Bibliography and translations with brief commentary on Vietnamese poets discussed in the thesis.
Bích Khê (1916-1946) was born in Quảng Ngãi. He was an expert on traditional Chinese poetry and modern Vietnamese poetry. His poetry collections, Tinh huyết (Pure Blood, 1939) and Mấy dòng thơ cũ (The Old Verses, 1931-1936) were considered as products of Surrealism and Magicism. In his poems, there was a combination of colour, music and the demands of the flesh that become a realm of magic.
Tì bà Nàng ơi! Tay đêm đang giăng mềm
Trăng đan qua cành muôn tay êm
Mây nhung pha màu thu trên trời
Sương lam phơi màu thu muôn nơi
Vàng sao nằm im trên hoa gầy
Tương tư người xưa thôi qua đây
Ôi! Nàng năm xưa quên lời thề
Hoa vừa đưa hương gây đê mê
Cây đàn yêu đương làm bằng thơ
Cây đàn yêu đương run trong mơ
Hồn về trên môi kêu: em ơi
Thuyền hồn không đi lên chơi vơi
Tôi qua tim nàng vay du dương
Tôi mang lên lầu lên cung Thương
Tôi không bao giờ thôi yêu nàng
Tình tang tôi nghe như tình lang
Yêu nàng bao nhiêu trong lòng tôi
Yêu nàng bao nhiêu trên đôi môi
Đâu tìm Đào Nguyên cho xa xôi
Đào Nguyên trong lòng nàng đây thôi
Thu ôm muôn hồn chơi phiêu diêu
Sao tôi không màng kêu: em yêu
Trăng nay không nàng như trăng thiu
Đêm nay không nàng như đêm hiu
Buồn lưu cây đào tìm hơi xuân
Buồn sang cây tùng thăm đông quân
Ô! Hay buồn vương cây ngô đồng
Vàng rơi! Vàng rơi: Thu mênh mông.518
Spleen music Beauty! Night-hands softly threading
Moon softly interleaving hand-branches
Velvet clouds mixing autumn colour in the sky
Blue fog parching autumn colour everywhere
Starry yellow lying silently on fragile flowers
Missing old lovers had not come through
Oh! Beauty forgot your old swear
Flowers has just brought smell fascinatedly
The love music made by poems
The love music trembling in dreams
Soul comes on lips sound: Honey!
The boat of soul did not come up unpredictably
I found her through melody
I brought upstairs to music realm
I never stop loving her
'Rhythm' I heard like Lovers
How much I love her in my heart
How much I love on the lips
Needn't looking for distant Dao Nguyen
Dao Nguyen was in her heart
Autumn hugs psychedelic souls
Why I do not mind calling: darling
Moon without you tonight blue moon
Night without you gloomy night
Sadness dwelled peach tree finding spring smell
Sadness transferred to Cedrus tree visiting spring queen
Oh sadness lingered Jatropha podagrica
Yellow falls yellow falls enormous autumn)
Nhạc Ô! nắng vàng thơm... rung rinh điệu ngọc,
Những cánh hồng đơm, - những cánh hồng đơm
Nhẹ nhàng, nhịp nhàng thở đều trong sương;
Màu trăng không gian như gờn gợn sóng.
Từ ở phương mô nhạn mang thơ về,
Đàn thơ cơ hồ lên cung âm điệu.
Đây giây trinh bạch khóc mướt trong mơ;
Đây hồn ngọc thạch xanh sao như tờ.
Ô cõi lầu mây ánh gì kim cương,
Áo nàng thơ ngây nao nao nghê thường.
Thơ bay! Thơ bay vô bàn tay ngà,
Thơ ngà ngà say! Thơ ngà ngà say!
