Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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detergents depended on protein size, number of transmembrane segments, and hydrophobicity of predicted transmembrane segments. These results suggest that bioinformatic approaches may be capable of identifying membrane proteins that are most amenable to overexpression and detergent solubilization for structural and biochemical analyses. Bioinformatic approaches could also be used in the redesign of proteins that are not intrinsically well-adapted to such studies.
MESH HEADINGS: Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Membrane/drug effects/enzymology
MESH HEADINGS: Detergents/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
MESH HEADINGS: Membrane Proteins/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Micelles
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Weight
MESH HEADINGS: Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Solubility/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Titrimetry eng

1502. Whyatt, Robin M; Garfinkel, Robin; Hoepner, Lori a; Andrews, Howard; Holmes, Darrell; Williams, Megan K; Reyes, Andria; Diaz, Diurka; Perera, Frederica P; Camann, David E, and Barr, Dana B. A Biomarker Validation Study of Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure Within an Inner-City Cohort During Pregnancy. 2009 Apr; 117, (4): 559-67.


Rec #: 41239
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: We previously documented significant decreases in chlorpyrifos concentrations in maternal personal and indoor air samples among pregnant African-American and Dominican women from New York City after the 2000-2001 restrictions on its residential use. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a biomarker validation study within the same cohort to evaluate trends over time in multiple biomarkers of prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure. METHODS: Subjects were enrolled between February 2001 and May 2004 (n = 102). We measured 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in postpartum meconium (n = 83), repeat prenatal maternal spot urine samples (n = 253), and postnatal urine from the mothers (n = 73) and newborns (n = 59). We measured chlorpyrifos in postnatal maternal (n = 92) and umbilical cord (n = 65) blood. RESULTS: We did not detect TCPy in infant urine, but all other biomarkers showed a highly significant decrease in detection frequencies (chi2 = 7.8-34.0, p < or = 0.005) and mean ranks (p < or = 0.006, Kruskal-Wallis) among subjects enrolled in 2003-2004 compared with those enrolled in 2001-2002. Chlorpyrifos in maternal personal and indoor air declined 2- to 3-fold over the same period (p < 0.05). In 2001-2002 samples, TCPy levels in repeat prenatal urine were positively correlated (r = 0.23-0.56), but within-subject variability exceeded between-subject variability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.43); indoor air levels explained 19% of the variance in prenatal urine TCPy (p = 0.001). Meconium TCPy concentrations were positively correlated with chlorpyrifos in maternal and cord blood (r = 0.25-0.33, p < 0.05) and with TCPy in maternal urine (r = 0.31, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the biomarkers are reliable dosimeters to differentiate between groups with prenatal chlorpyrifos exposures varying by a factor of 2 or more and vividly illustrate the efficacy of residential restriction on chlorpyrifos to reduce the internal dose during pregnancy.
Keywords: Pyridones -- urine
Keywords: Urban Population -- statistics & numerical data
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Infant, Newborn
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- blood
Keywords: Insecticides -- urine
Keywords: Insecticides -- analysis
Keywords: Maternal Exposure
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Pregnancy
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- analysis
Keywords: Environmental Monitoring
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Demography
Keywords: Biological Markers -- blood
Keywords: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Pyridones
Keywords: Meconium -- chemistry
Keywords: Female
Keywords: Biological Markers -- urine
Keywords: Biological Markers
Keywords: Insecticides -- blood
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- urine
Copyright - Copyright National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Apr 2009
Language of summary - English
Pages - 559-67
ProQuest ID - 222659617
Last updated - 2012-03-02
Place of publication - Research Triangle Park
Corporate institution author - Whyatt, Robin M; Garfinkel, Robin; Hoepner, Lori A; Andrews, Howard; Holmes, Darrell; Williams, Megan K; Reyes, Andria; Diaz, Diurka; Perera, Frederica P; Camann, David E; Barr, Dana B
DOI - 1705216771; 43121971; 67001; ENHP; 19440494; INODENHP0005615441
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WHITMORE, R. W., IMMERMAN, F. W. 1994 "Non-occupational exposures to pesticides for residents of two U.S. cities" Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology (Print) 26 1 47-59
Whyatt, R. M., Barr, D. B. 2003 "Contemporary-use pesticides in personal air samples during pregnancy and blood samples at delivery among urban minority mothers and newborns." Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 111 5 749-756
53. Whyatt RM, Camann D, Perera FP, Rauh VA, Tang D, Kinney PL, Garfinkel R, Andrews H, Hoepner L, Barr DB: Biomarkers in assessing residential insecticide exposures during pregnancy and effects on fetal growth. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005, 206(2):246-254.
Whyatt, Robin M., Rauh, Virginia 2004 "Prenatal insecticide exposures and birth weight and length among an urban minority cohort" Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 112 10 1125-1132
Whyatt, Robin M., Barr, Dana B. 2001 "Measurement of organophosphate metabolites in postpartum meconium as a potential biomarker of prenatal exposure: A validation study" Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 109 4 417-420
Whyatt, Robin M., Camann, David E. 2002 "Residential pesticide use during pregnancy among a cohort of urban minority women" Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 110 5 507-514
Whyatt, Robin M., Garfinkel, Robin 2007 "Within- and between-home variability in indoor-air insecticide levels during pregnancy among an inner-city cohort from New York City" Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 115 3 383-389
Wingert, William E; Feldman, Michael S; Kim, Mae Hee; Noble, Lawrence; et al. A comparison of meconium, maternal urine and neonatal urine for detection of maternal drug use during pregnancy. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 39. n1 (1994): 150-158. Blackwell Publishers Ltd
Zhao, G. F.: Xu, Y.; Li, W.; Han, G. G.; Ling, B. (2007b) Prenatal Exposures to Persistent Organic Pollutants as Measured in Cord Blood and Meconium from Three Localities of Zhejiang, China. Sci. Total Environ., 377 (2-3), 179-191. English

