Anatomy 32 Human Anatomy Lecture Chapter 9 Joints



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Anatomy 32 - Human Anatomy Lecture

Chapter 9 - Joints

  1. Overview

  1. Classifications of Joints

  2. Fibrous Joints

  3. Cartilaginous Joints

  4. Synovial Joints

  5. Movements at Synovial Joints

  6. Specific Body Joints

  7. Joint Disorders

  1. Classifications of Joints

  1. _______________ (joints) are the unions between bones; they hold bones together and allow some flexibility to the skeletal system

  2. _____ology is the study of joints, whereas _____ology is the study of human motion – the interactions of the bones, joints and muscles

  3. Joints may be classified either structurally or functionally

  1. ___________ classification focuses on the amount of ________ allowed at the joint.

  1. ______arthroses are _______________ joints (e.g.: most fibrous joints)

  2. _______arthroses are _________ movable joints (e.g.: most cartilagenous joints)

  3. ____arthroses are _______ moving joints (e.g.: all synovial joints)

  1. ____________ classification is based on whether there is connective tissue fiber, cartilage, or a joint cavity between the articulating bones; include _________, ______________, and ______________ joints

  1. _________ Joints - fibrous CT holds the articulating bones together; joints lack cavities. Three types of these joints include:

A. _______ - ___arthrotic joints found only in the skull; dense regular CT binds the articulating bones.

  1. ___________ - joints held together by collagenous fibers or sheets of fibrous tissue called interosseous ___________ (e.g.: bet. distal tibia & fibula); may allow slight movement but are synarthrotic

  2. _____________ (dentoalveolar joint) - where a tooth root attaches to the periodontal ligament of the dental alveolus (tooth _______) in the jaw




  1. ______________ Joints - allow limited movement (______arthrotic) in response to twisting or compression. Two types are:

  1. ______________ - adjoining bones are interconnected by a disk of ______cartilage (e.g.: pubic symphysis and intervertebral joints)

  2. _______________ - cartilaginous joints with __________ cartilage between the articulating bones (e.g.: epiphyseal plate and costochondral articulations bet. ribs & sternum)

  1. __________ Joints - freely movable (_____________) joints enclosed by joint capsules containing synovial fluid. The most common body joints, they are categorized by the type of movement they permit –gliding, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball & socket

  1. A synovial joint’s range of ________ is determined by 3 factors:

  1. Structure of the articulating _________

  2. Strength of the joint ______ and associated ligaments & tendons

  3. Size, arrangement, and action of __________ around the joint

  1. Synovial Joint Structure

  1. Joint surfaces are enclosed by a 2-layered articular _________ (sleeve of fibrous CT), creating a joint (synovial) _________

  1. The outer layer is a ________ capsule of dense irregular CT, continuous with the bone periosteum

  2. The interior of the capsule is lined with a __________ membrane of loose CT, which produces a lubricating fluid (__________ fluid) that reduces friction

  1. Articulating surfaces of the bones are covered with articular (___________) cartilage

  2. The articular capsule is usually reinforced with __________ and may contain __________ (fluid-filled sacs that reduce friction between muscles or where tendons cross the bone)

  3. _______cartilage pads (articular discs) may be present within the capsule (e.g., knee menisci)

  4. Each synovial joint is served by major ______ & blood vessels.

  1. ___________ of Synovial Joints

  1. __________ (gliding) - articular surfaces are flat or slightly curved, allowing sliding movements in one or two planes (e.g.: inter________ & intertarsal joints)

  2. __________ - rounded process of one bone fits into the concave surface of another to allow movement in one plane (monaxial), usually flexion and extension (e.g.: _________ & phalanges)

  3. _____ - rounded or conical surface on one bone articulates with a depression in another bone; permits rotation about a central axis (e.g.: atlas & ______ joint, proximal joint of ulna & radius)

  4. _____________ - oval convex of one bone fits into a concave depression of another bone; permits angular movement in two directions (biaxial) (e.g.: wrist joint and metacarpophalangeal = __________)

  5. ___________ (modified condyloid) - articulating surfaces are saddle shaped: one bone has a concave surface, the other a convex surface; allows biaxial movement (e.g.: carpometacarpal joint of the _________)

  6. _____ & ___________ - ball shaped head of one bone fits into a cuplike depression of another; allows movement in all directions and pivotal rotation (multiaxial) (e.g.: hip & shoulder joints)

  1. _____________ at Synovial Joints

  1. Every muscle is _____________ to bone (or other CT structures) at two points:

  1. The __________ is the stationary, immovable, or less movable attachment (usually proximal)

  2. The ____________ is the more movable attachment (usually distal)

  1. Body _________ occurs when muscles contract across diarthrotic synovial joints. Common body movements include:

  1. ___________ movements - increase or decrease the joint angle produced by articulating bones

  1. __________ - decreases the joint angle on an anteroposterior plane; this is typical of _______ joints (e.g.: bending the knee or elbow).