Nàng ơi! Đừng động... có nhạc trong giây,
Nhạc gây hoa mộng, nhạc ngát trong mây;
Nhạc lên cung hường, nhạc vô đào động,
Ô nàng tiên nương! - Hớp nhạc đầy hương. 519
Music Oh! Perfume yellow sunshine … trembling crystal rhythm
Music reaches pink realm, music comes to peach cave
Oh, fairy! – Drinking music full of perfume
Chế Lan Viên (1920-1989) was born in Quảng Trị. He was both a poet and a poetry critic. His poetry career spread across most periods of Vietnamese ‘modern poetry’. As Hàn Mặc Tử, he started his career by being a participant of Trường Thơ Loạn (Crazy Poetic Group). His first poetry collection, Điêu tàn (Moulder) was influenced by Baudelaire. This collection was a recall of the Chăm Kingdom in Vietnam, which disappeared with the disintegration of the Chăm Dynasty. After 1945, Chế Lan Viên had an incredible change in his poetic soul by approaching the Communist revolution. From then on he found the light in his life, which was getting close to the working class and gathering people in this nation. After 1975, Chế Lan Viên raised a very important issue about the ego of the citizen and the war. He also questioned himself in relation to various facets of life. He created a new ideological path for modern Vietnamese poets to follow: the critic’s voice of contemporary life instead of the previous passionate voice of victory.
Đêm tàn Ta cùng Nàng nhìn nhau không tiếng nói
Sợ lời than lay đổ cả đêm sâu
Đôi hơi thở tìm nhau trong bóng tối
Đôi linh hồn chìm đắm bể U Sầu
"- Chiêm nương ơi, cười lên đi, em hỡi!
Cho lòng anh quên một phút buồn lo!
Nhìn chi em chân trời xa vòi vọi
Nhớ chi em sầu hận nước Chàm ta?
Này, em trông một vì sao đang rụng
Hãy nghiêng mình mà tránh đi, nghe em!
Chắc có lẽ linh hồn ta lay động
Khi vội vàng trở lại nước non Chiêm"
Lời chưa dứt, bóng đêm đà vụt biến!
Tình chưa nồng, đã sắp phải phôi pha!
Trên trần gian vầng ô kia đã đến
Gỡ hồn Nàng ra khỏi mảnh hồn ta!520
Late night You and I look at each other silently
Being afraid of lament collapsing deep darkness
Two breaths looking for each other in the dark
Two souls sinking in the sad pool
The girl from Chiem’s kingdom, please smile up!
To make my soul forget worry
What are you looking at the distant horizon?
What are you missing the sorrow of our Cham’s nation?
Honey, looking at a falling star
Please please lean to avoid, honey
Possibly our souls are vibrating
In a hurry coming back to Chiem
Voice still not end, darkness disappears
Love still not warm, separating soon
On earth, the dark realm has come
Detached your soul out of my piece soul
Dương Tường (1932) was born in Nam Định, the same province as Trần Dần. Dương Tường was first known as a translator in Vietnam. He translated many famous Western novels from French and English. He had two individual published poetry collections, Đàn (Musical Instrument) and Thơ Dương Tường (Dương Tường Poetry), as well as a dualpoetry collection with Lê Đạt: 36 Bài Tình (36 Love Poems). Dương Tường was also a soldier. Some of his poems were written about the sorrow of war and the hurt of a soldier after war. Dương Tường had the intention of renewing Vietnamese ‘modern poetry’ by using defamiliarisation. He also explored a kind of poetry that had never been published in Vietnam before: a painting poetry collection without words (Đàn).
Chợt thu 1
Hàn Mặc Tử (1912-1940) was born in Quảng Bình. He was the creator of Trường Thơ Loạn (Crazy Poetic Group) and the leader of the Bình Định poetry group. His poetry was close to Symbolism and Surrealism. His most famous poetry collection, Thơ Điên (Crazy Poetry) was published in 1936. Hàn Mặc Tử’s poetry was a mixture of a pure, romantic soul with an injured and hurt body. He had leprosy and was being treated from a very young age until his death in Quy Hoa hospital. His life was a tragedy of poetic desire and pure hopeless love. Due to his complex living conditions and poetic ideology, critics still try to analyse his poetry from social and bibliographic perspectives.
