Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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arbaryl, carbofuran, parathion, demeton-S-methyl, and aldicarb) on AChE activity to determine whether combinations had an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic inhibitory effect. Results indicated that the mixtures had an additive inhibitory effect on AChE activity. The data from the assays of the mixtures were used to develop and train an artificial neural network (ANN) which was then utilised successfully for the identification of pesticides and their concentrations in mixtures. This study is significant because it evaluated mixtures of OPs and CPs where previous studies focused on either OPs or CPs. Previous studies have only examined up to three pesticides while this study evaluated mixtures of five pesticides simultaneously. This is also the first study where an ANN was able to utilise data from the inhibition of a single enzyme to differentiate five different pesticides and their concentrations from mixtures.
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Carbamate pesticides, Chemometrics, Neural
ISI Document Delivery No.: 077NB

948. Myresiotis, C. K.; Vryzas, Z., and Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E. Biodegradation of soil-applied pesticides by selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their effects on bacterial growth. 2012; 23, (2): 297-310.

Rec #: 65759
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the influence of four PGPR strains on the degradation of five soil applied pesticides and their effects on bacterial growth. Interactions of Bacillus subtilis GB03, Bacillus subtilis FZB24, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Bacillus pumilus SE34 with two concentrations of acibenzolar-S-methyl, metribuzin, napropamide, propamocarb hydrochloride and thiamethoxam in liquid culture and soil microcosm were studied. The degradation of acibenzolar-S-methyl by all PGPR tested in low and high concentration, was 5.4 and 5.7 times, respectively, faster than that in non-inoculated liquid culture medium. At the end of the 72-h liquid cultured experiments, 8-18, 9-11, 15-36 and 11-22% of metribuzin, napropamide, propamocarb hydrochloride and thiamethoxam, respectively, had disappeared from PGPR inoculated medium. Under the soil microcosm experimental conditions, the half-lives of acibenzolar-S-methyl incubated in the presence of PGPR strains spiked at 1.0 and 10.0 mg kg(-1) were 10.3-16.4 and 9.2-15.9 days, respectively, markedly lower compared with > 34.2 days in the control. From the rest pesticides studied degradation of propamocarb hydrochloride and thiamethoxam was enhanced in the presence of B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a and B. pumilus SE34. Acibenzolar-S-methyl, propamocarb hydrochloride and thiamethoxam significantly increased the PGPR growth. However, the stimulatory effect was related to the level of pesticide spiked.
Keywords: Pesticides, Biodegradation, Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR),
ISI Document Delivery No.: 912JE

949. Nakajima, S.; Ueda, Y.; Ebina, J.; Adachi, M., and Matsuno, K. Acute Toxicity Tests of Pesticides to Freshwater Animals. 1989; 34, 154-156(JPN) (ENG ABS).

Rec #: 1160
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CAP,CHX,CPY,DDVP,DZ

950. Nakamura, R.; Kimura, Y.; Matsuoka, H.; Hachisuka, A.; Nakamura, R.; Nakamura, A.; Shibutani, M., and Teshima, R. [Effects of Transplacental and Trans-Breast Milk Exposure to the Organophosphate Compound Chlorpyrifos on the Developing Immune System of Mice].

Rec #: 74839
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Navarro et al (2001) have reported that neonatal exposure of rat to the organophosphate compound chlorpyrifos (CPF) resulted in long-term deficits in T lymphocyte mitogenic response, although the mechanism has been unclear. In this study, pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to 0, 2.8, 14, 70 ppm CPF via diet from gestational day 10 to postnatal day (PND) 21, and subpopulational changes in T lymphocytes of offspring were analyzed at PND21. The irreversibility of the effects was also investigated at PND77 after ceasing exposure by weaning at PND21. Serum cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced after exposure to CPF at PND21. An increase in the proportion of CD4 positive splenocytes was observed after exposure to CPF, which remained until PND77. We found that regulatory T cells were the only one CD4 positive subset which increased in the spleen of CPF-exposed mice at PND77.
MESH HEADINGS: CD4 Lymphocyte Count
MESH HEADINGS: *CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/*metabolism/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Immune System/*embryology/*growth &
MESH HEADINGS: development/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Maternal-Fetal Exchange/*immunology/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Milk, Human/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Placenta/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Spleen/cytology/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory jpn

951. Nasehi, F. and Fataei, E. Measurement of residue levels of agro-chemicals in water and sediment of Aras River. 2012; 10, (1): 933-936.

