Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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ecotoxicological test battery to identify the potential toxicity of water from this reservoir. Materials and methods: Water samples from the Alqueva aquatic system were collected bimonthly in 2006 from 11 different water points within the reservoir. Several bioassays were carried out: a 72-h growth test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, a 6-day growth test with Chironomus riparius larvae, and the luminescence inhibition test with Vibrio fischeri (Microtox registered ). Results and discussion: Algae growth was significantly inhibited in several sampling points and periods throughout the year, mainly due to the presence of pesticides. Although in some sampling points pesticide concentrations (single and sum) were still below the maximum permissible concentrations, water samples showed high toxicities to algae, especially during the summer months. In addition, several sampling points showed pesticide concentrations above the permissible level which can pose a significant risk to humans and the environment. Chironomids showed less sensitivity to the water samples, possibly due to the low concentrations of insecticides present. V. fischeri showed no sensitivity when exposed to all the water samples collected throughout the year of 2006. Conclusions: Standardized laboratory bioassays can be useful tools to assess water quality from aquatic systems and can valuably complement chemical analysis evaluation. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that the most sensitive species used in this test battery was the microalgae P. subcapitata. The growth of C. riparius was less affected, which is probably due to the fact that low insecticide concentrations were measured and, furthermore, since this species lives in the sediment and not in the water column and is, therefore, usually more resistant to pollutants. Recommendations and perspectives: On its own, chemical analysis is not enough to derive conclusions on the water quality and/or status, which can be valuably complemented by laboratory bioassays. Single chemical, maximum permissible values, and the sum of pesticide concentrations do not take into account possible patterns of synergism, antagonism, dose level dependencies, or even the dominance of several chemicals within a mixture. In addition, several species from different levels in trophic chains are recommended due to differences in species' sensitivities to chemical compounds that are present.
Keywords: Portugal
Keywords: Z 05300:General
Keywords: Water Analysis
Keywords: Water Sampling
Keywords: Europe
Keywords: Water quality
Keywords: Water supplies
Keywords: Water column
Keywords: Bioassay
Keywords: Ecology
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Environmental Studies--Pollution
Keywords: Microbiology Abstracts C: Algology, Mycology & Protozoology; Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Entomology Abstracts
Keywords: Sampling
Keywords: Reservoirs
Keywords: Luminescence
Keywords: Vibrio fischeri
Keywords: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
Keywords: Algae
Keywords: Testing Procedures
Keywords: Freshwater environments
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: Chironomus riparius
Keywords: K 03450:Ecology
Keywords: Pollution research
Keywords: Antagonism
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Portugal, Alentejo
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: Dominance
Keywords: Water Pollution Effects
Keywords: Pesticides
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Portugal; Europe; Portugal, Alentejo
Pages - 688-702
ProQuest ID - 810088501
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Freshwater environments; Pollution research; Antagonism; Toxicity; Water quality; Water supplies; Sediments; Water column; Dominance; Ecology; Insecticides; Pollutants; Pesticides; Sampling; Luminescence; Algae; Testing Procedures; Agricultural Chemicals; Water Analysis; Water Pollution Effects; Water Sampling; Reservoirs; Bioassay; Chironomus riparius; Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata; Vibrio fischeri; Portugal; Europe; Portugal, Alentejo
Last updated - 2011-11-03
Corporate institution author - Perez, Joanne Rodriguez; Loureiro, Susana; Menezes, Salome; Palma, Patricia; Fernandes, Rosa M; Barbosa, Isabel R; Soares, Amadeu MVM
DOI - OB-3d393ca7-114b-4f58-8563mfgefd107; 12591776; 0944-1344; 1614-7499 English

1037. Perez-Parada, Andres; Colazzo, Marcos; Besil, Natalia; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucia; Rey, Federico; Heinzen, Horacio, and Perez-Parada, Andres. Determination of Coumaphos, Chlorpyrifos and Ethion Residues in Propolis Tinctures by Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion and Gas Chromatography Coupled to Flame Photometric and Mass Spectrometric Detection. 2011 Aug 26; 1218, (34): 5852-5857.

