Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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For this purpose we have used P-gp enriched membrane vesicles isolated from fish hepatoma PLHC-1/dox cells characterized by high overexpression of P-gp. As additional demonstration of a P-gp specific phenotype, we have quantified transcript expression of a series of eight ABC efflux transporter genes constitutively expressed in PLHC-1 wild type and PLHC-1/dox cells. Transcript expression analysis confirmed high and specific P-gp transcript overexpression in PLHC-1/dox cells. Provided that the transcript abundance is translated to protein, the development of ATPase assay is enabled. Using this model we determined KmATP of 0.4mM, baseline ATPase activity from 35-50nmol/mgPROT/min, and maximal activation of ATPase activity obtained for fish P-gp in our system was 1.8-2.5-fold over baseline. All these values were in good agreement with data previously reported for mammalian P-gp. In order to perform a more detailed characterization of fish P-gp substrate specificity, in the next step of our study we used the developed ATPase assay to test 50 different compounds for their interaction with fish P-gp. The same set of compounds was also tested with calcein-AM (Ca-AM) transport activity assay both using PLHC-1/dox cells and NIH 3T3/MDR1 fibroblast cells overexpressing human P-gp. Our results showed that there is a clear difference for some substancesafive compounds specifically interacted only with fish P-gp, while seven compounds exhibited interaction with human P-gp only. Most of the compounds tested in this study showed similar behavior in respect to fish or human P-gp and relatively high correlation in the interaction potency was found between fish and human P-gp. In summary, the described results represent the first in depth insight into substrate specificity of an important xenobiotic efflux transporter in fish. In addition, our study showed that combination of Ca-AM assay and the developed ATPase assay using inside/out vesicles isolated from PLHC-1/dox cells, offers a high-throughput and reliable approach for identification of environmentally relevant pollutants that interact with fish P-gp.
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Aquatic organisms
Keywords: Specificity
Keywords: Man-induced effects
Keywords: Substrate specificity
Keywords: Xenobiotics
Keywords: Phenotypes
Keywords: Fibroblasts
Keywords: Hepatoma
Keywords: P-Glycoprotein
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Interspecific relationships
Keywords: Membrane vesicles
Keywords: Vesicles
Keywords: Drugs
Keywords: X 24300:Methods
Keywords: Toxicology
Keywords: Drug interaction
Keywords: Membranes
Keywords: Adenosinetriphosphatase
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Keywords: Environmental Studies--Toxicology And Environmental Safety
Keywords: Assays
Keywords: Transcription
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Proteins
Keywords: Fish
Keywords: abundance
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 53-62
ProQuest ID - 886060972
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pollutants; Interspecific relationships; Specificity; Man-induced effects; Phenotypes; Drugs; Toxicology; Drug interaction; Hepatoma; Aquatic organisms; P-Glycoprotein; Data processing; Adenosinetriphosphatase; Membrane vesicles; Transcription; Substrate specificity; Vesicles; Fibroblasts; Membranes; Assays; Proteins; Fish; Xenobiotics; abundance
Last updated - 2011-12-08
Corporate institution author - Zaja, Roko; Loncar, Jovica; Popovic, Marta; Smital, Tvrtko
DOI - OB-74dcae3b-d4e9-40e4-9dadcsaobj201; 14878605; CS1148326; 0166-445X English

1570. Zamfir, Lucian-Gabriel; Rotariu, Lucian, and Bala, Camelia. A novel, sensitive, reusable and low potential acetylcholinesterase biosensor for chlorpyrifos based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/multiwalled carbon nanotubes gel. 2011 Apr 15-; 26, (8): 3692-3695.

Rec #: 2270
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: A novel, low potential and highly sensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor was developed based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/multiwalled carbon nanotube composite gel thiocholine sensor. Composite gel promoted electron transfer reaction at a lower potential (+50 mV) and catalyzed electrochemical oxidation of thiocholine with high sensitivity. AChE was immobilized in solÇôgel matrix that provides a good support for enzyme without any inhibition effect from the ionic liquid. The amount of immobilized enzyme and incubation time with chlorpyrifos were optimized. Chlorpyrifos could be determined in the range of 10ęĆ8 Çô10ęĆ6 M with a detection limit of 4 nM. Fast and efficient enzyme reactivation was obtained at low obidoxime concentration (0.1 mM). Moreover, the biosensor exhibited a good stability and reproducibility and could be use for multiple determinations of pesticide with no loss of the enzyme activity. Acetylcholinesterase/ Biosensor/ Carbon nanotube/ Ionic liquid/ Pesticide/ Reactivation

1571. Zamora, Emu; Liu, J; Pope, C N, and Zamora, EMU. Effects of Chlorpyrifos Oxon on M2 Muscarinic Receptor Internalization in Different Cell Types. 2008; 71, (21): 1440-1447.

Rec #: 42349
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The muscarinic M2 receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. Agonist activation of GPCR leads to their phosphorylation, desensitization, internalization, and subsequent endocytic recycling or lysosomal degradation. Agonist-induced phosphorylation of M2 receptors is mediated by G-protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). The active metabolite of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos, i.e., chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), inhibited agonist-induced phosphorylation of human recombinant M2 receptors by GRK2 in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. In both intact HEL 299 cells (human embryonic lung fibroblasts expressing M2 receptors) and CHO-M2 cells (stably expressing M2 receptors), the muscarinic agonist carbachol (100 mu M) led to receptor internalization as determined by reduced specific binding to the membrane-impermeable radioligand [ super(3)H]-N-methyIscopolamine (NMS). CPO alone (100 mu M) exerted no significant effect on NMS binding in either HEL 299 or CHO-M2 cells. In HEL 299 cells, CPO did not influence carbachol-induced internalization, whereas in CHO-M2 cells CPO blocked internalization. In primary striatal neurons, M2 receptors appeared widely and diffusely distributed. Exposure to either carbachol or CPO led to apparent receptor internalization with an increased percent of cells exhibiting punctate domains of immunostaining, while combined exposure to both carbachol and CPO led to a significantly higher percent of cells exhibiting this appearance. The data suggest that CPO may differentially influence agonist-stimulated M2 receptor internalization in a cell-dependent manner.
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Recycling
Keywords: Waste management
Keywords: Fibroblasts
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Phosphorylation
Keywords: Neostriatum
Keywords: Embryo fibroblasts
Keywords: Embryos
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Organophosphorus compounds
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic)
Keywords: Guanine nucleotide-binding protein
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Lung
Keywords: Neurons
Keywords: ^b-Adrenergic-receptor kinase
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Protein turnover
Keywords: ^AG protein-coupled receptors
Keywords: Carbachol
Keywords: Lysosomes
Date revised - 2008-12-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1440-1447
ProQuest ID - 20269191
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pesticides; Chlorpyrifos; Degradation; Recycling; Waste management; Lung; Metabolites; Organophosphorus compounds; Phosphorylation; Acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic); ^AG protein-coupled receptors; Carbachol; ^b-Adrenergic-receptor kinase; Embryos; Guanine nucleotide-binding protein; Insecticides; Protein turnover; Neostriatum; Fibroblasts; Lysosomes; Embryo fibroblasts; Data processing; Neurons
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues [J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, A: Curr. Iss.]. Vol. 71, no. 21, pp. 1440-1447. 2008.
Corporate institution author - Zamora, EMU; Liu, J; Pope, C N
DOI - MD-0008927223; 8762246; 1528-7394 English