Đây thôn Vĩ Dạ Sao anh không về chơi thôn Vĩ?
Nhìn nắng hàng cau nắng mới lên.
Vườn ai mướt quá xanh như ngọc
Lá trúc che ngang mặt chữ điền.
Gió theo lối gió, mây đường mây,
Dòng nước buồn thiu, hoa bắp lay...
Thuyền ai đậu bến sông Trăng đó,
Có chở trăng về kịp tối nay?
Mơ khách đường xa, khách đường xa
Áo em trắng quá nhìn không ra...
Ở đây sương khói mờ nhân ảnh
Ai biết tình ai có đậm đà?526
Here is Vi Da village Why don’t you come back Vi village
Looking light at areca, new rising sunshine
Whose garden silky green like gem
Bamboo leaf crossing over the square face
Wind on the wind’s way, Cloud on the cloud’s way
Sad water breezing cornflower
Whose boat mooring on that moon river pier
Can it deliver moon on time tonight?
Dream faraway guest, faraway guest
Your shirt is too white, I can see
Here the fog blurs human image
Who knows whose love insightful?
Lê Đạt (1929-2008) was the creator of Thơ dòng chữ (word-line-poetry). With Trần Dần and Dương Tường, he participated in ‘Nhân văn giai phẩm’, a movement that required freedom for poets in writing. His poetry collection, Bóng chữ (The Shadow of Words) could be seen as his statement in writing poetry, in which he regarded words as the material as well as the content and subject of poetry. Words in his poetry no longer contained their original meanings but made new words and new understanding in conjunction with others. He wrote ‘Chữ giấu nghĩa’ (words hid the meanings), and his process was a journey of finding meanings under the shadow of familiar but strange words.
Đệm Bước đệm
xanh khúc phố
Nốt chân xuân
đàn cò lạ
Chập chững dương cầm
ngã tương tư527 Padding Accompanied padding steps
Spring foot notes
Strange stork flock
Em đi Từ bước em xa
xuân vắng nhà
Nửa phố gió mùa
mình hoa khép một
Nửa gối trăng soi
nửa buồng mưa dột
Nửa chiếu buồn
nghiêng nhớ nửa giường
Ngõ thõng lạnh ống sơ mi đường cụt Cột đèn chột
chống một chân 528
Your going Since you go away
The spring absent at home
Half street monsoon
Flower trunk closed
Half pillow moon shines
Half room rain leaks
Half mat sad
Lies on one side missing half bed
Empty cold alley sleeve shirt dead end blind lamp
Stands on one leg
Lưu Trọng Lư (1911-1991) was born in Quảng Bình. He was one of the first poets in the Vietnamese ‘New Poetry Movement’. He wrote poetry, plays and stories. His poetry was the sound of an individual soul that was sensitive in the face of the steps of time and seasons.
Tiếng thu Em không nghe mùa thu
Dưới trăng mờ thổn thức?
Em không nghe rạo rực
Hình ảnh kẻ chinh phu
Trong lòng người cô phụ?
Em không nghe rừng thu
Lá thu kêu xào xạc
Con nai vàng ngơ ngác
Đạp trên lá vàng khô?529
The sound of autumn Don’t you hear autumn
Under sobbing faint moon?
Don’t you hear desire
of soldier husband image
In the soul of sole wife?
Don’t you hear autumn forest
Rustling autumn leaves
The bewildered deer
Stepping on dry yellow leaves?
Nguyễn Du (1766-1820) was born in Hanoi. His family held a high position in the Vietnamese Kingdom. He was regarded as the greatest poet in Vietnam. His long poem, Truyện Kiều (Kiều’s Stories) and other writings such as Văn tế thập loại chúng sinh (Oration for Ten Kinds of Human) contained the human spirit. Among the complex history of the Vietnamese medieval period, Nguyễn Du did not write to support any side of feudatory power. What he wrote were tears for human fate within chaotic medieval life.
