Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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acetylcholinesterases (AChE) at the surface. This mass-sensitive sensor does not only allow the examination of the interaction between AChE and the modified surface but also the detection of in situ inhibition of the surface-bound AChE. Here we describe the application of the propidium-based sensor in combination with a modified AChE. For this reason the cocaine derivative benzoylecgonine (BZE) was coupled via a 10A long hydrophilic linker - 1,8-diamino-3,4-dioxaoctane - to carboxylic groups of the AChE after EDC/NHS activation. Thus the modified AChE (BZE-AChE) possesses an additional recognition element besides the inhibitor binding site. After the deposition of BZE-AChE on the sensor surface the binding of an anti-BZE-antibody to the BZE-AChE can be monitored. This makes it possible to determine two analytes - cocaine and organophosphate - in one experiment by measuring antibody binding and decrease in enzymatic activity, respectively. Furthermore it was also shown that other cocaine-binding enzymes, e.g., butyrylcholinesterase, can bind to the modified BZE-AChE. The competitive immunoassay allowed the detection of cocaine with a dynamic range from 10 super(-) super(9) to 10 super(-) super(7)M. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos-oxon could be detected in concentrations from 10 super(-) super(6) down to 10 super(-) super(8)M after 20min of injection time (equals to 500 mu L sample volume.
Keywords: Biosensors
Keywords: Antibodies
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: W 30955:Biosensors
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Enzymatic activity
Keywords: Cocaine
Keywords: Immunoassays
Date revised - 2008-07-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 111-117
ProQuest ID - 20826707
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Cocaine; organophosphates; Acetylcholinesterase; Antibodies; Enzymatic activity; Biosensors; Immunoassays
Last updated - 2011-12-13
British nursing index edition - Biosensors and Bioelectronics [Biosensors Bioelectron.]. Vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 111-117. 15 Sep 2008.
Corporate institution author - Teller, C; Halamek, J; Zeravik, J; Stocklein, WFM; Scheller, F W
DOI - MD-0008313835; 8353884; 0956-5663 English

1357. Terrado, M ; Lavigne, M P; Tremblay, S; Duchesne, S; Villeneuve, J P; Rousseau, an; Barcelo, D; Tauler, R, and Terrado, M. Distribution and Assessment of Surface Water Contamination by Application of Chemometric and Deterministic Models. 2009 May 15; 369, (3-4): 416-426.

Rec #: 44759
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chemometrics and deterministic modelling is proposed to extract useful information from data sets obtained in environmental monitoring studies. Contamination from organic compounds in the Llobregat River basin (Catalunya, NE Spain) was investigated for the period 2003-2006. From the application of Multivariate Curve Resolution using Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS), five different patterns of organic compound contamination are identified, explaining nearly 65% of the total variance of data. While pollution from chlorinated pesticides and alkylphenols shows lower levels in recent years, contamination resulting from PAHs has a rather constant distribution in space as well as in time. On the other hand, diffuse pollution from an agricultural pattern with terbutryn and chlorpyrifos increases in the year 2006 as compared to 2005. Dynamics of the products describing this last agricultural pattern are modeled using the modelling system GIBSI. Existing cultures in the studied area as well as possible pesticide usages and application loads are considered for the simulation of pesticide concentrations in water. In this way, the transfer of pesticides applied on soils to the water system is assessed and compared with other possible scenarios involving alternative practices. A new modelling approach based on considering different contamination patterns instead of using individual variables and chemicals is proposed at the end of this work.
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Spain, Cataluna, Llobregat R.
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Agricultural pollution
Keywords: Spain
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Surface Water
Keywords: Freshwater
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Hydrologic Models
Keywords: Assessments
Keywords: Hydrology
Keywords: Aromatic hydrocarbons
Keywords: Pollution data
Keywords: Environmental monitoring
Keywords: Soil Contamination
Keywords: Simulation
Keywords: River basins
Keywords: AQ 00003:Monitoring and Analysis of Water and Wastes
Keywords: Water pollution
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Numerical simulations
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pesticides in river water
Keywords: J1W
Keywords: Water wells
Keywords: Organic compounds
Keywords: Organic Compounds
Keywords: Monitoring
Keywords: Earth Sciences--Hydrology
Date revised - 2009-06-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Spain, Cataluna, Llobregat R.; Spain
Pages - 416-426
ProQuest ID - 289818766
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Contamination; Pesticides; Agricultural Chemicals; Hydrologic Models; Organic Compounds; Soil Contamination; Monitoring; Surface Water; Assessments; Spain, Cataluna, Llobregat R.; Spain; J1W; Chemicals; Soil; Chlorpyrifos; Environmental monitoring; Simulation; River basins; Surface water; Hydrology; Water wells; Organic compounds; Pollution data; Agricultural pollution; Water pollution; Aromatic hydrocarbons; Pesticides in river water; Numerical simulations; Freshwater
Last updated - 2011-11-09
Corporate institution author - Terrado, M; Lavigne, M P; Tremblay, S; Duchesne, S; Villeneuve, J P; Rousseau, AN; Barcelo, D; Tauler, R
DOI - OB-MD-0009571574; 9264463; 0022-1694 English