Rec #: 65799
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Extreme use of pesticides and the adjacency of agricultural lands to rivers have brought about the contamination of water sources. Identifying the residue level of pesticides in water and sediments has been considered as one of the important measures for management of aquatic ecosystems. Aras River is one of the main rivers of Ardabil province in respect of agriculture. This river rises from Turkey's Bingol Daghlari (mountains) and after crossing from countries of Turkey, Armenia, Iran and Azerbayjan, flows into Khazar Sea (Caspian). Aras catchment basin, due to its vastness, receives annually a considerable amount of those agricultural toxins which are widely used by agronomists. The present study by a cross-sectional design was conducted over one year (March 2010 - February 2011) in that part of Aras River which crosses Mughan (situated at the northern part of Ardabil province). In the current study 20 water samples and 20 sediment samples were collected from 5 sites, during four seasons of the year. After extraction and concentration, toxins were detected and their levels were identified by means of GC-MS. Based on the results of analysis, the residue levels of pesticides (endosulfan, Dursban and fenproparthrin) were determined for the water samples collected in spring and summer, but their levels were very slight in autumn and winter. The examination of sediment samples revealed the presence of (2,4-D) in autumn and winter and Dursban only in spring. Because of the high debbi of Aras River and non detection of toxin residues in autumn and winter as well as supervision of agricultural campaign over the use of pesticides, one can be optimistic about the improvement of Aras Rivers' quality.
Keywords: Pesticide, residue of toxins, Aras River, Ardabil, Iran
ISI Document Delivery No.: 900XD

952. Nazimek, T. ; Wasak, M.; Zgrajka, W., and Turski, W. A. CONTENT OF TRANSFLUTHRIN IN INDOOR AIR DURING THE USE OF ELECTRO-VAPORIZERS. 2011; 18, (1): 85-88.

Rec #: 65859
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The quality of indoor air evokes increasing interest; however, no standards have been developed which determine the content of pesticides in the air of living space. At present, insecticides are increasingly more frequently applied to control household pests, flies, mosquitoes, termites and other harmful insects. In this study, the content of transfluthrin was measured indoors after the application of two consumer products containing this active substance, using commercially available electro-vaporizers. It was found that during the application of insecticides in the form of gel and liquid the mean concentration of transfluthrin in the air was 1.295-2.422 mu g/m(3) and 3.817-5.227 mu g/m(3), respectively. The concentration of an active agent in the air did not depend on the day of application. The concentration of transfluthrin was higher when used in the form of a liquid than a gel preparation. 18-24 hours after the discontinuation of the use of the preparation no active agent was found in the air. As long as the standards are developed regulating the content of insecticides in the air of living spaces and utility rooms, the most important method of preventing their potential hazardous effect is informing the users of these preparations about the occurrence of active substances in indoor air, and eventual risk of exposure to the effect of pesticides during their application at home.
Keywords: transfluthrin, indor air, electro-vaporizer
ISI Document Delivery No.: 788HU

953. Neely, W. B. An Analysis of Aquatic Toxicity Data: Water Solubility and Acute LC50 Fish Data. 1984; 13, (7): 813-819.

Rec #: 1660
Notes: Chemical of Concern: 3CE,4NP,ACL,CF,CHD,CPY,CTC,DCB

954. Nenaah, G. Individual and synergistic toxicity of solanaceous glycoalkaloids against two coleopteran stored-product insects. 2011; 84, (1 ): 77-86.

Rec #: 65899
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Toxicity of solanaceous glycoalkaloids against stored-grain insects was investigated under laboratory conditions. The total glycoalkaloids (TGAs), alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine from potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L. and alpha-tomatine from tomatoes, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were isolated and tested in this bioassay. Their acute and residual toxicity were assessed against the rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). All compounds were tested either individually or as binary mixtures. Results revealed considerable toxicity of the tested glycoalkaloids against the target insects. When adults of S. oryzae were exposed to a dry-film residue of these phytochemicals, the total glycoalkaloids (TGAs) fraction was the most toxic, followed by alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, and alpha-tomatine with LC(50s) of (38.6 and 22.1), (48.2 and 38.9), (52.00 and 41.6), and (82.3 and 67.00) mu g/cm(2) at 24 and 48 h post-treatment, respectively. The order of toxicity against T. castaneum in a descending order was TGAs > alpha-chaconine > alpha-solanine > alpha-tomatine. All compounds were more toxic when insects were fed grains treated with these phytochemicals (LC(50s) of TGAs were 7.4 and 16.2 mg/kg grains at 48 h post-treatment against S. oryzae and T. castaneum, respectively. All compounds, particularly the TGAs, exhibited promising residual toxicity effects. Toxicity of glycoalkaloids was exceeded when tested as binary mixtures indicating their synergistic interaction. The study recommends the use of glycoalkaloids of Solanaceae as biorationals and natural leads to protect stored grains from insect infestation.
Keywords: Bioinsecticides, Glycoalkaloids, Stored-grain insects, Synergistic
ISI Document Delivery No.: 754JJ

955. Nenaah, G. E. Toxic and antifeedant activities of potato glycoalkaloids against Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). 2011; 47, (3): 185-190.