1572. Zartarian, V.; Xue, J. P.; Glen, G.; Smith, L.; Tulve, N., and Tornero-Velez, R. Quantifying children's aggregate (dietary and residential) exposure and dose to permethrin: application and evaluation of EPA's probabilistic SHEDS-Multimedia model. 2012; 22, (3): 267-273.

Rec #: 72839
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Reliable, evaluated human exposure and dose models are important for understanding the health risks from chemicals. A case study focusing on permethrin was conducted because of this insecticide's widespread use and potential health effects. SHEDS-Multimedia was applied to estimate US population permethrin exposures for 3- to 5-year-old children from residential, dietary, and combined exposure routes, using available dietary consumption data, food residue data, residential concentrations, and exposure factors. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify key factors, pathways, and research needs. Model evaluation was conducted using duplicate diet data and biomonitoring data from multiple field studies, and comparison to other models. Key exposure variables were consumption of spinach, lettuce, and cabbage; surface-to-skin transfer efficiency; hand mouthing frequency; fraction of hand mouthed; saliva removal efficiency; fraction of house treated; and usage frequency. For children in households using residential permethrin, the non-dietary exposure route was most important, and when all households were included, dietary exposure dominated. SHEDS-Multimedia model estimates compared well to real-world measurements data; this exposure assessment tool can enhance human health risk assessments and inform children's health research. The case study provides insights into children's aggregate exposures to permethrin and lays the foundation for a future cumulative pyrethroid pesticides risk assessment.
Keywords: probabilistic, exposure, model, aggregate, SHEDS, permethrin
ISI Document Delivery No.: 926QZ

1573. Zeljezic, Davor; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucic; Lucas, Joe N; Lasan, Ruzica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Kopjar, Nevenka; Katic, Jelena; Mladinic, Marin; Radic, Bozica, and Zeljezic, Davor. Effect of Occupational Exposure to Multiple Pesticides on Translocation Yield and Chromosomal Aberrations in Lymphocytes of Plant Workers. 2009 Jul 20; 43, (16): 6370-6377.

Rec #: 44709
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Employees handling pesticides are simultaneously exposed to different active substances. Occurring multiple chemical exposures may pose a higher risk than it could be deduced from studies evaluating the effect of a single substance. This study comprised 32 pesticide plant workers exposed to carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, metalaxyl, and dodine and an equal number of control subjects. Groups were matched by age (43.8 plus or minus 10.16 vs 41.8 plus or minus 7.42, respectively), sex (14 females; 18 males), and smoking (11 smokers; 21 nonsmokers). Chromosome aberration and translocation frequencies were determined using a standard aberration assay and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) by applying painting probes for chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. Although significant, an observed increase in chromatid breaks (5.2 plus or minus 2.49) compared to controls (2.1 plus or minus 0.87), pPostHoc = 0.000001 is biologically irrelevant. Genomic frequency of translocations was also significantly elevated (exposed 0.0165 plus or minus 0.0070; control 0.0051 plus or minus 0.0023, pPostHoc = 0.0000004). The distribution of translocations among chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 did not differ from control subjects. It corresponded to the distribution of DNA content among selected chromosomes indicating randomness of DNA damage. A good translocation yield correlation within years spent in pesticide production indicates that multiple pesticide exposure may pose a risk to genome integrity. However, for more accurate health risk assessments, the use of probes for some other groups of chromosomes should be considered.
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Genomes
Keywords: Age
Keywords: Chromatids
Keywords: Heavy metals
Keywords: DNA probes
Keywords: Chromosome 1
Keywords: Lymphocytes
Keywords: Toxicity tests
Keywords: Environmental factors
Keywords: Smoking
Keywords: Chromosomes
Keywords: Metalaxyl
Keywords: Personnel
Keywords: Risk factors
Keywords: R2 23060:Medical and environmental health
Keywords: genomics
Keywords: Chromosome aberrations
Keywords: Translocation
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Keywords: Sex
Keywords: Fluorescence in situ hybridization
Keywords: Carbofuran
Keywords: H 1000:Occupational Safety and Health
Keywords: carbofuran
Keywords: Q5 01504:Effects on organisms
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Immunology Abstracts; Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Keywords: F 06965:Immune Cells
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: DNA damage
Keywords: Chromosome translocations
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: DNA
Keywords: translocation
Date revised - 2010-08-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 6370-6377
ProQuest ID - 754542551
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Genomes; Chromosomes; Heavy metals; Personnel; Pesticides; DNA; Lymphocytes; Environmental factors; Toxicity tests; Risk assessment; Chromatids; Carbofuran; DNA probes; Chromosome 1; Chlorpyrifos; Smoking; DNA damage; Metalaxyl; Chromosome translocations; Risk factors; genomics; Chromosome aberrations; Occupational exposure; Sex; Fluorescence in situ hybridization; Age; carbofuran; translocation; Translocation
Last updated - 2012-04-06
British nursing index edition - Environmental Science & Technology [Environ. Sci. Technol.]. Vol. 43, no. 16, pp. 6370-6377. 20 Jul 2009.
Corporate institution author - Zeljezic, Davor; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucic; Lucas, Joe N; Lasan, Ruzica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Kopjar, Nevenka; Katic, Jelena; Mladinic, Marin; Radic, Bozica
DOI - 4e921877-b4d3-489b-ba89csamfg201; 13267866; CS1101138; 0013-936X English

1574. Zemtsova, G.; Killmaster, L. F.; Mumcuoglu, K. Y., and Levin, M. L. Co-feeding as a route for transmission of Rickettsia conorii israelensis between Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. 2010; 52, (4): 383-392.

