinach decreased with keeping time delayed. For different time of spraying, degradation effects of rare earths nitrate on chlorpyrifos residue in spinach presented diverse, on the whole, the effect of spraying after pesticide application is superior to that before application. Cerium nitrate and neodymium nitrate showed the best degradation effects on chlorpyrifos residue in spinach, and lanthanum nitrate and changleyizhisu took second place. On the basis of safety analysis for rare earth application to fanning, and consulting maximum residue limits for rare earth in vegetable food, as a result, applying rare earths nitrate as degradation preparation for pesticide residues will be feasible and helpful for the security growth of vegetables.
Keywords: exports
Keywords: International trade
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: Nitrates
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: Cerium
Keywords: Neodymium
Keywords: Lanthanum
Keywords: Crops
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Efficiency
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: China, People's Rep.
Keywords: Spinacia oleracea
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts
Date revised - 2009-08-01
Language of summary - English
Location - China, People's Rep.
Pages - 1307-1312
ProQuest ID - 20768615
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Efficiency; exports; International trade; Degradation; Nitrates; Pesticide residues; Neodymium; Cerium; Pesticides; Lanthanum; Crops; Spinacia oleracea; China, People's Rep.
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Agro-Environment Science [J. Agro-Environ. Sci.]. Vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1307-1312. 20 Jun 2009.
Corporate institution author - Chen, Z-D; Ji, Y-L; Zhang, Q-Z; Wang, W-J; Liu, H-Y; Chen, J-M
DOI - MD-0010097487; 10250443; 1672-2043 English

224. Chen, Z. D.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. J.; Zhou, Y., and Chen, J. M. Screening of Genotypes with Low Pesticide Residue in Leafy Vegetables. Qingdao Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266100, China,//: SOIL; 2010; 29, (2): 239-245(CHI) (ENG ABS).

Rec #: 2680
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,FNV

225. Cheung, C. and Gonzalez, F. J. Humanized Mouse Lines and Their Application for Prediction of Human Drug Metabolism and Toxicological Risk Assessment.

Rec #: 51079
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are important enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, particularly clinically used drugs, and are also responsible for metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens and toxins. Many xenobiotics can activate nuclear receptors that in turn induce the expression of genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. Marked species differences in the expression and regulation of cytochromes P450 and xenobiotic nuclear receptors exist. Thus, obtaining reliable rodent models to accurately reflect human drug and carcinogen metabolism is severely limited. Humanized transgenic mice were developed in an effort to create more reliable in vivo systems to study and predict human responses to xenobiotics. Human P450s or human xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors were introduced directly or replaced the corresponding mouse gene, thus creating "humanized" transgenic mice. Mice expressing human CYP1A1/CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CY3A7, pregnane X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha were generated and characterized. These humanized mouse models offer a broad utility in the evaluation and prediction of toxicological risk that may aid in the development of safer drugs.
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Transgenic
MESH HEADINGS: PPAR alpha/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Pharmaceutical Preparations/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Receptors, Steroid/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: *Risk Assessment
MESH HEADINGS: Species Specificity eng

226. Chishti, Zia; Hussain, Sarfraz; Arshad, Khaliq R.; Khalid, Azeem, and Arshad, Muhammad. Microbial degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid media and soil. 2013 Jan 15-; 114, (0): 372-380.

Rec #: 750
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Chlorpyrifos is a broad-spectrum insecticide which is used extensively in agriculture worldwide. Its massive application has led to the contamination of water and soil, and disruption of biogeochemical cycles. In addition, its residues have been detected in various ecological systems. A number of methods are currently available that can be used for the detoxification of such pesticides, however, this review focuses on microbial biodegradation which is considered to be one of the most viable options for the removal of organophosphate pesticides from the environment. Identification of genes and enzymes responsible for the cleavage of specific functional groups of the pesticide and understanding the kinetics of biodegradation are critical to accomplish successful bioremediation. Recently, the use of indigenous or genetically modified microorganisms and/or plants has increased the chances for in-situ bioremediation of contaminated sites. The literature provides evidence that the bioremediation process can be enhanced by maintaining an effective chlorpyrifos-degrading microbial community in the contaminated site and optimizing environmental conditions. Biodegradation/ Chlorpyrifos/ Enzymes/ Genes/ Modeling/ Optimization/ Soil/ Water

227. Chiu, S. F.; Huang, B. Q., and Hu, M. Y. Synergistic Effect of Toosendanin in a Mixture with Bacillus thuringiensis and Other Insecticides Against the Cabbage Worm Pieris rapae L. 1989; 32, (2): 158-165(CHI) (ENG ABS).