Rec #: 39499
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A new analytical method has been developed and successfully evaluated in routine application for the quantitative analysis of a selected group of organophosphate pesticides (coumaphos, chlorpyrifos and ethion) which can be found at trace levels in propolis tinctures (ethanolic propolis extracts); a valuable commodity used as raw material in the food and pharmaceutical industries for which there have been few attempts for pesticide residue analysis reported in the literature. The proposed methodology is based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) using aluminum sulfate anh. a novel dispersant material and subsequent column chromatography clean-up in silica gel prior to gas chromatography (GC) with both flame photometric detector (FPD) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection used for the routine quantification and identification of the residues, respectively. The limits of detection, for coumaphos, chlorpyrifos and ethion were below 26.0 mu g/kg in FPD and 1.43 mu g/kg for MS detection. Mean recoveries were in the range of 85-123% with RSD values below 13%, which suggests that the proposed method is fit for the purpose of analyzing pesticides in propolis tinctures containing high concentration of polyphenolics. The method has been successfully applied in our laboratory for the last 2 year in the analysis of real propolis tinctures samples.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Chromatography
Keywords: Aluminum
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Quantitative analysis
Keywords: raw materials
Keywords: Mass spectrometry
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts
Date revised - 2011-09-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 5852-5857
ProQuest ID - 893277094
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Organophosphates; Gas chromatography; Chromatography; Aluminum; Quantitative analysis; Pesticides; Mass spectrometry; raw materials
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Chromatography A [J. Chromatogr.]. Vol. 1218, no. 34, pp. 5852-5857. 26 Aug 2011.
Corporate institution author - Perez-Parada, Andres; Colazzo, Marcos; Besil, Natalia; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucia; Rey, Federico; Heinzen, Horacio
DOI - df991f7a-d80a-4096-86efcsaobj201; 15613761; 0021-9673 English

1038. Persad, a S; Cooper, G S, and Persad, A S. Use of Epidemiologic Data in Integrated Risk Information System (Iris) Assessments. 2008 Nov 15; 233, (1): 137-145.

Rec #: 49079
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In human health risk assessment, information from epidemiologic studies is typically utilized in the hazard identification step of the risk assessment paradigm. However, in the assessment of many chemicals by the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), epidemiologic data, both observational and experimental, have also been used in the derivation of toxicological risk estimates (i.e., reference doses [RfD], reference concentrations [RfC], oral cancer slope factors [CSF] and inhalation unit risks [IUR]). Of the 545 health assessments posted on the IRIS database as of June 2007, 44 assessments derived non-cancer or cancer risk estimates based on human data. RfD and RfC calculations were based on a spectrum of endpoints from changes in enzyme activity to specific neurological or dermal effects. There are 12 assessments with IURs based on human data, two assessments that extrapolated human inhalation data to derive CSFs and one that used human data to directly derive a CSF. Lung or respiratory cancer is the most common endpoint for cancer assessments based on human data. To date, only one chemical, benzene, has utilized human data for derivation of all three quantitative risk estimates (i.e., RfC, RfD, and dose-response modeling for cancer assessment). Through examples from the IRIS database, this paper will demonstrate how epidemiologic data have been used in IRIS assessments for both adding to the body of evidence in the hazard identification process and in the quantification of risk estimates in the dose-response component of the risk assessment paradigm.
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Inhalation
Keywords: Databases
Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Skin
Keywords: Pharmacy And Pharmacology
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Benzene
Keywords: Information systems
Keywords: Lung cancer
Date revised - 2008-12-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 137-145
ProQuest ID - 290234632
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Data processing; Risk assessment; Cerebrospinal fluid; Information systems; Lung cancer; Inhalation; Databases; Skin; Benzene; Enzymes
Last updated - 2011-11-09
Corporate institution author - Persad, A S; Cooper, G S
DOI - OB-MD-0008935807; 8770600; 0041-008X English

1039. Pesu, M.; Laurence, A.; Kishore, N.; Zwillich, S. H.; Chan, G., and O'shea, J. J. Therapeutic Targeting of Janus Kinases.