Rec #: 55019
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Rickettsia conorii is widely distributed in Europe, Asia, and Africa. The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, is the recognized vector of R. conorii. In this study, we assessed the efficiency of R. conorii israelensis transmission between co-feeding Rh. sanguineus ticks. Infected Rh. sanguineus adults and uninfected nymphs were fed simultaneously upon either naïve dogs or a dog previously exposed to this agent. When ticks were placed upon naïve dogs, 92-100% of nymphs acquired the infection and 80-88% of infected engorged nymphs transmitted it transstadially. When ticks were placed upon a seropositive dog, only 8-28.5% of recipient nymphs became infected. Our results establish the first evidence for efficient natural transmission of R. conorii israelensis between co-feeding ticks upon both naïve and seropositive dogs. This route of transmission can ensure continuous circulation of R. conorii israelensis in tick vectors even in the absence of naïve reservoir hosts.
Keywords: Co-feeding
Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands

1575. Zeng, Jingbin; Yu, Binbin; Chen, Wenfeng; Lin, Zhijie; Zhang, Limei; Lin, Zequan; Chen, Xi; Wang, Xiaoru, and Zeng, Jingbin. Application of Ceramic/Carbon Composite as a Novel Coating for Solid-Phase Microextraction. 2008 Apr; 1188, (1): 26-33.

Rec #: 46019
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A ceramic/carbon composite was developed and applied as a novel coating for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The ceramic/carbon coating exhibited several good properties for SPME, such as high extraction quantities and enhanced thermal and organic solvent stability. Under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the tightly attached coating layer on stainless steel wire revealed excellent mechanical characteristics. Single fiber and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were less than 6.9 and 9.5%, respectively. The effects of extraction and desorption parameters such as extraction time, stirring rate, ionic strength, and desorption temperature and desorption time on the extraction/desorption efficiency were investigated and optimized. Coupled to gas chromatography with a flame thermionic detector, the optimized SPME method was applied to the analysis of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in aqueous samples. The calibration curves were linear from 0.05 to 200 ng mL super(-1) for fenchlorphos, pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, ethion and from 0.2 to 200 ng mL super(-1) for quinalphos, and the limits of detection were between 5.2 and 34.6 ng L super(-1). The recovery of the OPPs spiked in real water samples at 5 ng mL super(-1) ranged from 86.2 to 103.4% and the relative standard deviations were less than 8.5%.
Keywords: composite materials
Keywords: Desorption
Keywords: Water sampling
Keywords: Chromatography
Keywords: Temperature
Keywords: Solvents
Keywords: quinalphos
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Ceramics
Keywords: Fibers
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Microscopy
Keywords: Steel
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Coatings
Date revised - 2009-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 26-33
ProQuest ID - 19567369
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Coatings; Desorption; Ceramics; Pesticides; quinalphos; composite materials; Water sampling; Chlorpyrifos; Microscopy; Solvents; Chromatography; Steel; Gas chromatography; Temperature; Fibers
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Chromatography A [J. Chromatogr.]. Vol. 1188, no. 1, pp. 26-33. Apr 2008.
Corporate institution author - Zeng, Jingbin; Yu, Binbin; Chen, Wenfeng; Lin, Zhijie; Zhang, Limei; Lin, Zequan; Chen, Xi; Wang, Xiaoru
DOI - MD-0009035102; 8848878; 0021-9673 English

1576. Zhai, Chen ; Sun, Xia; Zhao, Wenping; Gong, Zhili, and Wang, Xiangyou. Acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on chitosan/prussian blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes/hollow gold nanospheres nanocomposite film by one-stepelectrodeposition. 2013 Apr 15-; 42, (0): 124-130.

Rec #: 4980
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: In this paper, chitosanÇôprussian blueÇômultiwall carbon nanotubes-hollow gold nanospheres (ChitÇôPBÇôMWNTsÇôHGNs) film was fabricated onto the gold electrode surface by one-step electrodeposition method; and then acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Nafion were modified onto the film to prepare an AChE biosensor. Incorporating MWNTs and HGNs into ChitÇôPB hybrid film promoted electron transfer reaction, enhanced the electrochemical response and improved the microarchitecture of the electrode surface. The morphologies and electrochemistry properties of the composite were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. Parameters affecting the biosensor response such as pH, enzyme loading and inhibition time were optimized. Based on the inhibition of pesticides on the AChE activity, using malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and carbofuran as model compounds, this biosensor showed a wide range, low detection limit, good reproducibility and high stability. Moreover, AChE/ChitÇôPBÇôMWNTsÇôHGNs/Au biosensor can also be used for direct analysis of practical samples, which would be a new promising tool for pesticide analysis. Biosensor/ One-step electrodeposition/ Hollow gold nanospheres/ Acetylcholinesterase

1577. Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Minghua, and Zhan, Yu. Pure: a Web-Based Decision Support System to Evaluate Pesticide Environmental Risk for Sustainable Pest Management Practices in California. 2012 Aug 1; 82, 104-113.