1503. Wielgomas, Bartosz and Czarnowski, Wojciech. Headspace single-drop microextraction and GC-ECD determination of chlorpyrifos-ethyl in rat liver. 2008; 390, (7): 1933-1941.


Rec #: 54859
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The present work describes a headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) method in conjunction with gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) for the determination of an organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-ethyl (CPF), in rat liver. Sample preparation included tissue homogenization with methanol in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulfate in order to isolate CPF from the matrix, followed by dilution with 10 mL of 0.1 M H₂SO₄ and headspace microextraction to a 2-μL drop of 1-octanol. The main factors affecting extraction efficiency were optimized [temperature 90 °C, preheating and extraction times of eight and six minutes, respectively, 2 g of (NH₄)₂SO₄, stirring rate of 1000 rpm, 200 μL of methanolic extract]. The method allows for the separation and quantitation of residue levels of CPF in the livers of rats exposed orally to that insecticide. Using internal standardization (with chlorpyrifos-methyl used as an internal standard), the linearity of the method was demonstrated in the range 10-2500 ng g⁻¹ with a correlation coefficient R > 0.996 and a satisfactory level of precision (RSD 3.85%, n = 6). Moreover, the results obtained with the new method do not differ from those obtained with the conventional residue method used in our laboratory. The feasibility of this HS-SDME approach as an equivalent analytical method for the determination of CPF in rat liver that possessess advantages such as low cost, low solvent consumption and high throughput was confirmed. [graphic removed]
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos-ethyl
Berlin/Heidelberg : Springer-Verlag

1504. Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst, and Worek, Franz. In Vitro Kinetic Interactions of Deet, Pyridostigmine and Organophosphorus Pesticides With Human Cholinesterases. 2011 Apr 25; 190, (2-3): 79-83.