Như Huy (1971) is a Vietnamese contemporary visual artist. He belongs to a new generation of Vietnamese poets. He was the co-founder of Zerostation, which is a private group that displayed visual art in Vietnam. The poems of Như Huy tend to break the norms of form and lyrics. He prefers to place verses with the priority intention of creating art and thought about them. Those below poems were translated from his first collection, Những câu phức530(The Complex Sentences), published in 2008.
A poem He knows that a poem is always its language, always its shadow, always its rhythm, always its writer, always its remain, always its outline, always its mirror, always its plagiarist, always its erased part, always its beginning, always its incline, always its escape, always its long junction, always its memory, always its abstracting manipulation, always its bottom, always its oasis, always its confusion, always its obsession, always its dominant right, always its dark corner, always its document, always its recall, always its grammar, always its maze, always its solution, always its nostalgia. 531 A poem passing the door A poem passing the door is scraped words, sound, water-blurred light, the condensation of sightseeing right at the flashing out of light from the far window. Everything, everything touched his being. Right at that moment, he suddenly remembered the permanent alienation of human in front of the abstraction of time and space – the unprovoked entities before being screened by human’s experiences.
A poem passing the door is his thought, his imaginings and even his physical existence. Everything seems to brush slightly the external world and make endless vibrations in his mind. At that moment, he suddenly falls into an irresistible romantic hurricane – no longer belonging to this present – mixing into his own memories and gentle love.
A poem – passing – the door. 532 The inability of language One of the inabilities of language is that it is unable - like that deep blue sky, that pure mirror face, those disordered objects, that gentle hand, that concentrated dark, that hoarse voice, that tumultuous bird song, that crispy laugh, that murky rainy dawn, those raising lips...
to – keep silence – suddenly – without signals. 533
The face of sadness The face of sadness is when you and I are opposite, as two pictures facing each other, as two mirrors facing each other, as two poluya-sheets of paper facing each other, as two closed doors facing each other, as two cameras facing each other...
Absolutely – silent. 534
Two complex sentences 1. With a strange grammar, you stole completely my source of words – from that, with the actions of tongue, mouth and fingers typing on the keyboard are just my uncompleted – eternal – efforts, to reconstruct the world and reality.
2. Between the deep narrow interstices of various layers of reality, between the different interpreting abilities of love, between the repetitive actions of thinking, between sadness and happiness condensing on the scenery,
We–are–able–to–see–eachother–clearly. 535 H What have you been waiting for, H? The day has gone and the sound of door-locking was clattering, from nooks and crannies, behind the back, the heat of lips, your feet are moving slowly, your footprints are etching gradually, you are feeling clearing that breath... And the smile, the smile... a chain of smile tingled up you will never forget...
What have you been waiting for, H? Everything you have told will only be pure dew, even everything you have told now belonged to the others. In an era that words are hidden by images by which words are created, the truth is hidden by our desire about truth; your silence will be meaningless twice because its opposite is no longer pure as before. H, from that time what would you do? What could you still do?
What do you need, H.? What they would like to hear is not what you would like to say but what you have said is so quiet that even it is necessary for them, they will never listen, however, they echoed enough to eliminate any potential interpreting intentions from you. And all the above, what have you decided finally are not what you want, they are just what you and them pretend to believe. 536 Language is Language is an electric cloud, the slice cutting the truth, the dilution distance between two intermittent waters, the young brown at the bottom of deep muscle, the hide and seek of two opposite teams linking each other by an intestinal pink strip, the incline of discourses, the thick malt block sticking on the tongue...
Language is the elasticity of confession and accusing, the endless bottom of half-hearted judgment, a pungent odour of young pine leaves, the garlic spice disappearing after flashing on the tongue, the jellyfish moving dilutely on thick water, the sudden whistle each morning, half of pineapple agar piece cut on cold water...