Rec #: 42619
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Farmers, policy makers, and other stakeholders seek tools to quantitatively assess pesticide risks for mitigating pesticide impacts on ecosystem and human health. This paper presents the Pesticide Use Risk Evaluation (PURE) decision support system (DSS) for evaluating site-specific pesticide risks to surface water, groundwater, soil, and air across pesticide active ingredient (AI), pesticide product, and field levels. The risk score is determined by the ratio of the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) to the toxicity value for selected endpoint organism(s); except that the risk score for the air is calculated using the emission potential (EP), which is a pesticide product property for estimating potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by California Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA). The risk scores range from 0 to 100, where 0 represents negligible risk while 100 means the highest risk. The procedure for calculating PEC in surface water was evaluated against monitoring data for 41 pesticide AIs, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient of r=0.82 (p<0.001). In addition, two almond fields in the Central Valley, California were evaluated for pesticide risks as a case study, where the commonly acknowledged high-risk pesticides gained high risk scores. Simazine, one of the most frequently detected pesticides in groundwater, was scored as 74 (the moderate high risk class) to groundwater; and chlorpyrifos, one of the frequently detected pollutants in surface water, was scored as 100 (the high risk class) to surface water. In support of pesticide risk quantitative assessment and use of reduced-risk pesticide selection, the PURE-DSS can be useful to assist growers, pesticide control advisors, and environmental protection organizations in mitigating pesticide use impacts on the environment.
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Mitigation
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: M3 1010:Issues in Sustainable Development
Keywords: Statistical analysis
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: simazine
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Risk factors
Keywords: Ground water
Keywords: Emissions
Keywords: Risk groups
Keywords: USA, California
Keywords: R2 23050:Environment
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Artificial intelligence
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Prunus dulcis
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Environmental Studies--Toxicology And Environmental Safety
Keywords: Decision support systems
Keywords: Pest control
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: volatile organic compounds
Keywords: Groundwater
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; Sustainability Science Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: USA, California, Central Valley
Keywords: Volatile organic compounds
Keywords: ENA 01:Air Pollution
Date revised - 2012-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, California; USA, California, Central Valley
Pages - 104-113
ProQuest ID - 1222925900
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Risk assessment; Data processing; Surface water; Statistical analysis; Pest control; Toxicity; Chlorpyrifos; Soil; simazine; Pollutants; Risk factors; Pesticides; Ground water; volatile organic compounds; Risk groups; Artificial intelligence; Mitigation; Decision support systems; Emissions; Groundwater; Volatile organic compounds; Prunus dulcis; USA, California; USA, California, Central Valley
Last updated - 2012-12-06
Corporate institution author - Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Minghua
DOI - OB-facca0fc-1496-40ce-8bdccsamfg201; 16867933; 0147-6513 English

1578. Zhang, Chun-Yong; Yuan, Chun-Wei; Fu, De-Gang; Gu, Zhong-Ze, and Zhang, Chun-Yong. Treatment of Chlorpyrifos Wastewater by Two-Band Micro-Electrolysis. 2009 Apr; 35, (4): 99-103.

Rec #: 41289
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The feasibility of treating chlorpyrifos wastewater by micro-electrolysis was investigated by using COD.TOC value as indexes, and different operating parameters such as reaction time, initial pH and H2O2 dosage were studied to achieve the optimal combination. While H2O)2 seemed to have complex influence on the degradation process, it was abandoned and the possible mechanism was discussed. The two-band experiments were carried out based on the obtained results and the removal rate of COD and TOC value both exceeded 85%. The option of micro-electrolysis was proved to be very economical and adaptable in treating pesticides wastewater and showed possibilities for real application.
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Water Treatment
Keywords: Hydrogen Ion Concentration
Keywords: Water Resources Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts
Keywords: Chemical Oxygen Demand
Keywords: AQ 00002:Water Quality
Keywords: Wastewater Treatment
Date revised - 2009-08-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 99-103
ProQuest ID - 290557662
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pesticides; Wastewater Treatment; Degradation; Hydrogen Ion Concentration; Chemical Oxygen Demand; Water Treatment; Agricultural Chemicals
Last updated - 2011-11-05
Corporate institution author - Zhang, Chun-Yong; Yuan, Chun-Wei; Fu, De-Gang; Gu, Zhong-Ze
DOI - OB-MD-0010131719; 10261687; 1000-3770 English

1579. ZHANG, Cun-zheng; ZHANG, Xin-ming; TIAN, Zi-hua; HE, Dan-jun, and LIU, Xian-jin. Degradation of Chlorpyrifos and Fipronil in Rice from Farm to Fork and Risk Assessment. 2010 May; 9, (5): 754-763.

Rec #: 160
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Degradation of pesticide residues (chlorpyrifos and fipronil) in rice from farm to fork and risk assessment for human health were studied to reveal the magnitude of risks faced by different populations of interest, so that appropriate measures can be taken to control the risks, and to refine and update the human health risk assessment data while helping to determine the maximum residue level (MRL) value and harvest interval. Different dosages and treatments were used in field trials for the harvest residue test. Residue levels of postharvest-applied chlorpyrifos and fipronil during storage, exposure to sunlight, washing and boiling processes (boiled rice) were investigated for brown rice. The dietary exposure evaluation model (DEEM) was employed to estimate acute and chronic risks faced by different populations of interest. Percent of reference dose (POR) and margin of exposure (MOE) were calculated. A positive correlation between pesticide residues and the dosage and application frequency of pesticide was found in the field trials. Risk quotients indicate that multiple applications and double dosages of chlorpyrifos increase the risks to the entire population and prolong exposures to toxic concentrations. The concentration of pesticide residues decreased as a function of time, after sunlight exposure, storage, washing, and boiling processes. 91.6 and 96.16% degradations were achieved at the end of the experimental period for fipronil and chlorpyrifos, respectively. The boiling process played an important role in the degradation of these pesticides. The result of risk assessment to human health showed that harvest residues of chlorpyrifos in rice and acute dietary risks of chlopyrifos were of concern. The acute dietary (food only) risk estimated for chlorpyrifos as percent of acute population adjusted dose (aPAD) was frequently over 100%. The risk faced by boys under the age of 14 was higher than that for girls of the same age. For the subpopulation above age 14, the risk reversed. The chronic dietary risk from food alone showed that dietary exposures with fipronil were below the level of concern for the entire population, including children. The risk faced by rural residents was more serious than that for urbanite residents with the most sensitive populations being children and male residents who faced higher acute dietary risk than the other subpopulation groups. The harvest interval was found to be the critical measure to mitigate risk for all populations for safe rice eating. All risk levels decreased to acceptable levels when the harvest interval was extended to 14 d. To address these risks, a number of measures including reduced application rates (should not be doubled at single application), increased retreatment intervals (longer than 7 d) and extended interval of harvest (at least 14 d) will be needed. The MRL for fipronil in rice is recommended to be 0.01 mg kgęĆ1 in accordance with Codex (ref). rice/ risk assessment/ pesticide residue/ chlorpyrifos/ fipronil

1580. Zhang, H.; Yang, C.; Zhao, Q., and Qiao, C. L. Development of an autofluorescent organophosphates-degrading Stenotrophomonas sp with dehalogenase activity for the biodegradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). 2009; 100, (13): 3199-3204.