Rec #: 65909
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The total glycoalkaloid fraction (TGA) and the two glycoalkaloids, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine of potato, Solanum tuberosum, were isolated. Their toxic and antifeedant activities against the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts were investigated. Results indicated considerable toxicity, especially when adults were topically treated with the glycoalkaloids. The TGA fraction was the most toxic with LC(50)'s of 16.7 and 11.9 mu g/mg insect, 48 and 96 h post treatment, respectively. LC50's of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine 96 h post treatment were 18.1 and 22.5 mu g/mg insect, respectively. Moderate toxicities were recorded when insects were confined on dry-film residues of botanicals with LC(50)'s ranging between 26.1 and 56.6, and 19.4 and 45.7, mu g/cm(2) 48 and 96 h post treatment, respectively. Nutritional studies using the flour disc bioassay revealed significant reduction in the growth rate (RGR), food consumption rate (RCR) and food utilization (ECI) by T. granarium at concentrations ranging between 20 and 30 mg g(-1) food with feeding deterrent indices reaching 82.4% with the TGA fraction. When tested as binary or crude alkaloidal mixtures, toxic and antifeedant activities of glycoalkaloids were increased, indicating some additive interaction among these botanicals. There is potential for use of such compounds to protect stored grains from insect infestation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Glycoalkaloids, Potato, Bioinsecticides, Antifeedants, Khapra beetle,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 795DR

956. Nettleton, D. M. Field Experiences with an Airtec Twin Fluid Spraying System. SOIL; 1991; 46, 107-112.

Rec #: 250
Keywords: METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DFPM,DFQ,EPH,FNPE,GYP,MTSM,PDM,PIM

957. Nevarez, G. G.; Pando, F. J. Q.; Ontiveros, C. G. B., and Sanchez, N. C. Dispersal of Trichogramma spp. on Pecan Trees and Its Susceptibility to Selective Insecticides (Dispersion de Trichogramma spp. en Arboles de Nogal y Susceptibilidad a Insecticidas Selectivos). 2009; 34, (3): 319-326(SPA) (ENG ABS).

Rec #: 2480
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,SS,TUZ

958. Nfon, E.; Armitage, J. M., and Cousins, I. T. Development of a dynamic model for estimating the food web transfer of chemicals in small aquatic ecosystems. 2011; 409, (24): 5416-5422.

Rec #: 65939
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A dynamic combined fate and food web model was developed to estimate the food web transfer of chemicals in small aquatic ecosystems (i.e. ponds). A novel feature of the modeling approach is that aquatic macrophytes (submerged aquatic vegetation) were included in the fate model and were also a food item in the food web model. The paper aims to investigate whether macrophytes are effective at mitigating chemical exposure and to compare the modeling approach developed here with previous modeling approaches recommended in the European Union (EU) guideline for risk assessment of pesticides. The model was used to estimate bioaccumulation of three hypothetical chemicals of varying hydrophobicity in a pond food web comprising 11 species. Three different macrophyte biomass densities were simulated in the model experiments to determine the influence of macrophytes on fate and bioaccumulation. Macrophytes were shown to have a significant effect on the fate and food web transfer of highly hydrophobic compounds with log K(ow)> = 5. Modeled peak concentrations in biota were highest for the scenarios with the lowest macrophyte biomass density. The distribution and food web transfer of the hypothetical compound with the lowest hydrophobicity (log K(ow) = 3) was not affected by the inclusion of aquatic macrophytes in the pond environment. For the three different hypothetical chemicals and at all macrophyte biomass densities, the maximum predicted concentrations in the top predator in the food web model were at least one order of magnitude lower than the values estimated using methods suggested in EU guidelines. The EU guideline thus provides a highly conservative estimate of risk. In our opinion, and subject to further model evaluation, a realistic assessment of dynamic food web transfer and risk can be obtained using the model presented here. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Fate, Exposure, Dynamic model, Bioaccumulation, Macrophytes, Risk
ISI Document Delivery No.: 853SA

959. Ng, M. G.; Semple, S.; Cherrie, J. W.; Christopher, Y.; Northage, C.; Tielemans, E.; Veroughstraete, V., and Van Tongeren, M. The Relationship Between Inadvertent Ingestion and Dermal Exposure Pathways: A New Integrated Conceptual Model and a Database of Dermal and Oral Transfer Efficiencies. 2012; 56, (9): 1000-1012.