Rec #: 560
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

228. Cho, K. M.; Math, R. K.; Islam, S. M. A.; Lim, W. J.; Hong, S. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Yun, M. G.; Cho, J. J., and Yun, H. D. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Lactic Acid Bacteria during Kimchi Fermentation. 2009; 57, (5): 1882-1889.

Rec #: 57969
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We examined the role of microorganisms in the degradation of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos (CP) during kimchi fermentation. During the fermentation of kimchi, 30 mg L(-1) of CP was added and its stability assayed during fermentation. CP was degraded rapidly until day 3 (83.3%) and degraded completely by day 9. Four CP-degrading lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from kimchi fermentation in the presence of 200 mg L-1 CP and were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides WCP907, Lactobacillus brevis WCP902, Lactobacillus plantarum WCP931, and Lactobacillus sakei WCP904. CP could be utilized by these four strains as the sole source of carbon and phosphorus. Coumaphos (CM), diazinon (DZ), parathion (PT), and methylparathion (MPT) were also degraded by WCP907, WCP902, WCP931, and WCP904 when provided as sole sources of carbon and phosphorus.
Keywords: Organophosphorus insecticides, chlorpyrifos, kimchi, lactic acid
ISI Document Delivery No.: 415ZH

229. Cho, S.; Gorjup, E., and Thielecke, H. Chip-based time-continuous monitoring of toxic effects on stem cell differentiation. 2009; 191, (1): 145-152.

Rec #: 57979
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticides used to control unwanted insects are potentially toxic to humans. In assessing the risk involved in exposure to pesticides or complex chemical mixtures, an in vitro cell-based test can provide useful information regarding danger to human health. Cell differentiation is a biological process of fundamental importance in developing and adult organisms. In this paper, we propose a cell-based test system for continuous, label-free monitoring of the effect of test substances on stem cell differentiation. Using a prefabricated electrode-based chip and impedance measurement system, we investigated the influence of chlorpyrifos (a pesticide) on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to adipocytes. The state of hMSCs on electrodes during adipogenic differentiation or after application of the cytotoxic substance was clearly reflected in the impedance measurement. Chlorpyrifos caused a partially uncovered electrode area with a decreased number of lipid vacuoles, thus leading to a rapid decrease in resistance in the cell layer. After removal of the chlorpyrifos, the cell layer resistance was regained due to the renewed covering of the electrodes by hMSCs. However, an increase in lipid vacuoles was not observed. From this, it was concluded that the measured resistance of hMSCs is determined by the electrical properties in the extra cellular space (e.g., cell/etectrode or cell/cell gap), but not by the lipid vacuoles appearing in intracellular space during adipogenic differentiation. (C) 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Adipogenic differentiation, Electrode-based cell chip, Human mesenchymal
ISI Document Delivery No.: 404ZM

230. Cho, T. H.; Kim, B. S.; Jo, S. J.; Kang, H. G.; Choi, B. Y., and Kim, M. Y. Pesticide residue monitoring in Korean agricultural products, 2003-05. 2009; 2, (1): 27-37.

Rec #: 57999
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Between 2003 and 2005, a total of 11,716 samples were collected and analysed to determine the level of pesticides residues. Multi-residue methods (MRMs) capable of simultaneously determining 250 pesticides were used. Of the 11,716 samples, 89.1% had no detectable residues and 1.7% had violative residues. The detection rates by commodity group were 11.4, 8.6, 0.3, and 0.02% for vegetables, fruit, grain, mushrooms, and the others, respectively. Agricultural products with pesticide residues were pepper, Perilla frutescens, leafy lettuce and spinach in decreasing order. Of the 250 pesticides that were monitored, 70 pesticides were actually found. Procymidone, endosulfan, chlorfenapyr, metalaxyl, and diethofencarb were frequently detected. Of the samples, parsley, Petasites hybridus, Aster scaber and leek had high violative rates of 23.1, 12.6, 8.2, and 7.9%, respectively. From violative samples, procymidone, endosulfan, metalaxyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos were frequently detected. The violation rates were 1.71, 1.68, and 1.76% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, and the detection rates were 8.5, 12.0, and 13.3% in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively.
Keywords: pesticide monitoring, agricultural products, pesticide residue
ISI Document Delivery No.: 487YX

231. Choi, K.; Joo, H.; Campbell, J. L.; Clewell, R. A.; Andersen, M. E., and Clewell, H. J. In vitro metabolism of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) by various tissues and cytochrome P450s of human and rat. 2012; 26, (2): 315-322.

Rec #: 58019
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract:
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