1358. Terry, A. V. Jr. and Middlemore-Risher, M. L. Letter in Response to Juberg and Burns. 2010; 32, 649-650.

Rec #: 2600
Keywords: ADDENDUM
Call Number: NO ADDENDUM (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1359. Terry Jr., A. V. Functional consequences of repeated organophosphate exposure: Potential non-cholinergic mechanisms. 2012 Jun; 134, (3): 355-365.

Rec #: 3230
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The class of chemicals known as the ÇŁorganophosphatesÇĄ (OPs) comprises many of the most common agricultural and commercial pesticides that are used worldwide as well as the highly toxic chemical warfare agents. The mechanism of the acute toxicity of OPs in both target and non-target organisms is primarily attributed to inhibitory actions on various forms of cholinesterase leading to excessive peripheral and central cholinergic activity. However, there is now substantial evidence that this canonical (cholinesterase-based) mechanism cannot alone account for the wide-variety of adverse consequences of OP exposure that have been described, especially those associated with repeated exposures to levels that produce no overt signs of acute toxicity. This type of exposure has been associated with prolonged impairments in attention, memory, and other domains of cognition, as well as chronic illnesses where these symptoms are manifested (e.g., Gulf War Illness, Alzheimer's disease). Due to their highly reactive nature, it is not surprising that OPs might alter the function of a number of enzymes and proteins (in addition to cholinesterase). However, the wide variety of long-term neuropsychiatric symptoms that have been associated with OPs suggests that some basic or fundamental neuronal process was adversely affected during the exposure period. The purpose of this review is to discuss several non-cholinesterase targets of OPs that might affect such fundamental processes and includes cytoskeletal and motor proteins involved in axonal transport, neurotrophins and their receptors, and mitochondria (especially their morphology and movement in axons). Potential therapeutic implications of these OP interactions are also discussed. Pesticide/ Cholinesterase inhibitor/ Chronic/ Memory/ Cognition

1360. Testai, Emanuela; Buratti, Franca M., and Di Consiglio, Emma. Chapter 70 - Chlorpyrifos. Robert Krieger. Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition). New York: Academic Press; 2010: 1505-1526.

Rec #: 1780
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ISSN/ISBN: 978-0-12-374367-1

1361. Thacker, J.; Young, R.; Allen, I., and Curtis, D. J. The Effect of a Polymeric Adjuvant on the Off-target Movement of a Pesticide Spray. 1994; 1-3, 1361-1366.

Rec #: 1460
Keywords: FATE
Call Number: NO FATE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1362. Thakur, J. S.; Prinja, S.; Singh, D.; Rajwanshi, A.; Prasad, R.; Parwana, H. K., and Kumar, R. Adverse reproductive and child health outcomes among people living near highly toxic waste water drains in Punjab, India. 2010; 64, (2): 148-154.