Rec #: 72889
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Simultaneous biodegradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and organophosphates (OPs) by a recombinant Stenotrophomonas sp. was studied in the study. The broad-host-range plasmid pVGAB, harboring enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (egfp) and dehalogenase genes (linA and linB), was constructed and transformed into the OP-degrading strain Stenotrophomonas YC-1 to get the recombinant strain YC-H. over-expression of dehalogenase (LinA and LinB) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was obtained in YC-H by determining their enzymatic activities and fluorescence intensity. YC-H was capable of rapidly and simultaneously degrading 10 mg/I gamma-HCH and 100 mg/I methyl parathion (MP) determined by GC-ECD analysis. A bioremediation assay with YC-H inoculated into fumigated and nonfumigated soil showed that both 10 mg/kg gamma-HCH and 100 mg/kg MP could be completely degraded within 32 days. The novel EGFP-marked bacterium could be potentially applied in the field-scale decontamination of HCH and OPs residues in the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Hexachlorocyclohexane, Organophosphates, Dehalogenase, Green fluorescent
ISI Document Delivery No.: 442AB

1581. Zhang, J.; Chen, Y. H., and Lu, Q. Pro-Oncogenic and Anti-Oncogenic Pathways: Opportunities and Challenges of Cancer Therapy.

Rec #: 50609
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Cites: Anticancer Res. 2009 May;29(5):1739-43 (medline /19443396)
COMMENTS: Cites: BMC Cancer. 2009;9:191 (medline /19534821)
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ABSTRACT: Carcinogenesis is the uncontrolled growth of cells gaining the potential to invade and disrupt vital tissue functions. This malignant process includes the occurrence of 'unwanted' gene mutations that induce the transformation of normal cells, for example, by overactivation of pro-oncogenic pathways and inactivation of tumor-suppressive or anti-oncogenic pathways. It is now recognized that the number of major signaling pathways that control oncogenesis is not unlimited; therefore, suppressing these pathways can conceivably lead to a cancer cure. However, the clinical application of cancer intervention has not matched up to scientific expectations. Increasing numbers of studies have revealed that many oncogenic-signaling elements show double faces, in which they can promote or suppress cancer pathogenesis depending on tissue type, cancer stage, gene dosage and their interaction with other players in carcinogenesis. This complexity of oncogenic signaling poses challenges to traditional cancer therapy and calls for considerable caution when designing an anticancer drug strategy. We propose future oncology interventions with the concept of integrative cancer therapy.
MESH HEADINGS: Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology/*therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Neoplasms/*drug therapy
MESH HEADINGS: Proto-Oncogenes/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Signal Transduction/drug effects eng

1582. Zhang, J.; Zhao, L. L.; Hu, Z. P.; Zhou, J.; Deng, L.; Gu, F.; Dai, H. M., and Huang, M. [Effects of Low-Dose Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Dopaminergic Neurons in the Midbrain Substantia Nigra and Neural Behavioral Development in Neonatal Rats].

Rec #: 74879
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of low-dose chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure on dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra and neural behavioral development in neonatal rats.
ABSTRACT: METHODS: Postnatal 11 day old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into CPF, menstruum dimethysulfoxide (DMSO) and normal saline (NS) groups. The rats in the CPF group were injected with low-dose CPF (5 mg/kg?d) on postnatal days 11-14. The two control groups were injected with DMSO or NS respectively. The rats were sacrificed on postnatal days 15, 20, 30, and 60. Body weight gain, outward appearance of brain tissue, the coefficient of brain and the water content of brain tissue were measured. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in DA neurons in the midbrain substantial nigra was examined by immunohistochemical straining. Immune electron microscopy was used to examine the subcellular structure of DA neurons. Open field test, grip strength test, slope test and Morris water maze test were used to examine the neurobehavioral changes.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: The outward appearance of brain tissue was normal in the three groups. There were no significant differences in the absolute value of body weight gain, the coefficient of brain and the water content of brain tissue among the three groups. CPF exposure decreased the level of TH immunoreactivity (P < 0.05) in the substantia nigra of CPF group since postnatal day 30 compared with the DMSO and NS groups. The subcellular structures of some DA neurons in the CPF group were impaired. Decreased motor activity and learning and memory impairments were observed in the CPF group compared with those in the DMSO and NS groups (P < 0.05) since postnatal day 30.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSIONS: CPF exposure during the neonatal period can cause long-term motor activity and learning and memory impairments in accompany with DA neurons damage in the midbrain substantia nigra.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals, Newborn
MESH HEADINGS: Behavior, Animal/*drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Dopaminergic Neurons/*drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Insecticides/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Learning/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Motor Activity/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Rats, Sprague-Dawley
MESH HEADINGS: Substantia Nigra/*drug effects chi

1583. Zhang, K.; Fang, H.; Shen, G.; Taylor, J. S., and Wooley, K. L. Well-Defined Cationic Shell Crosslinked Nanoparticles for Efficient Delivery of Dna or Peptide Nucleic Acids.