Rec #: 51219
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY: Cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity and inflammation, and targeting cytokines and their receptors is an effective means of treating such disorders. Type I and II cytokine receptors associate with Janus family kinases (JAKs) to effect intracellular signaling. These structurally unique protein kinases play essential and specific roles in immune cell development and function. One JAK, JAK3, has particularly selective functions. Mutations of this kinase underlie severe combined immunodeficiency, indicative of its critical role in the development and function of lymphocytes. Because JAK3 appears not to have functions outside of hematopoietic cells, this kinase has been viewed as an excellent therapeutic target for the development of a new class of immunosuppressive drugs. In fact, several companies are developing JAK3 inhibitors, and Phase II studies are underway. Mutations of Tyk2 cause autosomal recessive hyperIgE syndrome, and in principle, Tyk2 inhibitors might also be useful as immunosuppressive drugs. JAK2 gain-of-function mutations (V617F) underlie a subset of disorders collectively referred to as myeloproliferative diseases and phase 2 trials using JAK inhibitors are underway in this setting. Thus, we are learning a great deal about the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting Janus kinases, and it appears likely that this will be a fruitful strategy in a variety of settings.
MESH HEADINGS: Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy/enzymology/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Clinical Trials as Topic
MESH HEADINGS: Graft Rejection/drug therapy/enzymology/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Immunosuppression
MESH HEADINGS: Janus Kinases/*antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors/chemistry/genetics/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Job's Syndrome/drug therapy/enzymology/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Leukemia/drug therapy/enzymology/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Kinase Inhibitors/*administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/adverse effects/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: *Signal Transduction
MESH HEADINGS: TYK2 Kinase/antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors/genetics/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: src Homology Domains/drug effects eng

1040. Peveling, R. and Demba, S. A. Effect of Metarhizium Flavoviride, Chlorpyrifos, and Fipronil on Acanthodactylus dumerli (Milne Edwards, 1829) (Squamata: Lacertidae). 1999: 32 p.

Rec #: 2360
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,FPN

1041. Phillips, B. M.; Anderson, B. S.; Hunt, J. W.; Huntley, S. A.; Tjeerdema, R. S.; Kapellas, N., and Worcester, K. Solid-Phase Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation in an Agricultural Stream. 2006; 25, (6): 1671-1676.

Rec #: 1230
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DCPA,DDT,EFV,FNV,PMR

1042. Phillips, B. M.; Anderson, B. S.; Hunt, J. W.; Siegler, K.; Voorhees, J. P.; Tjeerdema, R. S., and McNeill, K. Pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticide-associated toxicity in two coastal watersheds (California, USA). 2012; 31, (7): 1595-1603.

Rec #: 66819
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Portions of the Santa Maria River and Oso Flaco Creek watersheds in central California, USA, are listed as impaired under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act and require development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) allocations. These listings are for general pesticide contamination, but are largely based on historic monitoring of sediment and fish tissue samples that showed contamination by organochlorine pesticides. Recent studies have shown that toxicity in these watersheds is caused by organophosphate pesticides (water and sediment) and pyrethroid pesticides (sediment). The present study was designed to provide information on the temporal and spatial variability of toxicity associated with these pesticides to better inform the TMDL process. Ten stations were sampled in four study areas, one with urban influences, and the remaining in agriculture production areas. Water toxicity was assessed with the water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and sediment toxicity was assessed with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Stations in the lower Santa Maria River had the highest incidence of toxicity, followed by stations influenced by urban inputs. Toxicity identification evaluations and chemical analysis demonstrated that the majority of the observed water toxicity was attributed to organophosphate pesticides, particularly chlorpyrifos, and that sediment toxicity was caused by mixtures of pyrethroid pesticides. The results demonstrate that both agriculture and urban land uses are contributing toxic concentrations of these pesticides to adjacent watersheds, and regional water quality regulators are now using this information to develop management objectives. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 15951603. (C) 2012 SETAC
Keywords: Pesticide, Toxicity identification evaluation, Total maximum daily load,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 958ZS

1043. Phillips, P. J.; Ator, S. W., and Nystrom, E. A. Temporal changes in surface-water insecticide concentrations after the phaseout of diazinon and chlorpyrifos. 2007; 41, (12): 4246-4251.