Rec #: 70359
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background Environmental influence plays a major role in determining health status of individuals. Punjab has been reported as having a high degree of water pollution due to heavy metals from untreated industrial effluent discharge and high pesticide consumption in agriculture. The present study ascertained the association of heavy metal and pesticide exposure on reproductive and child health outcomes in Punjab, India. Methods A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted in which 1904 women in reproductive age group and 1762 children below 12 years of age from 35 villages in three districts of Punjab were interviewed on a semistructured schedule for systemic and general health morbidities. Medical doctors conducted a clinical examination and review of records where relevant. Out of 35 study villages, 25 served as target ( exposed) and 10 as non-target ( less exposed or reference). Effluent, ground and surface water, fodder, vegetables and milk ( bovine and human) samples were tested for chemical composition, heavy metals and pesticides. Results Spontaneous abortion (20.6 per 1000 live births) and premature births (6.7 per 1000 live births) were significantly higher in area affected by heavy metal and pesticide pollution (p<0.05). Stillbirths were about five times higher as compared with a meta-analysis for South Asian countries. A larger proportion of children in target area were reported to have delayed milestones, language delay, blue line in the gums, mottling of teeth and gastrointestinal morbidities (p<0.05). Mercury was found in more than permissible limits (MPL) in 84.4% samples from the target area. Heptachlor, chlorpyriphos, beta-endosulfan, dimethoate and aldrin were found to be more than MPL in 23.9%, 21.7%, 19.6%, 6.5% and 6.5% ground water samples respectively. Conclusion Although no direct association could be established in this study, heavy metal and pesticide exposure may be potential risk factors for adverse reproductive and child health outcomes.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 541FO

1363. Thakur, J S; Rao, B T; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Parwana, H K, and Kumar, Rajesh. Epidemiological Study of High Cancer Among Rural Agricultural Community of Punjab in Northern India. 2008 Dec; 5, (5): 399-407.

Rec #: 49059
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Based on a citizen's report, a house-to-house survey was conducted in Talwandi Sabo and Chamkaur Sahib Community Development Blocks in Bathinda and Roop Nagar District respectively in Punjab state located in a northern part of India to identify the number of existing cancer cases, and the number of cancer deaths that occurred in the last 10 years. Age adjusted prevalence of confirmed cancer cases per 100,000 population was 125 (107/85315) in Talwandi Sabo and 72 (71/97928) in Chamkaur Sahib. Cancer of female reproductive system, i.e., breast, uterus/cervix and ovary were more common in Talwandi sabo whereas cancer of blood and lymphatic system, esophagus, and bones were more common in Chamkaur Sahib. Cancer deaths per 100,000 populations per year were 52 in Talwandi Sabo compared to 30 at Chamkaur Sahib. A comparison of the characteristics of randomly selected individuals, from the villages where a cancer case existed or death due to cancer had occurred in last 2 years, revealed that involvement in cultivation, pesticide use, alcohol consumption and smoking were more common in Talwandi Sabo as compared to Chamkaur Sahib. Limited studies show that in drinking water the levels of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cr, Se, Hg were generally higher, and pesticides such as heptachlor, ethion, and chloropyrifos were also higher in samples of drinking water, vegetables, and blood in Talwandi Sabo as compared to Chamkaur Sahib. As multiple factors were responsible for significantly higher prevalence of cancer cases in Talwandi Sabo, therefore, a multi-pronged strategy to discourage the indiscriminate use of pesticides, tobacco and alcohol needs to be adopted for cancer prevention, and a cancer registry should be set up for elucidation of the role of pesticides and heavy metals in the etiology of cancer in this area.
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Young Adult
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Neoplasms -- epidemiology
Keywords: Child
Keywords: India
Keywords: Pesticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Pesticides -- chemistry
Keywords: Cross-Sectional Studies
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Environmental Exposure
Keywords: Data Collection
Keywords: Middle Aged
Keywords: Adolescent
Keywords: Male
Keywords: Female
Keywords: Prevalence
Date completed - 2009-04-03
Date created - 2009-01-19
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 399-407
ProQuest ID - 66653310
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - International journal of environmental research and public health, December 2008, 5(5):399-407
Corporate institution author - Thakur, J S; Rao, B T; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Parwana, H K; Kumar, Rajesh
DOI - MEDL-19151435; 19151435; 1660-4601 eng

1364. Tham, L. G.; Perumal, N.; Syed, M. A.; Shamaan, N. A., and Shukor, M. Y. Assessment of Clarias batrachus as a Source of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for the Detection of Insecticides. 2009; 30, (1): 135-138.