Language is a compact pail of paint pouring slowly on the flat silk, the tumult of fresh wet leave-beam high above, the eyes sink on the eyes, the strange conversation of tension hands, the deep bite on a big meat roll, the meaning building, the lacking- piece-puzzle, the movement of pickaxe on basaltic soil, the sore throat voice...
Language is the soft dancing cotton, the double-process to infinite, the missing step, the polished rotation, the pale warm tofu, the sound of cuckoo and a piece of innocent pencil, the three-pronged fork-phonetic structure, the breaking switch saving one life, the indefinition of a signal...
Language is the fragility and dangerousness of the middle existence, the sinking swamp holding each step, the indirect approaching to the theme, the confusion hiding on the reluctant conversation, a transition manipulation overcoming all prediction, is a clear glass surface putting over a glass surface... 537 And he knows
The escape begins, and he knows...
The shyness begins, and he knows...
The conversations always belong to the past, and he knows...
Each scepticism begins, and he knows...
The humiliation begins, and he knows...
The forgotten blurring on present, thin and light as a tissue, and he knows...
Silence decides the length of each segment, and he knows... The hurt is coming slowly, and he knows...
The broken mirror pieces sparkling under the sun, and he knows...
... 538 Memory He knows that actually the bell is only the bell – that bell makes memory, and memory makes memory, makes memory, makes memory...
He knows that an era is only an era – that era makes memory, and memory makes memory, makes memory, makes memory...
He knows that every action is only one action – that action makes memory, and memory makes memory, makes memory, makes memory...
He knows that every poem or play can begin with meaningless words, such as: ‘Have you seen the scissor?’, or: ‘grey’ , or: ‘hey, we (father and son) change the title, don’t we...’
However, he also knows that, from then on, all the following sentences are only memories of memories of memories... only
Sol Lewitt said: The idea becomes the machine that makes the art, and the echoed memory of this statement is present is a producing-memory-machine, and the following sentence is memory is a machine producing memory, producing memory, producing memory, producing memory, producing memory, producing memory... 539
There is something disintegrating There is something disintegrating, does it reach a destination?... The fingers type and type and type, or is it the far drum beat, the glass of water?... Four surfaces are dark. How strange that voice is!... And the black. She predicted that everything could not end at the beginning. The step sound and a bunch of copper keys, and the present... The face is only the falling shadow of time wearing glasses, and hair, too... The sound of truck’s horns. Linguistics and the book you have been looking for many days... The gentle dropping hands there. Fiction is a part of decision, that’s why he... Cannot come back. And the new slope is the real reason of speed. That’s it... That’s it, that’s it, the slight touch on that face... The careless walks on the pavement, and the dark, and the beat, and the far ethnic trumpet, and the tintinnabulum, and the brown- soil-bird that Neruda loves... 540 Phan Huyền Thư was born in 1972. She was both a poet and a director. Her collection Nằm nghiêng (Lie on the Side) was a voice of an independent woman who tended to express the growing of love and a life-force on her own. She also used strange subjects of love in a free form of poetry.
Nằm nghiêng Nằm nghiêng ở trần thương kiếp nàng Bân
ngón tay rỉ máu. Nằm nghiêng
khe cửa ùa ra một dòng ấm
cô đơn. Nằm nghiêng
cùng sương triền đê đôi bờ
ỡm ờ nước lũ.
Nằm nghiêng lạnh
hơi lạnh cũ. Ngoài đường khô tiếng ngáy.