Rec #: 43419
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The simultaneous use of the repellent DEET, pyridostigmine, and organophosphorus pesticides has been assumed as a potential cause for the Gulf War Illness and combinations have been tested in different animal models. However, human in vitro data on interactions of DEET with other compounds are scarce and provoked the present in vitro study scrutinizing the interactions of DEET, pyridostigmine and pesticides with human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE). DEET showed to be a weak and reversible inhibitor of hAChE and hBChE. The IC(50) of DEET was calculated to be 21.7mM DEET for hAChE and 3.2mM DEET for hBChE. The determination of the inhibition kinetics of pyridostigmine, malaoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon with hAChE in the presence of 5mM DEET resulted in a moderate reduction of the inhibition rate constant k(i). The decarbamoylation velocity of pyridostigmine-inhibited hAChE was not affected by DEET. In conclusion, the in vitro investigation of interactions between human cholinesterases, DEET, pyridostigmine, malaoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon showed a weak inhibition of hAChE and hBChE by DEET. The inhibitory potency of the tested cholinesterase inhibitors was not enhanced by DEET and it did not affect the regeneration velocity of pyridostigmine-inhibited AChE. Hence, this in vitro study does not give any evidence of a synergistic effect of the tested compounds on human cholinesterases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Cholinesterase Inhibitors -- pharmacology
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Drug Interactions
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Cholinesterase Inhibitors -- chemistry
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Pyridostigmine Bromide -- pharmacology
Keywords: Butyrylcholinesterase
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- pharmacology
Keywords: Malathion -- analogs & derivatives
Keywords: 134-62-3
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Pesticides -- chemistry
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds
Keywords: Malathion -- chemistry
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase -- metabolism
Keywords: Pyridostigmine Bromide
Keywords: EC 3.1.1.7
Keywords: Pyridostigmine Bromide -- chemistry
Keywords: malaoxon
Keywords: EC 3.1.1.-
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- chemistry
Keywords: Pesticides -- pharmacology
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds -- chemistry
Keywords: O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphate
Keywords: DEET -- chemistry
Keywords: DEET -- pharmacology
Keywords: 101-26-8
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Malathion -- pharmacology
Keywords: Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Keywords: 0
Keywords: DEET
Keywords: 5598-15-2
Keywords: Kinetics
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- analogs & derivatives
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: 1634-78-2
Keywords: 121-75-5
Date completed - 2011-07-26
Date created - 2011-04-25
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 79-83
ProQuest ID - 863429985
SuppNotes - Comment In: Chem Biol Interact. 2011 Aug 15;193(1):107; author reply 108[21473857]
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Chemico-biological interactions, April 25, 2011, 190(2-3):79-83
Corporate institution author - Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz
DOI - MEDL-21354413; 21354413; 1872-7786 eng

1505. Williams, A. B. and Duke, T. W. Crabs (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura). 1979: 171-233.


Rec #: 1750
Keywords: REVIEW
Call Number: NO REVIEW (CPY)
Notes: EcoReference No.: 65064
Chemical of Concern: CPY

1506. Williams, M K; Rundle, a; Holmes, D; Reyes, M; Hoepner, La; Ban, D B; Camann, De; Perera, F P; Whyatt, R M, and Williams, M K. Changes in Pest Infestation Levels, Self-Reported Pesticide Use, and Permethrin Exposure During Pregnancy After the 2000-2001 U.s. Environmental Protection Agency Restriction of Organophosphates. 2008 Dec; 116, (12): 1681-1688.