Rec #: 1470
Keywords: IN VITRO
Call Number: NO IN VITRO (ACP,Ag,As,CBF,CBL,CPY,Cr,Cr element,Cu,DMT,DZ,MLN,MOM,Zn,Zn element)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACP,Ag,Al,As,BDC,CBF,CBL,CPY,Cd,Cr,Cu,DMT,DZ,EPRN,Fe,Hg,MLN,MOM,Mg,Mn,Ni,PRN,Pb,Zn

1365. Thivakaran, T.; Gamage, R.; Gunarathne, K. S., and Gooneratne, I. K. Chlorpyrifos-Induced Delayed Myelopathy and Pure Motor Neuropathy: a Case Report.

Rec #: 74079
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is known to cause delayed neurological manifestations. Chlorpyrifos, an OP, causes a delayed syndrome that is characterized by a motor sensory polyneuropathy. Pure motor neuropathy with intact sensory conduction is rarely documented. Rapidly evolving delayed myelopathy is extremely uncommon.
ABSTRACT: CASE REPORT: A healthy 15-year-old female was admitted to hospital with cholinergic crisis due to ingestion of a large dose of chlorpyrifos (OP). She was treated with atropine and recovered completely without any neurological symptoms or signs. She came to hospital 6 weeks later with upper and lower motor neuron signs involving the lower limbs without sensory loss. By the end of 7 weeks, there was urinary incontinence. At 2-month follow-up, she had progressive spasticity. Electrophysiological studies revealed a pure motor neuropathy. Spine magnetic resonance imaging showed early signs of thoracic cord atrophy. Other causes of myelopathy were excluded.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSIONS: Chronic neurotoxicity due to OP poisoning is dependent on several factors: chemical composition of the OP, dose systematized, and the administration of anitcholinergics for cholinergic crisis. The pathology of OP-induced delayed neuropathy involves a central-peripheral distal axonopathy. Peripheral distal axonopathy results in a predominantly motor polyneuropathy. Axonopathy of the central nervous system results in myelopathic features that makes for a poorer prognosis.
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/*poisoning
MESH HEADINGS: Electrophysiology
MESH HEADINGS: Insecticides/*poisoning
MESH HEADINGS: Neurotoxicity Syndromes/*physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/*chemically induced
MESH HEADINGS: Spinal Cord Diseases/*chemically induced eng

1366. Thomas, Kent W; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Coble, Joseph B; Hoppin, Jane a; Sheldon, Linda S; Chapa, Guadalupe; Croghan, Carry W; Jones, Paul a; Knott, Charles E; Lynch, Charles F; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron E; Alavanja, Michael C, and Lynch, Charles F. Assessment of a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study. 2010 Sep; 20, (6): 559-569.