Rec #: 65949
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Occupational inadvertent ingestion exposure is ingestion exposure due to contact between the mouth and contaminated hands or objects. Although individuals are typically oblivious to their exposure by this route, it is a potentially significant source of occupational exposure for some substances. Due to the continual flux of saliva through the oral cavity and the non-specificity of biological monitoring to routes of exposure, direct measurement of exposure by the inadvertent ingestion route is challenging; predictive models may be required to assess exposure. The work described in this manuscript has been carried out as part of a project to develop a predictive model for estimating inadvertent ingestion exposure in the workplace. As inadvertent ingestion exposure mainly arises from hand-to-mouth contact, it is closely linked to dermal exposure. We present a new integrated conceptual model for dermal and inadvertent ingestion exposure that should help to increase our understanding of ingestion exposure and our ability to simultaneously estimate exposure by the dermal and ingestion routes. The conceptual model consists of eight compartments (source, air, surface contaminant layer, outer clothing contaminant layer, inner clothing contaminant layer, hands and arms layer, perioral layer, and oral cavity) and nine mass transport processes (emission, deposition, resuspension or evaporation, transfer, removal, redistribution, decontamination, penetration and/or permeation, and swallowing) that describe event-based movement of substances between compartments (e.g. emission, deposition, etc.). This conceptual model is intended to guide the development of predictive exposure models that estimate exposure from both the dermal and the inadvertent ingestion pathways. For exposure by these pathways the efficiency of transfer of materials between compartments (for example from surfaces to hands, or from hands to the mouth) are important determinants of exposure. A database of transfer efficiency data relevant for dermal and inadvertent ingestion exposure was developed, containing 534 empirically measured transfer efficiencies measured between 1980 and 2010 and reported in the peer-reviewed and grey literature. The majority of the reported transfer efficiencies (84%) relate to transfer between surfaces and hands, but the database also includes efficiencies for other transfer scenarios, including surface-to-glove, hand-to-mouth, and skin-to-skin. While the conceptual model can provide a framework for a predictive exposure assessment model, the database provides detailed information on transfer efficiencies between the various compartments. Together, the conceptual model and the database provide a basis for the development of a quantitative tool to estimate inadvertent ingestion exposure in the workplace.
Keywords: dermal exposure, determinants of exposure, exposure modelling,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 044TC

960. Nguyen, T. D.; Han, E. M.; Seo, M. S.; Kim, S. R.; Yun, M. Y.; Lee, D. M., and Lee, G. H. A Multi-Residue Method for the Determination of 203 Pesticides in Rice Paddies Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. SOIL; 2008; 619, (1): 67-74.

Rec #: 1170

961. Nigam, P. C. Chemical Insecticides. 1975: 8,24 -.

Rec #: 1180

962. Nikolenko, A. G. and Amirkhanov, D. V. Comparative Harmfulness of Insecticides of Different Chemical Classes for Soil Algae. A.G.Nikolenko, Inst. Org. Khim., Ufa, Russia////: SOIL; 1993; 4, 115-121(RUS).

Rec #: 1190
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

963. Nikolov, N. and Davidkova, L. Effect of Some Pesticides on the Mesobionts in Maize Canopies. Collembola. 1994; 31, (1-2): 91-94(RUS) (ENG ABS).

Rec #: 1200
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACP,CPY,ES,FNT,MTM,PFF,PMR

964. Nishiuchi, Y. Toxicity of Pesticides to Fresh Water Organisms. LXXXI. Effects of Pesticides on Tadpoles. 1982; 30, (3): 167-171(JPN).

Rec #: 1210
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,PCP

965. Niu, M-F; Liu, Z-Y; Li, Z-P; Cui, W; Pang, X-P; Zhang, D, and Niu, M-F. Preparating and Researching the Efficient Comple Microbial Community for Degradating Chlorpyrifos. 2010 Feb; 29, (2): 381-385.

Rec #: 40769
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The purpose of this research was to study the growth conditions of two complex microbial community I, II, which composed upon D1 and D2 between Cunninghamella respectively, and to select the one with better effect on degrading chlorpyrifos and to measure its degrading effect, under adequate oxygen condition. The result showed: when the concentration of microorganism is 0.906(OD sub(560)) value), the optimum temperature of them were the same 30 degree and the optimum pH value were the same 7.0. When the chlorpyrifos concentration was 100 mg times L super(-1), the degradation rate of them after 5 days were 81.21% and 86.1%. Under the condition of 30 degree C, pH varying between 6.0 and 8.0 and chlorpyrifos concentration of 20 mg times L super(-1), the degradation rate was maximum. Tne results showed that its figures could offer theoretical figures in complex microbial community large-scale. Fermentation production and the bacterial might potentially be used in bioremediation of the soil which polluted by organic phosphorus pesticides.
Keywords: A 01380:Plant Protection, Fungicides & Seed Treatments
Keywords: Temperature effects
Keywords: Microbiology Abstracts A: Industrial & Applied Microbiology; Microbiology Abstracts B: Bacteriology; Pollution Abstracts; Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Bioremediation
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Fermentation
Keywords: Growth conditions
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: growth conditions
Keywords: Temperature
Keywords: Phosphorus
Keywords: J 02320:Cell Biology
Keywords: Microbial activity
Keywords: organic phosphorus
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Oxygen
Keywords: W 30950:Waste Treatment & Pollution Clean-up
Keywords: Cunninghamella
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Microorganisms
Keywords: pH effects
Keywords: pH
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 381-385
ProQuest ID - 813585553
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Temperature effects; Soil; Chlorpyrifos; Oxygen; Bioremediation; Growth conditions; Fermentation; Pesticides; Phosphorus; Microorganisms; pH effects; Degradation; growth conditions; Temperature; Microbial activity; organic phosphorus; pH; Cunninghamella
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Niu, M-F; Liu, Z-Y; Li, Z-P; Cui, W; Pang, X-P; Zhang, D
DOI - OB-MD-0013444312; 12913354; 1672-2043 English

966. Noort, D; Hulst, a G; Zuylen, a; Rijssel, E; Schans, Mj, and Noort, D. Covalent Binding of Organophosphorothioates to Albumin: a New Perspective for Op-Pesticide Biomonitoring? 2009 Nov; 83, (11): 1031-1036.