Rec #: 45349
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background: Widespread residential pesticide use throughout the United States has resulted in ubiquitous, low-level pesticide exposure. The mix of active pesticide ingredients is changing in response to 2000-2001 regulations restricting use of the organophosphorus insecticides chlor-pyrifbs and diazinon. Objectives: We aimed to determine the impact of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations on pest infestation levels, pesticide use, and pesticides measured in indoor air samples. Methodology: 511 pregnant women from inner-city New York were enrolled between 2000 and 2006. Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide; piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a pyrethroid synergist; chlorpyrifos; and diazinon were measured in 48-hr prenatal personal air samples. Data on pest infestation and pesticide use were collected via questionnaire. Results: Eighty-eight percent of women reported using pesticides during pregnancy; 55% reported using higher-exposure pesticide applications (spray cans, pest bombs and/or professional pesticide applicators). Self-reported pest sightings and use of higher-exposure applications increased significantly after the regulations were implemented (P < 0.001). PBO, cis-, and trans-permethrin were detected in 75, 19, and 18% of personal air samples, respectively. Detection frequencies of PBO and cis- and trans-permethrin increased significantly over time (p < 0.05 controlling for potential confbunders). Levels and/or detection frequencies of these compounds were significantly higher among mothers reporting use of high exposure pesticide applications (p less than or equal to 0.05). Chlorpyrifos and diazinon levels decreased significantly over time (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In this cohort, pest infestations, use of pesticides, and use of permethrin appear to increase after the residential restriction of organophosphorus insecticides. This is one of the first studies to document widespread residential exposure to PBO.
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: permethrin
Keywords: Piperonyl butoxide
Keywords: Pesticide applications
Keywords: Cans
Keywords: pests
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: Air sampling
Keywords: Pests
Keywords: Pyrethroids
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Inventories
Keywords: Organophosphorus compounds
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Sprays
Keywords: Permethrin
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Pregnancy
Keywords: USA, New York
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: EPA
Keywords: Infestation
Keywords: prenatal experience
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Residential areas
Keywords: Indoor environments
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: ENA 01:Air Pollution
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Date revised - 2009-01-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, New York
Pages - 1681-1688
ProQuest ID - 20262813
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Inventories; Data processing; Permethrin; Piperonyl butoxide; organophosphates; Pregnancy; Pesticide applications; Chlorpyrifos; Cans; Infestation; Insecticides; Pesticides; Pests; Pyrethroids; Diazinon; Organophosphorus compounds; Organophosphates; Sprays; permethrin; EPA; prenatal experience; pests; Air sampling; Residential areas; Indoor environments; USA, New York
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Environmental Health Perspectives [Environ. Health Perspect.]. Vol. 116, no. 12, pp. 1681-1688. Dec 2008.
Corporate institution author - Williams, M K; Rundle, A; Holmes, D; Reyes, M; Hoepner, LA; Ban, D B; Camann, DE; Perera, F P; Whyatt, R M
DOI - MD-0009045652; 8859428; 0091-6765 English

1507. Williams, Megan Kathleen and Whyatt, Robin M. Urban Residential Pyrethroid Insecticide Use During Pregnancy and Effects on Infant Neurodevelopment. 2009.