Nằm nghiêng. Mùa đông
nằm nghiêng trên thảm gió mùa. Nằm nghiêng
nứt nẻ khóe môi
đã lâu không vồ vập răng lưỡi.
xứ sở bốn mùa nhiệt đới, tự dưng nhói đau
sau lần áo lót có đệm mút dầy
Lying on one side Lying on one side, naked, feeling sorrow for Ban’s tragedy
Bleeding finger. Lying on one side
Warm line pouring from interstitial door
Lonely. Lying on one side
With vapour on the both sides of dike
Lying on one side, cold,
the old cold smell. Dry the snore out of street
Lying on one side. Winter
Lying on one side on the windy carpet. Lying on one side
Long time no mouth tooth desire
Lying on one side
The nation of tropical four seasons, suddenly hurts
Under the bra with thick liner
Lying on one side
Thế Lữ (1907 - 1989) was a poet-critic-playwright. He was one of the first participants in ‘New Poetry Movement’ (1930 – 1945). His poems contributed ‘New Vietnamese poetry’ and Vietnamese Latin language. His short stories introduced the first time horrific detective stories to Vietnamese readers.
Trần Dần (1926-1997) was a poet and novelist in Vietnam. Trần Dần was born in Nam Dinh, a province in North Vietnam. He was the leader of Dạ Đài, the first and only Symbolist poetic group in Vietnam in the 1940s. He wrote the declaration of Dạ Đài in 1946. From 1948, Trần Dần participated in resistance to the French and continued to write poetry. At this time, he also drew Cubist paintings and experimented with different kinds of poetry. From 1955, Trần Dần participated in the Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm Movement, and published the Nhân Văn magazine and Giai Phẩm magazine with a demand for freedom in writing and publishing. Also in 1955, he criticised a collection of Tố Hữu named Việt Bắc, which was considered as the leading standard for poetry in the Vietnamese Communist Revolution. All Trần Dần’s activities requiring freedom for writing were banned and Trần Dần was sent to prison in 1956. After being released, Trần Dần still wrote poetry; however, his first poetry collection (Thơ Trần Dần - Trần Dần Poetry) was only published in 2008 and awarded the life-career prize of the Hanoi Literary Group. Trần Dần inclined towards experimental poems. His epic, Đi! Đây Việt Bắc, was similar to the poetic form of Vladimir Maiakovsky. Some of his other poems were combinations of words, music and painting. Trần Dần was one of the very rare Vietnamese poets who had their own manifesto of poetic theory and followed it intentionally. Trần Dần spent his whole life creating new poetry in Vietnam and opposing authority with regard to writing.
Thơ mini – Mini poems 542 Tác phẩm là bản gốc? đời là bản sao?
Ối ôi, luôn tam sao thất bản
Writing is the origin? Life is copy?
Oh dear, always, tales never loses in the telling
Tôi khóc những chân trời không có người bay
Lại khóc những người bay không có chân trời
I cry for the horizon without flying man,
And cry for flying man without horizon.
tôi khóc những chân trời - bụi đỏ
Ở đó: vắng người
không có người biết khóc – các chân mây
I cry the horizons – red dust
There: lack of human
No man knows how to cry – the cloudy horizons
vô tư như thuở ngày xưa
Nhìn một vì sao
buồn bên ngưỡng cửa
Careless as the old days
Looking at a star
Being sad on the door edge.
Ngã tư xưa Anh muốn rao lên cho làng nước biết
hôm nay em bạc đãi một người.
Nhưng em ơi! anh chỉ đến ngã tư xưa
anh đứng dưới môt ngôi đèn bỏ.543
Old crossroad I want to shout for everyone knows
Today you treated badly a person
But, dear! I only come to the old crossroad
Standing under an uninhibited lamp
Đừng yêu Gạch ngói ruổi rong
những mơ mộng nhớ thương
Các vì sao, ai bắt vít trên trời?
những đinh vít long lanh bằng bạc
Em nhé! Đừng yêu!
đừng yêu những đại lộ gió!
Phố này. Hàng cây này. Cột điện.
Căn nhà thi sĩ đổ. Mùa mưa.544
Don’t love Bricks wanders
Dreams of missing
The stars, who screwed on the sky?
The sparkling silver screws
Darling! Don’t love
Don’t love windy avenues!
This street. This treeline. The lamp.
The poet’s home collapsed. Rainy season
Yêu Em đã quên ư?
lòng ngã tư mưa lằng nhằng cột điện
Tình yêu của anh như câu cổ tích
kể trong một tối mưa dầm. 545
Love Have you forgotten?