Rec #: 44509
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We here report on the covalent binding of various organophosphorothioate (OPT) pesticides to albumin at in vitro exposure levels that did not give rise to butyrylcholinesterase inhibition. Adduct formation occurred at the Tyr-411 residue of albumin, as was firmly corroborated by LC-tandem MS analysis of a pepsin digest of OPT-modified albumin. It cannot be excluded that other (tyrosine) residues become modified as well. A convenient method for mass spectrometric determination of the OPT tyrosine adduct has also been developed based on the pronase digestion of albumin and subsequent LC-tandem MS analysis of the digest. The resulting tyrosine phosphorothioate ester displayed favorable chromatographic and mass spectrometric properties for sensitive analysis. In vitro exposure levels of parathion and chlorpyrifos down to 1kM could readily be assessed. The remarkable affinity of OPTs for albumin opens the way for a more complete assessment of OP pesticide exposure.
Keywords: Adducts
Keywords: Pronase
Keywords: Pepsin A
Keywords: Tyrosine
Keywords: Esters
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Digestion
Keywords: phosphorothioate
Keywords: Albumin
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: biomonitoring
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Parathion
Date revised - 2009-12-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1031-1036
ProQuest ID - 21173467
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Digestion; Chlorpyrifos; phosphorothioate; Pronase; Adducts; Pesticides; Albumin; Pepsin A; biomonitoring; Tyrosine; Esters; Parathion
Last updated - 2012-12-28
British nursing index edition - Archives of Toxicology [Arch. Toxicol.]. Vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 1031-1036. Nov 2009.
Corporate institution author - Noort, D; Hulst, A G; Zuylen, A; Rijssel, E; Schans, MJ
DOI - MD-0010854220; 11238871; 0340-5761; 1432-0738 English

967. Norberg-King, T. J. An Evaluation of the Fathead Minnow Seven-Day Subchronic Test for Estimating Chronic Toxicity. 1989: 52 p. (Publ As 5313 and 17878).

Rec #: 1670
Keywords: PUBL AS
Call Number: NO PUBL AS (AgN,CBL,CPY,DZ,FNV,Na2Cr2,ZnS)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: AgN,CBL,CPY,DZ,FNV,Na2Cr2,ZnS

968. Nougadere, Alexandre; Sirot, Veronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frederic; Bayle, Joeelle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles, and Nougadere, Alexandre. Total Diet Study on Pesticide Residues in France: Levels in Food as Consumed and Chronic Dietary Risk to Consumers. 2012 Sep 15; 45, 135-150.

Rec #: 46489
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides (dithiocarbamates, ethoprophos, carbofuran, diazinon, methamidophos, disulfoton, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor). For these pesticides, more sensitive analyses of the main food contributors are needed in order to refine exposure assessment.
Keywords: Environmental Engineering Abstracts (EN); CSA / ASCE Civil Engineering Abstracts (CE)
Date revised - 2012-08-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 135-150
ProQuest ID - 1028026878
Last updated - 2012-12-05
British nursing index edition - Environment International [Environ. Int.]. Vol. 45, pp. 135-150. 15 Sep 2012.
Corporate institution author - Nougadere, Alexandre; Sirot, Veronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frederic; Bayle, Joeelle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles
DOI - 4a96bc85-076c-48a2-8d18csamfg201; 16816997; 0160-4120 English

969. Ntow, William J; Drechsel, Pay; Botwe, Benjamin Osei; Kelderman, Peter; Gijzen, Huub J, and Ntow, William J. The Impact of Agricultural Runoff on the Quality of Two Streams in Vegetable Farm Areas in Ghana. 2008; 37, (2): 696-703.