Rec #: 43879
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators who provided detailed questionnaire information on their use of specific pesticides. A field study was conducted for a subset of the applicators enrolled in the AHS to assess a pesticide exposure algorithm through comparison of algorithm intensity scores with measured exposures. Pre- and post-application urinary biomarker measurements were made for 2,4-D (n=69) and chlorpyrifos (n=17) applicators. Dermal patch, hand wipe, and personal air samples were also collected. Intensity scores were calculated using information from technician observations and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Correlations between observer and questionnaire intensity scores were high (Spearman's r=0.92 and 0.84 for 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos, respectively). Intensity scores from questionnaires for individual applications were significantly correlated with post-application urinary concentrations for both 2,4-D (r=0.42, P<0.001) and chlorpyrifos (r=0.53, P=0.035) applicators. Significant correlations were also found between intensity scores and estimated hand loading, estimated body loading, and air concentrations for 2,4-D applicators (r-values 0.28-0.50, P-values<0.025). Correlations between intensity scores and dermal and air measures were generally lower for chlorpyrifos applicators using granular products. A linear regression model indicated that the algorithm factors for individual applications explained 24% of the variability in post-application urinary 2,4-D concentration, which increased to 60% when the pre-application urine concentration was included. The results of the measurements support the use of the algorithm for estimating questionnaire-based exposure intensities in the AHS for liquid pesticide products. Refinement of the algorithm may be possible using the results from this and other measurement studies.
Keywords: 2,4-D
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Inventories
Keywords: Skin
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Algorithms
Keywords: Hand
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Air sampling
Keywords: Regression analysis
Keywords: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: technicians
Date revised - 2010-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 559-569
ProQuest ID - 877599385
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; 2,4-D; Inventories; Skin; Urine; Pesticides; Regression analysis; Algorithms; Hand; biomarkers; Bioindicators; Air sampling; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; technicians
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 559-569. Sep 2010.
Corporate institution author - Thomas, Kent W; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Coble, Joseph B; Hoppin, Jane A; Sheldon, Linda S; Chapa, Guadalupe; Croghan, Carry W; Jones, Paul A; Knott, Charles E; Lynch, Charles F; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron E; Alavanja, Michael C
DOI - 1dbfeee5-0de2-4c05-87b5mfgefd101; 13709743; 1559-0631 English

1367. Thomas, Kent W; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Hoppin, Jane a; Sheldon, Linda S; Croghan, Carry W; Gordon, Sydney M; Jones, Martin L; Reynolds, Stephen J; Raymer, James H; Akland, Gerald G; Lynch, Charles F; Knott, Charles E; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron E; Alavanja, Michael C, and Akland, Gerald G. Urinary Biomarker, Dermal, and Air Measurement Results for 2,4-D and Chlorpyrifos Farm Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. 2010 Mar; 20, (2): 119-134.

Rec #: 40719
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A subset of private pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) epidemiological cohort was monitored around the time of their agricultural use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and O,O-diethyl-O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate (chlorpyrifos) to assess exposure levels and potential determinants of exposure. Measurements included pre- and post-application urine samples, and patch, hand wipe, and personal air samples. Boom spray or hand spray application methods were used by applicators for 2,4-D products. Chlorpyrifos products were applied using spray applications and in-furrow application of granular products. Geometric mean (GM) values for 69 2,4-D applicators were 7.8 and 25 mu g/l in pre- and post-application urine, respectively (P<0.05 for difference); 0.39mg for estimated hand loading; 2.9mg for estimated body loading; and 0.37 mu g/m super(3) for concentration in personal air. Significant correlations were found between all media for 2,4-D. GM values for 17 chlorpyrifos applicators were 11 mu g/l in both pre- and post-application urine for the 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol metabolite, 0.28mg for body loading, and 0.49 mu g/m super(3) for air concentration. Only 53% of the chlorpyrifos applicators had measurable hand loading results; their median hand loading being 0.02mg. Factors associated with differences in 2,4-D measurements included application method and glove use, and, for hand spray applicators, use of adjuvants, equipment repair, duration of use, and contact with treated vegetation. Spray applications of liquid chlorpyrifos products were associated with higher measurements than in-furrow granular product applications. This study provides information on exposures and possible exposure determinants for several application methods commonly used by farmers in the cohort and will provide information to assess and refine exposure classification in the AHS. Results may also be of use in pesticide safety education for reducing exposures to pesticide applicators.
Keywords: 2,4-D
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Farms
Keywords: Skin
Keywords: Sprays
Keywords: Hand
Keywords: Vegetation
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Adjuvants
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: phosphorothioate
Keywords: Education
Keywords: EE 20:Air Pollution: Monitoring, Control & Remediation
Keywords: Classification
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: classification
Keywords: Air sampling
Keywords: Gloves
Keywords: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 119-134
ProQuest ID - 813452489
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pesticides; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; Chlorpyrifos; Sprays; Urine; Bioindicators; Air sampling; Education; classification; Hand; 2,4-D; biomarkers; Classification; Skin; Adjuvants; Farms; Metabolites; phosphorothioate; Vegetation; Gloves
Last updated - 2011-11-08
Corporate institution author - Thomas, Kent W; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Hoppin, Jane A; Sheldon, Linda S; Croghan, Carry W; Gordon, Sydney M; Jones, Martin L; Reynolds, Stephen J; Raymer, James H; Akland, Gerald G; Lynch, Charles F; Knott, Charles E; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron E; Alavanja, Michael C
DOI - OB-MD-0012741861; 12503157; 1559-0631 English