Rec #: 50759
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: This mini-review highlights developments that have been made over the past year to advance the construction of well-defined nanoscale objects to serve as devices for cell transfection. Design of the nanoscale objects originated from biomimicry concepts, using histones as the model, to afford cationic shell crosslinked knedel-like (cSCK) nanoparticles. Packaging and delivery of plasmid DNA, oligonucleotides, and peptide nucleic acids were studied by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, gel electrophoresis, biological activity assays, RT-PCR measurements, flow cytometry, and confocal fluorescence microscopy. With the demonstration of more efficient cell transfection in vitro than that achieved using commercially-available transfection agents, together with the other features offered by the robust nanostructural framework, work continues toward the application of these cSCKs for in vivo molecular recognition of genetic material, for imaging and therapy targeted specifically to pulmonary injury and disease.
MESH HEADINGS: *DNA/diagnostic use/genetics/therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: *Nanoparticles/chemistry/diagnostic use/therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: *Peptide Nucleic Acids/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Transfection/*methods eng

1584. Zhang, K.; Mei, Q. S.; Guan, G. J.; Liu, B. H.; Wang, S. H., and Zhang, Z. P. Ligand Replacement-Induced Fluorescence Switch of Quantum Dots for Ultrasensitive Detection of Organophosphorothioate Pesticides. 2010; 82, (22): 9579-9586.

Rec #: 72899
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The development of a simple and on-site assay for the detection of organophosphorus pesticed residues is very important for food safety and exosystem protection. This paper reports the surface coordination-originated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and a simple ligand-replacement turn-on mechanism for the highly sensitive and selective detection of organophosphorothioate pesticides. It has been demonstrated that coordination of dithizone at the surface of CdTe QDs in basic media can strongly quench the green emission of CdTe QDs by a FRET mechanism. Upon the addition of organophosphorothioate pesticides, the dithizone ligands at the CdTe QD surface are replaced by the hydrolyzate of the organophosphorothioate, and hence the fluorescence is turned on. The fluorescence turn on is immediate, and the limit of detection for chlorpyrifos is as low as similar to 0.1 nM. Two consecutive linear ranges allow a wide determination of chlorpyrifos concentrations from 0.1 nM to 10 mu M. Importantly, the fluorescence turn-on chemosensor can directly detect chlorpyrifos residues in apples at a limit of 5.5 ppb, which is under the maximum residue limit allowed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The very simple strategy reported here should facilitate the development of fluorescence turn-on chemosensors for chemo/biodetection.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 678MQ

1585. Zhang, K. X. and Ouellette, B. F. Caerus: Predicting Cancer Outcomes Using Relationship Between Protein Structural Information, Protein Networks, Gene Expression Data, and Mutation Data.

Rec #: 50249
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Carcinogenesis is a complex process with multiple genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of one or more tumors. Understanding the underlying mechanism of this process and identifying related markers to assess the outcome of this process would lead to more directed treatment and thus significantly reduce the mortality rate of cancers. Recently, molecular diagnostics and prognostics based on the identification of patterns within gene expression profiles in the context of protein interaction networks were reported. However, the predictive performances of these approaches were limited. In this study we propose a novel integrated approach, named CAERUS, for the identification of gene signatures to predict cancer outcomes based on the domain interaction network in human proteome. We first developed a model to score each protein by quantifying the domain connections to its interacting partners and the somatic mutations present in the domain. We then defined proteins as gene signatures if their scores were above a preset threshold. Next, for each gene signature, we quantified the correlation of the expression levels between this gene signature and its neighboring proteins. The results of the quantification in each patient were then used to predict cancer outcome by a modified na‹ve Bayes classifier. In this study we achieved a favorable accuracy of 88.3%, sensitivity of 87.2%, and specificity of 88.9% on a set of well-documented gene expression profiles of 253 consecutive breast cancer patients with different outcomes. We also compiled a list of cancer-associated gene signatures and domains, which provided testable hypotheses for further experimental investigation. Our approach proved successful on different independent breast cancer data sets as well as an ovarian cancer data set. This study constitutes the first predictive method to classify cancer outcomes based on the relationship between the domain organization and protein network.
MESH HEADINGS: Bayes Theorem
MESH HEADINGS: Breast Neoplasms/*drug therapy/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Line, Tumor
MESH HEADINGS: Computational Biology/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: *DNA Mutational Analysis
MESH HEADINGS: *Gene Expression Profiling
MESH HEADINGS: *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Regulatory Networks
MESH HEADINGS: Neoplasm Proteins/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Proteomics/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Reproducibility of Results
MESH HEADINGS: Sensitivity and Specificity
MESH HEADINGS: Tumor Markers, Biological eng

1586. Zhang, M. M.; Deng, C. S.; Ma, J. F.; Zhang, Y. R.; Geng, B., and Li, S. P. Screening and Identification of Multi-Functional Trichoderma spp. Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, CAAS, Beijing 100081, China,//: 2012; 31, (8): 1571-1575(CHI) (ENG ABS).

Rec #: 2800
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1587. Zhang, Q. M.; Zhu, L. S.; Han, C.; Wang, J.; Xie, H.; Wang, J. H., and Sun, S. J. Analysis of chlorpyrifos and TCP residues in agricultural soil and apples by HPLC. 2011; 9, (1): 659-662.

Rec #: 72919
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In the present work, a method for the analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in agricultural soil and apples was developed. The residues of chlorpyrifos and TCP were extracted from agricultural soil and apple samples by shaking followed clean-up by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with detection of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Under the optimum conditions, the average recovery of chlorpyrifos and TCP with concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg kg(-1) from soil samples was 92.9-100.3% and 95.7-97.6%, respectively, and the relative standard deviation was 3.7-14.8% and 2.8-13.5%, respectively. The average recovery of chlorpyrifos and TCP from apple samples was 88.9-93.3% and 91.5-97.5%, respectively, and the relative standard deviation was 3.6-15.1% and 2.3-2.3%, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method can be successfully applied for the determination of chlorpyrifos and TCP residues in soil and apple samples.
Keywords: Organophosphate insecticides, metabolite, solid-phase extraction, HPLC
ISI Document Delivery No.: 740GJ

1588. Zhang, Qun; Wang, Baichuan; Cao, Zhengya; Yu, Yunlong, and Zhang, Qun. Plasmid-Mediated Bioaugmentation for the Degradation of Chlorpyrifos in Soil. 2012 Jun 30; 221-222, 178-184.