  1. _______flexion occurs as the top surface of the foot is elevated

  2. ________flexion occurs as the foot is pointed downward

  1. ___________ - increases the joint angle and the distance between two bones or parts of the body (e.g.: straightening the elbow or knee). If the extension is greater than 180, it is called ________extension

  2. ____duction - movement of a limb ______ from the body’s midline in a lateral direction

  3. _____uction - movement of a limb __________ the body’s midline (the opposite of abduction)

  1. _________ Movements - a bone with a rounded or oval surface articulates with a depression on another bone

  1. ___________ - bone movement around its longitudinal axis, without lateral or medial displacement; common in ______ & _________ joints and rotation of atlas around the axis dens

  1. ______________ - movement of the palm from a posterior (or facing down) to an anterior (or facing up) position

  2. ______________ - opposite of supination

  1. _____________ - circular movement of a body part in a cone shape; combines flexion, __________, abduction, & __________; common in ball & socket joints

  1. Special movements

  1. ____________ - movement of the sole of the foot inward (medially)

  2. ____________ - opposite of inversion; movement of the sole of the foot outward (laterally)

  3. ____________ - movement of part of the body forward (e.g.: jutting out the jaw)

  4. _____________ - pulling back the protracted part

  5. _________ - raises a body part (e.g.: shrugging the shoulders)

  6. __________ - opposite of elevation

  1. Specific Synovial Joints of the Body

  1. Temporomandibular joint (_____) - formed by the mandibular condyle and the mandibular fossa & articular tubercle of the temporal bone

  1. This joint is a combination ______ and gliding joint; movements include:

  1. depression and __________ of the mandible as a hinge joint

  2. ______________ and retraction as a gliding joint

  3. lateral ___________ movements

  1. Three _____________ support and reinforce the TM joint

  2. An articular _______ separates the joint cavity into superior and inferior compartments

  3. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) _________ is a misalignment of one or both TM joints. Symptoms range from moderate facial pain to intense pain in the head, neck, shoulders, or back

  1. Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint - formed by the head of the ___________ and scapular __________ cavity

  1. This is a _____ & _________ joint and the most movable joint of the body, and relatively easily dislocated; allows circumduction and rotation of the arm

  2. _________ pass around the shoulder rim, between the corocoid process & greater tubercle, and between the greater & lesser tubercles

  3. The stability of the shoulder is provided mainly by the _______ of the subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles, which form the musculotendinous (____________) cuff

  1. Elbow joint - a ________ joint composed of two articulations:

  1. The humeroulnar joint, formed by the _______ of the humerus & trochlear notch of the ________

  2. The humeroradial joint, formed by the _____________ of the humerus and the head of the __________

  3. Both of these articulations are enclosed in a single joint ______

  4. Allows ___________ and extension of the forearm




  1. Wrist - formed by the distal ends of the ulna & _________ and the ___________, lunate, and triquetral carpal bones

  1. This is a synovial, ______________ joint

  2. It allows circumduction

  1. Coxal (hip) joint - formed by the ______ head and the _________ of the os coxae

  1. The hip is a ____ & _____ joint that is stronger and more stable than the shoulder; allows circumduction and rotation of the leg

  2. The hip is secured by a strong fibrous joint capsule, several ____________, and a number of powerful muscles

  1. Tibiofemoral (knee) joint - located between the femur and _____, the knee is the largest, most complex, most vulnerable joint in the body; it is formed by 3 joints

  1. ________ tibiofemoral joint between the lateral condyles of the femur & tibia and the lateral meniscus

  2. Intermediate ________ femoral joint between the patella and patellar surface of the femur

  3. _______ tibiofemoral joint between the medial condyles of the femur & tibia and the medial meniscus

  4. The __________ are fibrocartilage disks between the condyles of the femur and tibia

  5. ____________ ligaments support medial (tibial) & and lateral (fibular) sides of the knee; anterior & posterior ___________ ligaments lie deep within the knee

  6. Knee injuries often involve the 3 C’s - the anterior cruciate ligament, collateral ligaments, and __________

  1. Talocrural (_____) joint - the 2 articulations within the ankle are:

  1. The medial malleolus of the ______ articulates with the tallus

  2. The lateral malleolus of the _______ articulates with the tallus

  3. These are synovial, hinge joints that allow _______flexion and plantar flexion

  1. Joint ____________

  1. Joint ___________

  1. A _______ involves excessive _________ of tendons or muscles surrounding a joint; often caused by not “warming up” before exercise

  2. A ________ involves the __________ of ligaments or tendons surrounding a joint; usually takes longer to heal than a strain

  3. A ____________ (luxation) is a derangement of the articulating bones in a joint; usually more serious than a sprain

  1. Inflammatory & Degenerative Conditions

  1. Bursitis is the inflammation of the _____ associated with a joint

  2. Tendonitis is the inflammation of a ________

  3. ___________ is a designation for joint diseases which have the symptoms of edema, inflammation, and pain. The most common types of arthritis are:

  1. _________ arthritis - results from autoimmune attack against the joint tissues, results in deterioration of the articular cartilage, joint ossification, and crippling of the joints

  2. ________arthritis is the softening and disintegration of articular cartilage; it results from aging and irritation of the joints. This is more common, but usually less damaging than rheumatoid arthritis

  3. ________ arthritis results when excess uric acid is retained in the blood and sodium urate crystals are deposited in the joints; the crystals irritate the articular cartilage and synovial membrane, causing swelling, pain, and deterioration. Most commonly occurs in the great toe joint of males

  1. ______ Disease - joint pain and arthritis caused by spirochette bacteria transmitted by _____. Symptoms include skin rash, flu-like symptoms, foggy thinking. Treatable with antibiotics in early stages

  1. Treatment of Joint Disorders

  1. _____________ involves making a small incision into the joint capsule and inserting an arthroscope to view the area

  2. Joint _____________ can replace diseased joints



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