Rec #: 46269
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A study of two small streams at Akumadan and Tono, Ghana, was undertaken during the rain and dry season periods between February 2005 and January 2006 to investigate the impact of vegetable field runoff on their quality. In each stream we compared the concentration of current-use pesticides in one site immediately upstream of a vegetable field with a second site immediately downstream. Only trace concentrations of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos were detected at both sites in both streams in the dry season. In the wet season, rain-induced runoff transported pesticides into downstream stretches of the streams. Average peak levels in the streams themselves were 0.07 mu g L super(-1) endosulfan, 0.02 mu g L super(-1) chlorpyrifos (the Akumadan stream); 0.04 mu g L super(-1) endosulfan, 0.02 mu g L super(-1) chlorpyrifos (the Tono stream). Respective average pesticide levels associated with streambed sediment were 1.34 and 0.32 mu g kg super(-1) (the Akumadan stream), and 0.92 and 0.84 mu g kg super(-1) (the Tono stream). Further investigations are needed to establish the potential endosulfan and chlorpyrifos effects on aquatic invertebrate and fish in these streams. Meanwhile measures should be undertaken to reduce the input of these chemicals via runoff.
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Aquatic organisms
Keywords: Environmental Quality
Keywords: Agricultural pollution
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Q2 02261:General
Keywords: Invertebrates
Keywords: Freshwater
Keywords: Toxicity tests
Keywords: Streams
Keywords: upstream
Keywords: Rainy season
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; ASFA 2: Ocean Technology Policy & Non-Living Resources; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Water Resources Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts
Keywords: farms
Keywords: Downstream
Keywords: Agricultural runoff
Keywords: Ghana
Keywords: Sediment pollution
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: dry season
Keywords: Water pollution
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: downstream
Keywords: Fish
Keywords: Rain
Keywords: Dry season
Keywords: Runoff
Date revised - 2008-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Ghana
Pages - 696-703
ProQuest ID - 20864918
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sediment pollution; Rainy season; Agricultural pollution; Pesticides; Dry season; Toxicity tests; Agricultural runoff; Water pollution; Chemicals; Chlorpyrifos; Aquatic organisms; upstream; farms; downstream; dry season; Streams; Endosulfan; Agricultural Chemicals; Environmental Quality; Fish; Downstream; Rain; Invertebrates; Runoff; Ghana; Freshwater
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Environmental Quality [J. Environ. Qual.]. Vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 696-703. 2008.
Corporate institution author - Ntow, William J; Drechsel, Pay; Botwe, Benjamin Osei; Kelderman, Peter; Gijzen, Huub J
DOI - MD-0008077554; 8178998; CS0820183; 0047-2425; 1537-2537 English

970. Nuyttens, D.; Braekman, P.; Windey, S., and Sonck, B. Potential dermal pesticide exposure affected by greenhouse spray application technique. 2009; 65, (7): 781-790.

Rec #: 66019
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: Operator safety is still one of the main problems concerning greenhouse spray applications in South European horticulture. The main objective of this study was to compare potential dermal exposure (PDE) between traditional handheld spray application techniques (i.e. a standard spray gun walking forwards, a spray lance walking forwards and backwards) and novel spray application techniques with spray booms (i.e. a trolley, the Fumimatic and the Fumicar). RESULTS: PDE varied from 19.7 mLh(-1) for the Fumimatic to 460 mLh(-1) for the spray lance walking forwards. Walking backwards reduced PDE by a factor 7. With the trolley, Fumimatic and Fumicar, PDE was respectively 20,60 and 8 times lower than with the standard spray gun. With the spray lance, PDE was about 2.5 times higher than with the spray gun. Pesticide distribution over the operator's body was non-uniform and correlated strongly with the application technique. With the traditional techniques, exposure to the legs and feet represents 60-80% of the total exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Novel spray application techniques using spray booms greatly decrease operator exposure because the operator is not walking directly into the spray cloud and the sprayed crop, and because of their higher capacity. Depending on the type of spray application, different parts of the body need to be protected most. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry
Keywords: operator safety, horticulture, pesticide applications, spray boom,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 465WH

971. O'leary, D. A.; Sharif, O.; Anderson, P.; Tu, B.; Welch, G.; Zhou, Y.; Caldwell, J. S.; Engels, I. H., and Brinker, A. Identification of Small Molecule and Genetic Modulators of Aon-Induced Dystrophin Exon Skipping by High-Throughput Screening.

Rec #: 50709
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: One therapeutic approach to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) recently entering clinical trials aims to convert DMD phenotypes to that of a milder disease variant, Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), by employing antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) targeting splice sites, to induce exon skipping and restore partial dystrophin function. In order to search for small molecule and genetic modulators of AON-dependent and independent exon skipping, we screened approximately 10,000 known small molecule drugs, >17,000 cDNA clones, and >2,000 kinase- targeted siRNAs against a 5.6 kb luciferase minigene construct, encompassing exon 71 to exon 73 of human dystrophin. As a result, we identified several enhancers of exon skipping, acting on both the reporter construct as well as endogenous dystrophin in mdx cells. Multiple mechanisms of action were identified, including histone deacetylase inhibition, tubulin modulation and pre-mRNA processing. Among others, the nucleolar protein NOL8 and staufen RNA binding protein homolog 2 (Stau2) were found to induce endogenous exon skipping in mdx cells in an AON-dependent fashion. An unexpected but recurrent theme observed in our screening efforts was the apparent link between the inhibition of cell cycle progression and the induction of exon skipping.
MESH HEADINGS: Alternative Splicing/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Cycle/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: DNA, Complementary/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Dystrophin/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Enzyme Assays
MESH HEADINGS: Exons/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Genes, Reporter
MESH HEADINGS: Genome, Human/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: High-Throughput Screening Assays/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Hydroxamic Acids/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Luciferases/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mitotic Index
MESH HEADINGS: Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Oligonucleotides, Antisense/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Phosphotransferases/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Reproducibility of Results
MESH HEADINGS: Small Molecule Libraries/*analysis/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Tubulin Modulators/pharmacology eng

972. O'regan, K. J.; Brignati, M. J.; Murphy, M. A.; Bucks, M. A., and Courtney, R. J. Virion Incorporation of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Tegument Protein Vp22 Is Facilitated by Trans-Golgi Network Localization and Is Independent of Interaction With Glycoprotein E.

