This review is meant to highlight basic concepts from unit 4. It does not cover all concepts presented by your instructor. Refer back to your notes, unit objectives, labs, handouts, etc. to further prepare for your exam.
Give a general explanation of what makes up the following:
Describe the divisions and subdivisions of PNS, give a general function of each.
Motor division –
Visceral motor division –
Sympathetic division –
Pararsympathetic division –
Somatic motor division –
Structures of Neurons – define the following:
Soma (Cell Body) –
Myelin Sheath –
Schwann Cells –
Nodes of Ranvier –
Synaptic Knobs & Synaptic Vesicles –
Name the functional class of neurons:
__________________________ - conduct signals from CNS to muscles/glands
__________________________ - conduct signals within the CNS
__________________________ - conduct signals from the PNS to the CNS
Name the structural class of neurons:
__________________________ Neuron - Many dendrites converge into one main dendrite; one axon, found in retina, inner ear, olfactory cells
__________________________ Neuron - Many dendrites; no axon, found in the brain and retina
__________________________ Neuron - Many dendrites lead directly to cell body; one axon, make up most neurons in brain and spinal cord
__________________________ Neuron - Many dendrites converge into one axon, cell body in middle of axon, make up sensory neurons from skin and organs to spinal cord
Name the following neuroglial cell and determine if it part of the CNS or PNS(circle one):
____________________, belongs to the CNS/PNS - (star shaped), 2 types, one forms the blood/brain barrier, one replaces dead neurons (scar tissue)
____________________, belongs to the CNS/PNS- Surround nerve cell bodies, regulate levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and neurotransmitters
______________________, belongs to the CNS/PNS - line ventricles of brain and produce CSF
______________________, belongs to the CNS/PNS - (spider shaped), form myelin sheath in CNS
________________________, belongs to the CNS/PNS - Form myelin sheath around neurons of PNS
_______________________, belongs to the CNS/PNS – macrophages phagocytize foreign invaders
Nerve Signals: Generation & Propagation - define each term and explain what is happening with K+ and Na+ at each step:
In general use the above information to explain how nerve signals are generated and propagated down an axon.
Describe the structures found at a synapse and determine where they are found:
Presynaptic Neuron –
Postsynaptic Neuron –
Synaptic Cleft –
Synaptic Knob –
Synaptic Vesicles –
Give the function of the following neurotransmitters:
Name the types of memory:
____________________________ - Retention of info for just a few seconds, the “here and now”
____________________________ - Retention of small bits of info for seconds to hours, lost if not reinforced
Name the nervous tissue disorder:
____________________________ Formation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, memory loss, confusion
____________________________ - Myelin sheaths of CNS deteriorate, replaced by scar tissue (sclera), may be autoimmune
____________________________ - Degeneration of dopamine-releasing neurons, Progressive loss of motor function
____________________________ - Absence of enzyme that breaks down glycolipid in myelin sheath, genetic disorder, Eastern European Jewish ancestry
Name the landmarks/divisions of the brain:
____________________________ – groove separates frontal and parietal lobes
____________________________ – outer layer of gray matter; unmyelinated
____________________________ left/right halves of cerebrum
____________________________ – inner layer of white matter; myelinated
____________________________ – thick nerve bundle that connects hemispheres
____________________________ raised folds of gray matter (the general term)
____________________________ _– groove separates temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes
____________________________ – deep sulcus that separates hemispheres
____________________________ – raised folds gray matter posterior to central sulcus
____________________________ – raised folds of gray matter anterior to central sulcus
____________________________ grooves between gyri ( the general term)
Describe the primary functions of each lobe of the brain:
frontal lobe –
parietal lobe –
temporal lobe –
occipital lobe –
Which brain system is important for long term memory storage, control of emotions, and links functions of the cerebrum with functions of the brainstem?
Which area of the brain directs nerve signals to appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex and encloses the third ventricle?
Name 3 structures that make up the brainstem and give the major function of each.
Name the area of the brain that smoothes movements and helps maintain balance.
Put the 3 meninges of the brain and the resulting spaces between them in order for outer to inner.
Arachnoid, Dura Mater, Pia Mater, Subarachnoid Space, Subdural Space
The ventricles and CSF:
What is CSF and where is it produced?
What is the function of CSF?
Name the ventricles and briefly describe the flow of CSF.
Cranial nerves, give the basic function of each and whether sensory/motor/or both:
I Olfactory –
What is the auricle (pinna) and why is it important for hearing?
What is the function of ceruminous glands? –
What do guard hairs protect?
What is an infection of the outer ear called?
Technical name for the ear drum?
Name the ossicles in order in which they transmit vibrations from the ear drum to the oval window.
Name the tube that connects the middle ear to the throat.
What is an infection of the middle ear called?
Inner ear, Cochlea:
What is the function of the cochlea?
Use the following terms to describe the path of vibrations through the cochlea until they are turned into electrical signals: Cochlear Duct, Cochlear Nerve, Endolymph, Hair Cells, Organ of Corti, Oval Window, Perilymph, Round Window, Stapes, Tectorial Membrane, Tympanic Duct, Vestibular Duct,
How do we hear different volumes of sound and different pitches?
Explain the difference between conductive hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss.
Inner ear, Semicircular Canals and vestibule:
What is the function of these structures?
Use the following terms to describe how the brain detects movements of the head: Ampullae, Cupulae, Hair Cells, Nerve Cells, Semicircular Canal, Vestibular Nerve
Use the following terms to describe how the brain detects movements of the head:Hair Cells, Maculae, Nerve Cells, Otoliths, Saccule & Utricle, Vestibular Nerve, Vestibule
Describe the path of a tear from being produced in the lacrimal gland to draining through the nose when crying.
Extrinsic eye muscles: Describe the movement of each.
Superior/Inferior Rectus Muscles
Medial/Lateral Rectus Muscles
Superior/Inferior Oblique Muscles
Name the mucous membrane that lines the eye lids and anterior part of the eye (except at the cornea).
Why does it seem to heal so quickly when you scratch it?
Tunics of the eyeball, name the structures:
Tunica Fibrosa (Fibrous Layer) - Outer fibrous layer
_________________________ – dense, collagenous white layer
_________________________ – transparent area of sclera, allows in light
Tunica Vasculosa (Vascular Layer) - Middle vascular Layer
________________________ – vascular, pigmented, dark layer behind retina