Rec #: 38749
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: To overcome the poor survival and low activity of the bacteria used for bioremediation, a plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation method was investigated, which could result in a persistent capacity for the degradation of chlorpyrifos in soil. The results indicate that the pDOC plasmid could transfer into soil bacteria, including members of the Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus genera. The soil bacteria acquired the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos within 5 days of the transfer of pDOC. The efficiency of the pDOC transfer in the soil, as measured by the chlorpyrifos degradation efficiency and the most probable number (MPN) of chlorpyrifos degraders, was influenced by the soil temperature, moisture level and type. The best performance for the transfer of pDOC was observed under conditions of 30 degree C and 60% water-holding capacity (WHC). The results presented in this paper show that the transfer of pDOC can enhance the degradation of chlorpyrifos in various soils, although the degradation efficiency did vary with the soil type. It may be concluded that the introduction of plasmids encoding enzymes that can degrade xenobiotics or donor strains harboring these plasmids is an alternative approach in bioaugmentation.
Keywords: Soil types
Keywords: Bioremediation
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: Staphylococcus
Keywords: Survival
Keywords: Soil temperature
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Pseudomonas
Keywords: Xenobiotics
Keywords: Plasmids
Keywords: Soil microorganisms
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Most probable number
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Engineering--Chemical Engineering
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: ENA 15:Renewable Resources-Terrestrial
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Date revised - 2012-06-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 178-184
ProQuest ID - 1020276473
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Soil types; Chlorpyrifos; Most probable number; Bioremediation; Soil temperature; Enzymes; Survival; Xenobiotics; Plasmids; Soil microorganisms; Soil; Degradation; Pesticides; Staphylococcus; Pseudomonas
Last updated - 2012-06-21
Corporate institution author - Zhang, Qun; Wang, Baichuan; Cao, Zhengya; Yu, Yunlong
DOI - OB-7ac4d550-5a89-4b61-9116csamfg201; 16792563; 0304-3894 English

1589. Zhang, X; Liu, X; Luo, Y; Zhang, M, and Zhang, X. Evaluation of Water Quality in an Agricultural Watershed as Affected by Almond Pest Management Practices. 2008 Aug; 42, (14): 3685-3696.

Rec #: 49329
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In the last decade, the detection of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in the San Joaquin River watershed has raised concerns about water quality. This study examined the influences of almond pest management practices (PMPs) on water quality. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was employed to simulate pesticide concentration in water as affected by different PMPs. California Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) data were used to investigate PMP use trends. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to test the correlation between specific PMP use and pesticide concentrations in surface water and sediment. Our results showed an increasing use of reduced risk pesticides and pyrethroids on almonds. SWAT simulation over the period of 1992-2005 showed decreases in OP concentrations in surface water. High OP and pyrethroid use in dormant sprays was associated with high pesticide concentrations in water and sediment. Almond pesticide use was proved to have significant impacts on the pesticide load in the San Joaquin River watershed. The PMP which combines the use of reduced risk pesticides with no dormant spray was recommended for almond orchard use. This paper presented a novel method of studying the environmental impacts of different agricultural PMPs. By combining pesticide use surveys with watershed modeling, we provided a quantitative foundation for the selection of PMPs to reduce pesticide pollution in surface water.
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: water quality
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Agricultural pollution
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Surface Water
Keywords: Water quality
Keywords: Watersheds
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: risk reduction
Keywords: foundations
Keywords: orchards
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: USA, California, San Joaquin R.
Keywords: USA, California
Keywords: Pyrethroids
Keywords: Rivers
Keywords: Sediment pollution
Keywords: Pollution detection
Keywords: Prunus dulcis
Keywords: Sprays
Keywords: Water Quality
Keywords: Environmental impact
Keywords: Simulation
Keywords: Pest control
Keywords: Pollution surveys
Keywords: Model Studies
Keywords: Risk
Keywords: AQ 00007:Industrial Effluents
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: Spray
Keywords: Pesticides
Date revised - 2011-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, California, San Joaquin R.; USA, California
Pages - 3685-3696
ProQuest ID - 290276874
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sediment pollution; Agricultural pollution; Spray; Pesticides; Environmental impact; Pest control; Water quality; Watersheds; water quality; Pollution detection; Surface water; Organophosphates; Sprays; Simulation; Pollution surveys; Soil; risk reduction; foundations; orchards; Pyrethroids; Rivers; Risk; Agricultural Chemicals; Water Quality; Surface Water; Model Studies; Prunus dulcis; USA, California, San Joaquin R.; USA, California
Last updated - 2011-11-08
Corporate institution author - Zhang, X; Liu, X; Luo, Y; Zhang, M
DOI - OB-MD-0008483008; 8495318; CS0856105; 0043-1354 English

1590. Zhang, X.; Wallace, A. D.; Du, P.; Kibbe, W. A.; Jafari, N.; Xie, H. H.; Lin, S. M.; Baccarelli, A.; Soares, M. B., and Hou, L. F. DNA methylation alterations in response to pesticide exposure in vitro. 2012; 53, (7): 542-549.

Rec #: 72939
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Although pesticides are subject to extensive carcinogenicity testing before regulatory approval, pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with various cancers. This suggests that pesticides may cause cancer via nonmutagenicity mechanisms. The present study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that pesticide-induced cancer may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. We examined whether exposure to seven commonly used pesticides (i.e., fonofos, parathion, terbufos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, and phorate) induces DNA methylation alterations in vitro. We conducted genome-wide DNA methylation analyses on DNA samples obtained from the human hematopoietic K562 cell line exposed to ethanol (control) and several organophosphate pesticides (OPs) using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Bayesian-adjusted t-tests were used to identify differentially methylated gene promoter CpG sites. In this report, we present our results on three pesticides (fonofos, parathion, and terbufos) that clustered together based on principle component analysis and hierarchical clustering. These three pesticides induced similar methylation changes in the promoter regions of 712 genes, while also exhibiting their own OP-specific methylation alterations. Functional analysis of methylation changes specific to each OP, or common to all three OPs, revealed that differential methylation was associated with numerous genes that are involved in carcinogenesis-related processes. Our results provide experimental evidence that pesticides may modify gene promoter DNA methylation levels, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to pesticide-induced carcinogenesis. Further studies in other cell types and human samples are required, as well as determining the impact of these methylation changes on gene expression. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keywords: pesticide exposure, DNA methylation alteration, carcinogenesis
ISI Document Delivery No.: 986RQ

1591. Zhang, Xiao; Shen, Yan; Yu, Xiang-yang, and Liu, Xian-jin. Dissipation of chlorpyrifos and residue analysis in rice, soil and water under paddy field conditions. 2012 Apr 1-; 78, (0): 276-280.