Rec #: 49969
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: HSV-1 virions contain a proteinaceous layer termed the tegument that lies between the nucleocapsid and viral envelope. The molecular mechanisms that facilitate incorporation of tegument proteins are poorly characterized. The tegument protein VP22 interacts with VP16 and the cytoplasmic tail of glycoprotein E (gE). Virion incorporation of VP22 occurs independently of interaction with VP16; however, the contribution of gE binding remains undefined. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify VP22 mutants which abrogate interaction with gE but retain VP16 binding. Virion incorporation assays demonstrated that failure to bind gE did not abrogate VP22 packaging. A region of VP22 which binds to both VP16 and gE failed to be packaged efficiently, with wild-type levels of incorporation only attained when residues 43-86 of VP22 were present. Mutational analysis of an acidic cluster of amino acids within this region indicates that this motif facilitates trans-Golgi network (TGN) localization and optimal virion incorporation of VP22.
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acid Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acids/chemistry/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cercopithecus aethiops
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Herpesvirus 1, Human/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
MESH HEADINGS: Point Mutation
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Binding
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Transport
MESH HEADINGS: Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Virus Assembly
MESH HEADINGS: trans-Golgi Network/*physiology eng

973. Ochi, A.; Graffeo, C. S.; Zambirinis, C. P.; Rehman, A.; Hackman, M.; Fallon, N.; Barilla, R. M.; Henning, J. R.; Jamal, M.; Rao, R.; Greco, S.; Deutsch, M.; Medina-Zea, M. V.; Bin Saeed, U.; Ego-Osuala, M. O.; Hajdu, C., and Miller, G. Toll-Like Receptor 7 Regulates Pancreatic Carcinogenesis in Mice and Humans.

Rec #: 73439
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer that interacts with stromal cells to produce a highly inflammatory tumor microenvironment that promotes tumor growth and invasiveness. The precise interplay between tumor and stroma remains poorly understood. TLRs mediate interactions between environmental stimuli and innate immunity and trigger proinflammatory signaling cascades. Our finding that TLR7 expression is upregulated in both epithelial and stromal compartments in human and murine pancreatic cancer led us to postulate that carcinogenesis is dependent on TLR7 signaling. In a mouse model of pancreatic cancer, TLR7 ligation vigorously accelerated tumor progression and induced loss of expression of PTEN, p16, and cyclin D1 and upregulation of p21, p27, p53, c-Myc, SHPTP1, TGF-β, PPARγ, and cyclin B1. Furthermore, TLR7 ligation induced STAT3 activation and interfaced with Notch as well as canonical NF-κB and MAP kinase pathways, but downregulated expression of Notch target genes. Moreover, blockade of TLR7 protected against carcinogenesis. Since pancreatic tumorigenesis requires stromal expansion, we proposed that TLR7 ligation modulates pancreatic cancer by driving stromal inflammation. Accordingly, we found that mice lacking TLR7 exclusively within their inflammatory cells were protected from neoplasia. These data suggest that targeting TLR7 holds promise for treatment of human pancreatic cancer.
MESH HEADINGS: Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/genetics/immunology/*metabolism/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics/immunology/*metabolism/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Immunity, Innate/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Inflammation/genetics/immunology/metabolism/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: MAP Kinase Signaling System/genetics/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/immunology/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Mutant Strains
MESH HEADINGS: Neoplasm Proteins/genetics/immunology/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Pancreatic Neoplasms/genetics/immunology/*metabolism/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics/immunology/*metabolism eng

974. Odabasi, M. and Cetin, B. Determination of octanol-air partition coefficients of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as a function of temperature: Application to air-soil exchange. 2012; 113, 432-439.

Rec #: 66039
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Octanol-air partition coefficients (K(OA)) for 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined as a function of temperature using the GC retention time method. Log K(OA) values at 25 degrees C ranged over two orders of magnitude, between 8.32 (chlorpyrifos) and 10.48 (methoxychlor). The determined K(OA) values were within a factor of 0.5 (endosulfan sulfate) to 7.9 (endrin aldehyde) for values calculated as the ratio of octanol-water partition coefficient to dimensionless Henry's law constant. The internal energies of phase transfer between octanol and air (Delta U(OA)) ranged between 71.8 and 95.4 kJ mol(-1) and they were within the reported range for OCPs (55.8-105 kJ mol(-1)). Atmospheric and soil OCP concentrations were also measured in Izmir, Turkey, and data used to investigate the soil-air gas exchange. Net soil-air gas exchange fluxes of OCPs ranged from -0.01 (volatilization, cis-nonachlor) to 56.4 ng m(-2) day(-1) (deposition, chlorpyrifos) in winter, while in summer they ranged from -0.03 (trans-nonachlor) to 329 ng m(-2) day(-1) (endosulfan I). In both sampling periods, endosulfan I and II, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT were generally deposited to the soil while gamma-HCH and heptachlor epoxide mostly volatilized. Fluxes of other OCPs were variable (volatilization or absorption) due to their largely fluctuating ambient air concentrations. Calculated dry deposition and recently measured wet deposition fluxes were used to estimate the relative importance of different mechanisms (i.e., dry deposition, wet deposition, gas absorption, and volatilization) to the local soil pollutant inventory. Generally, all mechanisms contributed significantly to the soil OCP inventory. Volatilization fluxes were generally much lower than the sum of input fluxes (dry deposition, wet deposition and gas absorption) for most of the OCPs indicating a net deposition to the soil. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Organochlorine pesticides, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Octanol-air
ISI Document Delivery No.: 065MQ