1368. Thomas, S M; Bodour, a a; Murray, Ke; Inniss, E C, and Thomas, S M. Sorption Behavior of a Synthetic Antioxidant, Polycyclic Musk, and an Organophosphate Insecticide in Wastewater Sludge. 2009; 60, (1): 145-154.

Rec #: 41739
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Emerging contaminants (ECs) are chemicals that are currently unregulated due to limited understanding of health effects and limited data regarding occurrence. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) receive many ECs as components of influent waste and the removal of organic contaminants, such as ECs, occurs primarily by sorption to sludge. Therefore, it is important to develop measures of sorption behavior by ECs to sludge. This study evaluates sorption of three ECs: 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) a synthetic antioxidant, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8, 8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyrane (HHCB) a polycyclic musk, and chlorpyrifos a organophosphate insecticide. Twenty-four hour laboratory-scale sorption experiments were conducted for each compound individually and then in combination, which allowed the quantification of sorption onto wastewater sludge and the affects of multiple compounds. ECs in both the liquid and solid phases were analyzed using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Isotherms of individual sorption behavior followed a linear trend (R super(2) > 0.9) for individual ECs, while K sub(d) averaged 2,689Lkg super(-1), 27,786Lkg super(-1) and 31,402Lkg super(-1) for BHA, chlorpyrifos and HHCB, respectively. Sorption behavior for BHA was linear during combined studies with K sub(d) of 1,766Lkg super(-1) or a decrease of 34%, while HHCB and chlorpyrifos followed non-linear isotherm models. Synergistic effects were observed with spike concentrations greater than or equal to 25mgL super(-1) for HHCB and greater than or equal to 20mgL super(-1) for chlorpyrifos. K sub(d) values ranged from 16,984-6,000,000Lkg super(-1) for HHCB and 19,536-3,000,000Lkg super(-1) for chlorpyrifos. These distribution coefficients differed substantially from previously published values, mainly because few studies used sludge as the sorption media. Results suggest that HHCB and chlorpyrifos may be contained in the sludge unlike BHA, which is more available in the aqueous phase. Future investigations should evaluate WWTP processes for degrading ECs to harmless products and releases of ECs from sludge.
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: Pollutant removal
Keywords: Sorption
Keywords: Synergistic effects
Keywords: Wastewater Facilities
Keywords: Antioxidants
Keywords: SW 3040:Wastewater treatment processes
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: EE 50:Water & Wastewater Treatment
Keywords: AQ 00003:Monitoring and Analysis of Water and Wastes
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: influents
Keywords: Sludge
Keywords: Wastewater treatment
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Behavior
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Isotherms
Keywords: Wastewater
Date revised - 2009-09-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 145-154
ProQuest ID - 290617190
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sorption; Sludge; Pesticides; Behavior; Wastewater Facilities; Insecticides; Agricultural Chemicals; Wastewater; Isotherms; Chlorpyrifos; Organophosphates; Antioxidants; Pollutant removal; Chemicals; influents; Synergistic effects; Wastewater treatment
Last updated - 2011-10-26
Corporate institution author - Thomas, S M; Bodour, A A; Murray, KE; Inniss, E C
DOI - OB-MD-0010395038; 10865613; 0273-1223 English

1369. Thompson, Charles M; Prins, John M, and George, Kathleen M. Mass Spectrometric Analyses of Organophosphate Insecticide Oxon Protein Adducts. 2010 Jan; 118, (1): 11-9.

Rec #: 48169
Keywords: METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides continue to be used to control insect pests. Acute and chronic exposures to OP insecticides have been documented to cause adverse health effects, but few OP-adducted proteins have been correlated with these illnesses at the molecular level.
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