Rec #: 66829
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The recent (late 2001) federally mandated phaseout of diazinon and chlorpyrifos insecticide use in outdoor urban settings has resulted in a rapid decline in concentrations of these insecticides in urban streams and rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States. Assessment of temporal insecticide trends at 20 sites showed that significant step decreases in diazinon concentrations occurred at 90% of the sites after the phaseout, with concentrations generally decreasing by over 50% in summer samples. Chlorpyrifos concentrations showed significant step decreases in at least 1 season at 3 of the 4 sites with sufficient data for analysis. The decrease in diazinon concentrations in response to the phaseout resulted in a decline in the frequency of concentrations exceeding the acute invertebrate water-quality benchmark of 0.1 mu g/L from 10% of pre-phaseout summer samples to fewer than 1% of post-phaseout summer samples. Although some studies have indicated an increase in concentrations of carbaryl in response to the organophosphorous phaseout, carbaryl concentrations only increased at 1 site after the phaseout. A full assessment of the effect of the phaseout of diazinon and chlorpyrifos on surface water will require data on other insecticides used to replace these compounds.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 177YE

1044. Phipps, G. L. and Holcombe, G. W. Dursban Purity. 1985: 1 p.

Rec #: 1780
Keywords: PUBL AS
Call Number: NO PUBL AS (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1045. Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Chu, Cordia, and Phung, Dung Tri. Probabilistic Assessment of Chlorpyrifos Exposure to Rice Farmers in Viet Nam. 2012 Jul; 22, (4): 417-423.

Rec #: 38719
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate compound registered for agricultural use in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to evaluate chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam, using a probabilistic approach. Urine samples on a 24-h basis were collected from farmers before and post application of pesticide. Samples were analysed for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), the major urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, using an enzymatic pre-treatment for extraction and HPLC-MS/MS. Absorbed daily doses (ADD) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were subsequently estimated from the urinary TCP levels. The baseline and post-application exposure levels were evaluated at the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile representing low, medium and high-exposure groups in the population. Regression analysis was applied to examine the association between exposure level and factors. The baseline exposure level, which ranged from 0.03 to 1.98 mu g/kg/day was below the chronic guidelines recommended by international and national bodies. However, the post-application exposure level, which ranged from 0.35 to 94 mu g/kg/day exceeded most of the acute guidelines at the 95th percentile level. Multivariate analysis provided strong evidence for a relationship between post-application exposure level and amount of chlorpyrifos used, as well as body coverage of personal protective equipment.
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Guidelines
Keywords: Oryza sativa
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Protective equipment
Keywords: Vietnam
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Multivariate analysis
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Regression analysis
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Date revised - 2012-07-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Vietnam
Pages - 417-423
ProQuest ID - 1024662988
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Urine; Multivariate analysis; Pesticides; Regression analysis; Metabolites; organophosphates; Organophosphates; Guidelines; Protective equipment; Oryza sativa; Vietnam
Last updated - 2012-12-03
British nursing index edition - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 417-423. Jul 2012.
Corporate institution author - Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Chu, Cordia
DOI - 3d0771b6-f778-43cd-bd85mfgefd101; 16841569; 1559-0631 English

1046. Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Hodge, Mary; Patel, Renu; Cheng, Ron; Abeyewardene, Manel, and Chu, Cordia. Biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam. 2012 Apr; 87, (4): 294-300.

Rec #: 800
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate insecticide registered for use in Vietnam and is widely used in agriculture, particularly rice farming. However, chlorpyrifos exposure to and adverse effects on farmers has not been evaluated. In this study, biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure in a group of rice farmers was conducted after a typical application event using back-pack spraying. Chlorpyrifos/ Exposure/ Farmers/ Human health/ Vietnam/ Biological monitoring

1047. Pierog, Je; Mancinelli, Mj; Kane, Ke, and Pierog, JE. Continuous Pralidoxime Infusion in Organophosphate Toxicity: a Case Report. 2008 Aug.