Rec #: 30
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The analytical method for the residues of chlorpyrifos in rice plants, water and soil was developed and dissipation of chlorpyrifos under field conditions was studied. The limit of detection (LOD) of chlorpyrifos was 0.006 mg kgęĆ1 and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.04 mg kgęĆ1 in rice plant (water) and 0.02 mg kgęĆ1 in the other substrates, respectively. The results showed that the initial residues of chlorpyrifos in Nanjing and Guangxi were 4.99 and 6.05 mg kgęĆ1 (rice plant), 1.35 and 1.58 mg kgęĆ1 (water) and 0.51 and 0.63 mg kgęĆ1 (soil), respectively. The half-lives of chlorpyrifos in rice plant, water and soil from Nanjing were 4.28, 0.58 and 1.35 day, respectively, and the half-lives of those from Guangxi were 3.86, 0.52 and 1.21 day, respectively. The husked rice, rice hull and straw samples were found to contain chlorpyrifos well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) following the recommended dosage, the residues of chlorpyrifos in soil were undetectable under all application levels and frequencies after 28 day of applications. Chlorpyrifos/ Dissipation/ Residues/ Rice plant/ Soil/ Water

1592. Zhang, Xiaofei; Driver, Jeffrey H.; Li, Yanhong; Ross, John H., and Krieger, Robert I. Dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in Fruits and Vegetables May Confound Biomonitoring in Organophosphorus Insecticide Exposure and Risk Assessment. 2008; 56, (22): 10638-10645.

Rec #: 55029
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Trace residues of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are associated with fruits and vegetables that have been sprayed with those OP pesticides to guard against insect pests. Human dietary exposure to these OP pesticides is commonly estimated by measuring the amount of OP metabolites in urine, assuming a stoichiometric relationship between a metabolite and its parent insecticide. Dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are the OP metabolites that are most often used as markers in such biomonitoring studies. However, abiotic hydrolysis, photolysis, and plant metabolism can convert OP chemicals (OP residues) to DAP residues on or in the fruits and vegetables. To evaluate the extent of these conversions, OPs and DAPs were measured in 153 produce samples. These samples from 2 lots were known to contain OP insecticide residues based on routine monitoring by California producers and shippers. A total of 12 OPs were quantified, including mevinphos, naled, acephate, methamidophos, oxidemeton-methyl, azinphos-methyl, dimethoate, malathion, methidathion, phosmet, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon. All OP insecticide residues were below their respective residue tolerances in 2002-2004. A total of 91 of 153 samples (60%) contained more DAP residues than parent OPs. The mean mole fractions [DAPs/(DAPs + OPs)] for the first and second lots of produce were 0.62 and 0.50, respectively, and the corresponding geometric means were 0.55 and 0.34. The corresponding mean mole ratios (DAPs/OP) were 7.1 and 3.4, with geometric means of 2.1 and 0.9. Any preformed DAPs ingested in the diet that are excreted in urine may inflate the estimated absorbed OP insecticide doses in occupational and environmental studies. In subsequent prospective studies, time-dependent production of dimethylphosphate (DMP) and dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) in strawberries and leaves following malathion sprays occurred concomitant with the disappearance of the parent insecticide and its oxon. DAPs are more persistent in plants and produce at routinely measured levels than their parent OP insecticides.
Keywords: dialkylphosphates
Includes references 1022980896

1593. Zhang, Xuyang; Starner, Keith; Spurlock, Frank, and Zhang, Xuyang. Analysis of Chlorpyrifos Agricultural Use in Regions of Frequent Surface Water Detections in California, Usa. 2012 Nov; 89, ( 5): 978-984.

Rec #: 38469
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos is a common surface water contaminant in California, USA. We evaluated five years of chlorpyrifos use and surface water monitoring data in California's principal agricultural regions. Imperial County and three central coastal regions accounted for only 10 % of chlorpyrifos statewide use, but displayed consistently high aquatic benchmark exceedances (13.2 %-57.1 %). In contrast, 90 % of use occurred in Central Valley regions where only 0.6 %-6.5 % of samples exceeded aquatic benchmarks. Differences among regions are attributable to crop type, use intensity, irrigation practices and monthly application patterns. Application method did not appear to be a factor.
Keywords: Pollution monitoring
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: USA, California, Imperial
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Irrigation
Keywords: ENA 12:Oceans & Estuaries
Keywords: Crops
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Coastal zone
Keywords: INE, USA, California
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Contaminants
Keywords: Benchmarks
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: USA, California, Central Valley
Date revised - 2012-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, California, Imperial; INE, USA, California; USA, California, Central Valley
Pages - 978-984
ProQuest ID - 1222819931
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Data processing; Surface water; Irrigation; Contaminants; Crops; Pollution monitoring; Coastal zone; Pesticides; Benchmarks; USA, California, Imperial; INE, USA, California; USA, California, Central Valley
Last updated - 2012-12-06
Corporate institution author - Zhang, Xuyang; Starner, Keith; Spurlock, Frank
DOI - OB-3c36aca3-b109-4c37-bc0cmfgefd107; 17257400; 0007-4861; 1432-0800 English

1594. Zhang, Xuyang and Zhang, Minghua. Watershed Modeling of Bmp Scenarios to Improve Agricultural Water Quality a Case Study in the San Joaquin River Watershed, California. 2009: (UMI# 3376010 ).

Rec #: 51849
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Quantifying effectiveness of agricultural BMPs at watershed scale is a challenging issue, requiring robust algorithms to simulate not only the agricultural production system but also pollutant transport and fate.
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