Anatomy of Pericardium learning objectives



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Anteriorly it is separated from thoracic wall by lung & pleura, however some portion of it is in direct relation with left half of lower part of body of Sternum and left 4th &5th costal cartilages


  • Posteriorly it is related to esophagus descending thoracic Aorta & posterior part of mediastinal surface of both lungs

Serous Pericardium



Transverse Sinus

Transverse Sinus

Oblique Sinus




a. anteriorly by the visceral layer of serous pericardium covering the left atrium

b. posteriorly by the parietal layer of serous pericardium lining the fibrous pericardium,

c. superiorly and laterally by the reflection of serous pericardium around the four pulmonary veins and the superior and inferior venae cavae

Cardiac tamponade

  • Cardiac tamponade (heart compression) is due to critically increased volume of fluid outside the heart but inside the pericardial cavity; e.g., due to stab wounds or from perforation of a weakened area of the heart muscle after heart attack (hemopericardium).

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