Rec #: 42019
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background: Organophosphate toxicity due to pesticide exposure is well recognized. Cholinergic symptoms result due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Treatment typically involves regeneration of the acetylcholinesterase prior to organophosphate associated aging with medication such as pralidoxime and symptomatic support with medications such as atropine. Case Report: This case describes a 51 year old landscaper who overdosed on a moderate amount (200mg/kg) of chloropyrifos in a suicide attempt. The patient initially exhibited mild symptoms of cholinergic poisoning, and was transferred to a toxicology center after only being treated with odansetron and atropine. The erythrocyte cholinesterase level on admission was 3.2 U/mL (reference range 5.7-9 U/mL). Sixteen hours after ingestion, the patient began to exhibit symptoms of severe toxicity and required initiation of a pralidoxime infusion, which was weaned after a day. Days after discontinuation, the patient again began experiencing symptoms cholinergic toxicity. The pralidoxime infusion was restarted and continued for a week. Three days after discontinuation of pralidoxime infusion, his erythrocyte cholinesterase level was 3.0U/mL. Despite the decreased level of acetylcholinesterase the patient exhibited increased muscle strength. Case Discussion: It was commonly understood that treatment with oximes for toxicity was ineffective after the enzyme is aged. This case demonstrates that pralidoxime infusion can be beneficial even weeks after ingestion. Another consideration, however, is that chlorpyrifos is very lipophilic, and may be taken into, and then released from, fat depots over a period of many days. Due to this property, a recurrence of clinical effects requiring continued acute treatment after an initial period of apparent recovery is possible. Our patient had longstanding exposure to chloropyrifos due to his landscaping work, which may have increased the total toxic exposure. Conclusion: This case demonstrates that pralidoxime infusion can be beneficial days to weeks after ingestion.
Start Page: 608
End Page: 608
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Erythrocytes
Keywords: Carcinoembryonic antigen
Keywords: Aging
Keywords: Suicide
Keywords: Cholinesterase
Keywords: Lipophilic
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: odansetron
Keywords: Landscaping
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Drugs
Keywords: Muscular strength
Keywords: suicide
Keywords: Toxicology
Keywords: North America
Keywords: Poisoning
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Ingestion
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Case reports
Keywords: oximes
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Atropine
Date revised - 2009-03-01
Language of summary - English
Location - North America
Pages - 608
ProQuest ID - 20367594
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - North America; Toxicity; Organophosphates; Toxicology; Ingestion; Cholinesterase; Erythrocytes; Pesticides; Drugs; suicide; Acetylcholinesterase; organophosphates; Case reports; Atropine; Enzymes; Chlorpyrifos; Lipophilic; Muscular strength; Landscaping; Carcinoembryonic antigen; oximes; Suicide; odansetron; Aging; Poisoning
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - p. 608. Clinical Toxicology [Clin. Toxicol.]. Vol. 46, no. 7.
Corporate institution author - Pierog, JE; Mancinelli, MJ; Kane, KE
DOI - MD-0009355263; 9054729; 1556-3650 English

1048. Pimentel, D. Ecological Effects of Pesticides on Non-Target Species. SOIL; 1971: 220 p.

Rec #: 1790

1049. Pino, Nancy; Penuela, Gustavo, and Pino, Nancy. Simultaneous Degradation of the Pesticides Methyl Parathion and Chlorpyrifos by an Isolated Bacterial Consortium From a Contaminated Site. 2011 Sep; 65, (6): 827-831.

Rec #: 39439
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The simultaneous degradation of the pesticide methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos was tested using a bacterial consortium obtained by selective enrichment from highly contaminated soils in Moravia (Medellin, Colombia). Microorganisms identified in the consortium were Acinetobacter sp, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Stenotrophomonas sp, Flavobacterium sp, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas sp, Acinetobacter sp, Klebsiella sp and Proteus sp. In culture medium enriched with each of the pesticides, the consortium was able to degrade 150 mg l super(-1 of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos in 120 h. When a mixture of 150 mg l) super(-)1 of both pesticides was used the percentage decreased to 72% for methyl parathion and 39% for chlorpyrifos. With the addition of glucose to the culture medium, the consortium simultaneously degraded 150 mg l super(-1 of the pesticides in the mixture. 4 treatments were carried out in soil that included the addition of glucose with microorganisms, the addition of sugar cane with microorganisms, microorganisms without nutrient addition and without the addition of any item. In the treatment in which glucose was used, degradation percentages of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos of 98% and 97% respectively were obtained in 120 h.
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