975. Odenkirchen, E. W. Hazards of Chlorpyrifos, an Organophosphorus Pesticide, to Natural Resources: A Review. 1987: 63 p.

Rec #: 2410
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

976. Odenkirchen, E. W. and Eisler, R. Chlorpyrifos Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review. SOIL; 1988: 34 p.

Rec #: 1710
Call Number: NO REFS CHECKED (As,CBF,CPY,Cr,Cr element,DZ), NO REVIEW (As,CBF,CPY,Cr,Cr element,DZ)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: As,CBF,CPY,Cr,DXN,DZ,MRX,PCB,TCDD,TXP

977. Odhiambo, T. R. Aspects of Integrated Pest and Vector Management in Africa. 1989; 1, (2): 4-10.

Rec #: 260

978. Oellig, C. and Schwack, W. Planar solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in tea by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2012; 1260, 42-53.

Rec #: 66059
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Efficient clean-up is indispensable for preventing matrix effects in multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food by liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). High-throughput planar solid phase extraction (HTpSPE) was recently introduced as a new clean-up concept in residue analysis of pesticides in fruit and vegetables (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2011 [451). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to completely separate pesticides from matrix compounds and to focus them into a sharp zone, followed by extraction of the target zone by the TLC-MS interface. As rather challenging matrices, tea samples were chosen in this study. Besides chlorophylls and polyphenols, high amount of caffeine is co-extracted resulting in strong matrix effects both in LC-MS and GC-MS. The former HTpSPE procedure was adapted to initial extracts of green and black tea resulting in colorless extracts nearly free of matrix effects and interferences, as shown for seven chemically representative pesticides (acetamiprid, penconazole, azoxystrobin, chlorpyrifos, pirimicarb, fenarimol, and mepanipyrim). LC-MS/MS calibration curves obtained in the range of 0.002-0.5 mg/kg from matrix-matched standards and solvent standards were nearly identical and demonstrated the effectiveness of clean-up by HTpSPE. Mean recoveries determined by LC-MS/MS against solvent standards at spiking levels of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg ranged between 72 and 114% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.7-4.7% (n = 4), while LC-MS measurements of tea samples spiked at 1 mg/kg provided recoveries of 81-104% with RSDs of 1.2-4.9% (n = 6). Using LC-MS/MS, the method showed high sensitivity with signal-to-noise ratios >10 for concentrations below 0.002 mg/kg. HTpSPE of one sample was done in a few minutes, while numerous samples were cleaned in parallel at minimal costs with very low sample and solvent consumption. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pesticide residue analysis, Tea, Clean-up, Matrix effects,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 020BE

979. Ogg, C. Research: Pesticide Exposure Extends to Applicator's Family. 2008(8).

Rec #: 53839
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Keywords: Internet resource

980. Ohata, K. and Terashima, S. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Enantiomeric Pairs of 5-[(E)-Cycloalk-2-Enylidenemethyl]Thiolactomycin Congeners.

Rec #: 51069
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The title congeners were synthesized by employing our efficient synthetic route previously explored for preparing enantiomeric pairs of thiolactomycin and its 3-demethyl derivative. While all the synthesized congeners lacked in vitro antibacterial activity, some of the congeners bearing an (E)-cyclohept-2-enylidenemethyl or an (E)-cyclooct-2-enylidenemethyl group were found to exhibit more potent type I FAS inhibitory activity than (S)-3-demethylthiolactomycin having an unnatural configuration.
MESH HEADINGS: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex/*antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Inhibitory Concentration 50
MESH HEADINGS: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Chemical
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Conformation
MESH HEADINGS: Structure-Activity Relationship
MESH HEADINGS: Thiophenes/*chemical synthesis/chemistry/pharmacology eng

981. Ohno, K.; Minami, T.; Matsui, Y., and Magara, Y. Effects of chlorine on organophosphorus pesticides adsorbed on activated carbon: Desorption and oxon formation. 2008; 42, (6-7): 1753-1759.

Rec #: 66089
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We investigated effects of chlorination on four organophosphorus pesticides (
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