This section is only one part of a larger tool created to help states and communities develop a comprehensive document that describes their burden of oral disease. Access other sections of the Tool in the Table of Contents.
Amar S, Chung KM. Influence of hormonal variation on the periodontium in women. Periodontol 2000:1994;6:79–87.
American Academy of Periodontology. Position paper: Tobacco use and the periodontal patient. J Periodontol 1999;70:1419–27.
American Dental Association. Distribution of Dentists in the United States by Region and State, 1997. Chicago, IL: American Dental Association Survey Center;1999.
Bailey W, Duchon K, Barker L, Maas W. Populations receiving optimally fluoridated public drinking water – United States, 1992–2006. MMWR 2008; 57(27):737–741.
Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5727a1.htm
Beck JD, Offenbacher S, Williams R, Gibbs P, Garcia R. Periodontics: A risk factor for coronary heart disease? Ann Periodontol 1998;3(1):127–41.
Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Winn DM, Austin DF, Greenberg RS, Preston-Martin S. Smoking and drinking in relation to oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cancer Res 1988;48(11):3282–7.
BPHC.HRSA.gov [Internet]. Rockville, MD: The Health Center Program: What Is A Health Center [last reviewed 2009 Aug 24; cited 2010 March 8th]. Available at http://bphc.hrsa.gov/about/. Brown LJ, Wagner KS, Johns B. Racial/ethnic variations of practicing dentists. J Am Dent Assoc 2000;131:1750–4.
Burt BA, Eklund BA. Dentistry, dental practice, and the community. 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1999.
CDC.gov [Internet]. Atlanta, GA: Community Water Fluoridation: Statistics; c2010 [last reviewed 2009 Aug 24; cited 2010 March 8th]. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/statistics.htm.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing and controlling oral and pharyngeal cancer. Recommendations from a national strategic planning conference. MMWR 1998; 47(No. RR-14):1–12. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00054567.htm.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: Fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries. MMWR 1999;48(41):933–40.
Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1.htm.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Populations receiving optimally fluoridated public drinking water — United States, 2000. MMWR 2002;51(7):
144–7. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5107a2.htm.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. MMWRRecomm Rep 2001;50(RR-14):1–42. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5014a1.htm.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs—United States, 1995–1999. MMWR 2002;51(14):300–3. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5114a2.htm.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. National Health Expenditure (NHE) amounts by type of expenditure and source of funds: Calendar years 1965–2013. Updated October 2004. [Updated version: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. National Health Expenditure (NHE) amounts by type of expenditure and source of funds: Calendar years 1965–2019. Available at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/NationalHealthExpendData/03_NationalHealthAccountsProjected.asp#TopOfPage.
Christen AG, McDonald JL, Christen JA. The impact of tobacco use and cessation on nonmalignant and precancerous oral and dental diseases and conditions. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University School of Dentistry; 1991.
Dasanayake AP. Poor periodontal health of the pregnant woman as a risk factor for low birth weight. Ann Periodontal 1998;3:206–12.
Davenport ES, Williams CE, Sterne JA, Sivapathasundram V, Fearne JM,
Curtis MA. The East London study of maternal chronic periodontal disease
and preterm low birth weight infants: Study design and prevalence data. Ann Periodontol 1998;3:213–21.
De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M, Ronco A. Diet and risk of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract--I. Foods. Oral Oncol 1999;35(1):17–21.
Fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SJ, et al. Treating tobacco use and dependence. Clinical practice guideline. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 2000. Available at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/tobacco/treating_tobacco_use.pdf.
Gaffield ML, Gilbert BJ, Malvitz DM, Romaguera R. Oral health during pregnancy: An analysis of information collected by the pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system. J Am Dent Assoc 2001;132(7):1009–16. Full text available at: http://jada.ada.org/cgi/content/full/132/7/1009.*
Genco RJ. Periodontal disease and risk for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Rev Rep 1998;19(3):34-40.
Griffin SO, Jones K, Tomar SL. An economic evaluation of community water fluoridation. J Public Health Dent 2001;61(2):78–86. Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11474918?dopt=AbstractPlus.
Herrero R. Chapter 7: Human papillomavirus and cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2003; (31):47–51.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 89, Smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Lyon, France: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007.
Available at http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/recentpub/mono89.pdf.*
Johnson NW. Oral Cancer. London: FDI World Press, 1999.
Komaromy M, Grumbach K, Drake M, Vranizan K, Lurie N, Keane D, Bindman AB. The role of black and Hispanic physicians in providing health care for underserved populations. N Engl J Med 1996;334(20):1305–10.
Kressin NR, De Souza MB. Oral health education and health promotion.
St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2003:277–328.
Levi F. Cancer prevention: Epidemiology and perspectives. Eur J Cancer 1999;35(14):1912–24.
McLaughlin JK, Gridley G, Block G, et al. Dietary factors in oral and pharyngeal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1988;80(15):1237–43.
Mealey BL. Periodontal implications: medically compromised patients. Ann Periodontol 1996;1(1):256–321.
Morse DE, Pendrys DG, Katz RV, et al. Food group intake and the risk of oral epithelial dysplasia in a United States population. Cancer Causes Control 2000;11(8):713-20.
Offenbacher S, Jared HL, O’Reilly PG, Wells SR, Salvi GE, Lawrence HP, et al. Potential pathogenic mechanisms of periodontitis associated pregnancy complications. Ann Periodontol 1998;3(1):233–50.
Offenbacher S, Lieff S, Boggess KA, Murtha AP, Madianos PN, Champagne CM, et al. Maternal periodontitis and prematurity. Part I: Obstetric outcome of prematurity and growth restriction. Ann Periodontol 2001;6(1):164–74.
Phelan JA. Viruses and neoplastic growth. Dent Clin North Am 2003;47(3):533–43.
Redford M. Beyond pregnancy gingivitis: Bringing a new focus to women’s oral health. J Dent Educ 1993;57(10):742–8.
Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Clegg L, et al. (Eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2001, National Cancer Institute: Bethesda, MD; National Cancer Institute; 2004. Available at http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2001/.
Scannapieco FA, Bush RB, Paju S. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A systematic review. Ann Periodontol. 2003;8(1):70–8.
Shanks TG, Burns DM. Disease consequences of cigar smoking. In: Cigars: Health effects and trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 9. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1998.
Silverman SJ, Jr. Oral Cancer, 4th edition. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 1998.
Taylor GW. Bidirectional interrelationships between diabetes and periodontal diseases: An epidemiologic perspective. Ann Periodontol 2001;6(1):99–112.
Tomar SL, Asma S. Smoking-attributable periodontitis in the United States: Findings from NHANES III. J Periodontol 2000;71:743–51.
Tomar SL, Husten CG, Manley MW. Do dentists and physicians advise tobacco users to quit? J Am Dent Assoc 1996;127(2):259–65.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Using Smokeless Tobacco: A Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 1986. NIH Publication No. 86-2874.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Current Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1996. Series 10, No. 200. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics; 1999. DHHS Publication No. 99-1528. Available at
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health in America:
A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; 2000a. NIH Publication No. 00-4713.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health. In: HealthyPeople 2010, 2nd edition. With Understanding and Improving Health and Objectives for Improving Health. 2 vols. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000b.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; 2003. NIH Publication No. 03-5303.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2004a. Available at
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010progress review: Oral health. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 2004b. Available at http://www.healthypeople.gov/data/2010prog/focus21/.
Weaver RG, Ramanna S, Haden NK, Valachovic RW. Applicants to U.S. dental schools: An analysis of the 2002 entering class. J Dent Educ 2004;68(8):880–900.