Rec #: 51769
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This dissertation is a molecular epidemiologic study designed to assess the extent of prenatal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides resulting from residential pest control among inner-city women from New York City during pregnancy and to examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to pyrethroids and neurodevelopmental outcomes in the child at age 36 months. The study was conducted among the mothers and newborns enrolled in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) longitudinal birth cohort. The impetus for the study arose from the 2000-2001 U.S. EPA pesticide regulations restricting the applications of two organophosphorous insecticides, chlorpyrifos and diazinon, from residential pest control. Hypothesis 1. Pyrethroid insecticides are the main active ingredients in spray formulation products marketed for residential pest control in stores located throughout the catchment area of the CCCEH cohort. Results . In 2007, spray products were the most common products sold for residential pest control. The vast majority of spray products contained pyrethroid insecticides. The most common active ingredient contained in spray pesticide products was permethrin. Chlorpyrifos and diazinon have nearly been eliminated from products marketed for residential pest control. This supports my overall hypothesis that pyrethroid insecticides are replacing the organophosphorous insecticides for residential pest control. Hypothesis 2: It is possible to devise a laboratory methodology to measure pyrethroid and organophosphorous insecticides in human plasma following residential exposure. Results . A novel GC-HRMS methodology was designed and validated to measure a battery of pyrethroids in human plasma or sera. Detection limits of this study proved capable of detecting pyrethroids in 6% to 12% of study participants. Hypothesis 3. The increase in residential exposure to pyrethroids among subjects enrolled into the CCCEH cohort between 1999-2006 can be demonstrated by measuring levels of pyrethroids and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in personal air samples collected from the mother over 48-hours during the 3 rd trimester of pregnancy and in kitchen dust samples collected from the home during the 3 rd trimester of pregnancy. Results . There was widespread exposure to the pyrethroid synergist piperonyl butoxide among subjects enrolled in this cohort between years 2000-2006. Levels and detection of piperonyl butoxide were highly associated with reported use of spray products for residential pest control. Detection of piperonyl butoxide in personal air samples increased in association with the enactment of the 2000-2001 U.S. EPA pesticide regulations. As anticipated, due to the low volatility of pyrethroids, detection frequency of permethrin was relatively low in personal air samples. However, levels and detection frequencies of permethrin were associated with reported use of spray products and increased over time. Permethrin was the most frequently detected pyrethroid in dust samples. Hypothesis 4. The increase in pyrethroid insecticide exposure to the mother and fetus during pregnancy can be demonstrated by measuring levels in maternal and fetal plasma collected at delivery and in maternal urine samples collected during the 3 rd trimester of pregnancy among subjects enrolled between years 1999-2004. Results . Detection of permethrin in maternal plasma was relatively low and levels were only marginally greater than the limit of detection. However, this is the first epidemiologic study to demonstrate a high degree of concordance between detection of permethrin isomers in matched maternal and cord plasma samples. These data confirm the ability of permethrin to cross the placental barrier. The ability to examine changes in permethrin exposure over time was limited by infrequent detections and potential analytical batch effects. Results show a significant increase in the detections of trans-permethrin over years 2000-2006. Detections of cis-permethrin decreased over time in the same plasma samples. Cis- and trans-permethrin were not correlated in either maternal or cord plasma. These results were not expected as cis- and trans-permethrin are isomers of the same insecticide and levels are highly correlated in air. The lack of correlation in plasma could be due to different metabolic pathways or to differences in stabilities during storage. Results of the novel GC-HRMS methodology developed for this dissertation support findings from both the store survey and the environmental monitoring suggesting that permethrin is the predominant pyrethroid used among cohort subjects for residential pest control. Hypothesis 5 (exploratory aim). Prenatal exposure to permethrin is associated with delayed neurocognitive development in the child age 36-months. Results . Cognitive and motor development at 36 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2 nd Edition was examined as a function of permethrin and piperonyl butoxide measured in personal air collected during the 3 rd trimester of pregnancy and maternal and/or cord plasma collected at birth. Adjusting for gender, ethnicity, gestational age at birth, maternal IQ, maternal education, quality of the home environment (HOME) and exposure to ETS, a significant inverse association was between prenatal piperonyl butoxide and 36-month motor developmental scores. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Start Page: 245
ISSN/ISBN: 9781109041644
Keywords: 0380:Medicine
Keywords: Neurodevelopment
Keywords: 0573:Public health
Keywords: Biomonitoring
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Keywords: 0766:Epidemiology
Keywords: Children's health
Keywords: Exposure assessment
Keywords: Molecular epidemiology
Keywords: Pesticides/insecticides
Keywords: Pregnancy
3348440
2009
0573: Public health
9781109041644
66569
Children's health
n/a
Exposure assessment
English
Pesticides/insecticides
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2009
Pregnancy
0380: Medicine
42891241
Neurodevelopment
Biomonitoring
304865348
2012-07-12
1694329091
Health and environmental sciences
Williams, Megan Kathleen
Molecular epidemiology
0766: Epidemiology English

1508. Williams, P. L.; James, R. C., and Roberts, S. M. Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications. Second Edition. 2000: 603 p.


Rec #: 2390
Keywords: METHODS
Call Number: NO METHODS (24D,24DXY,ACL,ATZ,As,CBNDS,CPY,CYP,Cr,Cr element,CuS,DMB,DQTBr,DZ,ETHN,GYP,MB,MCPP1,MOL,MTAS,MTL,NAPH,PAHs,PCP,PMR,PPCP,PPZ,PQT,RTN,SFF,SZ,THM,WFN,Ziram,Zn,Zn element)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: 24D,24DXY,3CE,ACL,AN,ATZ,As,BAP,BNZ,BZD,CBNDS,CF,CPY,CTC,CYP,CZE,Cr,CuS,DMB,DQTBr,DZ,EGY,ETHN,ETO,FBM,FML,GYP,IPA,MB,MCPP1,MOL,MTAS,MTL,NAPH,NBZ,PAHs,PCP,PL,PMR,PPCP,PPZ,PQT,PYN,RTN,SFF,SZ,THM,TOL,VYL,WFN,Ziram,Zn

1509. Williams, R.; Croghan, C., and Ryan, P. B. Human exposures to PAHs: an eastern United States pilot study. 2013; 185, (1): 1011-1023.


Rec #: 72039
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to establish environmental exposure estimates for non-scripted subpopulations involved in their normal activities. Participants, children, and adults (ages 13-84) were randomly selected from urban, suburban, and rural areas near Baltimore. Twenty-four hour PM(10) sample collections (similar to 5.8 m(3)) were performed using personal environmental monitors. Monitoring was performed for 47 households and 6 sampling Cycles during 1995-1996. A total of 233 personal air samples were available from the participants with eight PAHs speciated (e.g., chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene) as well as an aggregate grouping (total carcinogenic PAHs). Results indicate that similar to 50 % of the selected samples had detectable concentrations for 3 to 5 of the individual PAHs depending upon spatial setting. Noted differences were observed between exposure concentrations from individuals living in rural areas as compared to urban/suburban environments. Mean benzo(a)pyrene concentrations were observed to be 0.10 ng/m(3) across the entire sampling population. This represented a value well below the World Health Organization's 1.0 ng/m(3) ambient air guideline for this PAH.
Keywords: Personal exposure monitoring, PAHs, Particulate matter, NHEXAS
ISI Document Delivery No.: 061GB

1510. Williams, R. L.; Bernard, C. E.; Dyk, M. B.; Ross, J. H., and Krieger, R. I. Measurement of transferable chemical residue from nylon carpet using the California roller and a new mega-California roller. 2008; 43, (8): 675-679.


Rec #: 72049
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Human chemical exposures resulting from transfer of surface deposition on indoor nylon carpets may be estimated by measuring transferable residues (mu g chemical/cm(2) carpet). A weighted roller developed at California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) has been extensively used to sample transferable residue for estimates of human exposure in risk characterization. A modified roller has been developed to evaluate the influence of pressure on transferable chemical residue since weight and force (or pressure, kg/m(2)) may vary person-to-person and activity-to-activity. A 30.5 cm diameter roller was used to apply 60 to 2100 kg/m(2) to bracket pressures exerted by humans on a flat nylon-carpeted surface. Measurements of transferable cyfluthrin residues were made after 1, 7, and 21 days. Total Soxhlet extractable cyfluthrin residues were relatively constant during the test period. Residue transferability decreased during the study period. Modest increases in the transferability of surface residues were observed over the broad range of pressures applied by the modified roller.
Keywords: Transferable residue, cyfluthrin, California Department of Food and
ISI Document Delivery No.: 362XF

1511. Williamson, L. N.; Bartlett, M. G., and Terry, A. V. Determination of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites in rat blood using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. 2007; 30, (2): 273-285.


Rec #: 72059
Keywords: METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A method has been developed to quantify chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-[3,5,6,-trichloro-2-pyridyl] phosphorothionate) and its metabolites chlorpyrifosoxon (O,O-diethyl-O[3,5,6,trichloro-2-pyridyl] phosphate) and TCP (3,5,6,-trichloro-2- pyridinol) in rat blood by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS).
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