The heart of rainy crossroad promiscuous electric poles
My love is like a fairytale
Telling in a heavy wet night
Không đề số 4 Mưa rơi phay phay
Ngã tư năm ngoái
Biết tôi khờ dại
Em đi không sao chống cự nổi
Đại lộ tai hại
Em dài man dại
Em dài quên che đậy
Em dài tê tái
Em dài quên cân đối
Em dài bối rối
Em dài vô tội
Em dài – khổ tâm…546
Untitled 4 Rain drops continuously
Knows I am foolish
You have gone, defenceless
You’re long crazily
You’re long forgotten covering
You’re long numbly
You’re long forgotten symmetry
You’re long confusing
You’re long innocent
You’re long mental suffering…
Vi Thuỳ Linh was born in 1980 in Hanoi. She was one of the leading poets of the young generation of modern Vietnamese poetry in the 2000s. Her collections were translated into English and French. She combined written poetry with performance poetry and organised two poetry performances in Hanoi. Her first collection, Khát (Thirsty, 2012), was a shock to Vietnamese readers who were familiar with smooth and gentle images about women in poetry and in Vietnamese tradition. Her latest love poetry collection, Phim đôi tình tự chậm (2011), was a filmed poetry collection in words and images. The subject in her poems was love from the inside perspective of a woman who was feeling love-thirsty.
Vũ Hoàng Chương (1916-1976) was born in Nam Định. He was educated in both the Confucius system and the French system. He wrote poems and plays. His works brought the sense of the East. He was a typical poet in the Vietnamese ‘New Poetry Movement’ and became famous with Thơ say (Drunk, 1940), which contained a new way of writing poetry which tended towards music and helped to explore the fate of the intellectual in the complex period between traditional-modern and Eastern-Western contexts in the 1930s and 1940s in Vietnamese society.
Xuân Diệu (1916-1985) was regarded as the ‘king of love poems’ in Vietnam. Xuân Diệu was born in Bình Định province. First, he graduated from High School and worked as an officer in Tiền Giang. After that, he went to Hanoi and began his career as a poet. Xuân Diệu was both a famous poet and a critic in Vietnam. He participated in Tự Lực Văn Đoàn, a private literary group established in 1938 in Vietnam. Tự lực Văn Đoàn had private prizes which helped to encourage Vietnamese writers and widen their credo of freedom in Vietnamese literature. Xuân Diệu could be considered as a spiritual leader of the Vietnamese ‘New Poetry Movement’ (1930-1945) with his romantic and Symbolist poetry. Two of his famous collections were Thơ thơ (Poetry Poetry) and Gửi hương cho gió (Send Perfume to the Wind). His poetry contributed the ego of a person who desired love, youth and spring. He wanted to capture all the moments of life and keep them, in the same way people desired to keep love, youth and spring forever. After 1945, Xuân Diệu participated in the Communist party and wrote poetry during the war about the citizen’s position in a new Vietnamese context of freedom and productivity. At this period, he also questioned the relationship between individuals and the public. The critical writings of Xuân Diệu were also romantic and valuable in examining other Vietnamese modern poets.
Đây mùa thu tới Rặng liễu đìu hiu đứng chịu tang,
Tóc buồn buông xuống lệ ngàn hàng;
Đây mùa thu tới - mùa thu tới
Với áo mơ phai dệt lá vàng.
Hơn một loài hoa đã rụng cành
Trong vườn sắc đỏ rũa màu xanh;
Những luồng run rẩy rung rinh lá...
Đôi nhánh khô gầy xương mỏng manh.
Thỉnh thoảng nàng trăng tự ngẩn ngơ...
Non xa khởi sự nhạt sương mờ...
Đã nghe rét mướt luồn trong gió...
Đã vắng người sang những chuyến đò...
Mây vẩn từng không, chim bay đi,
Khí trời u uất hận chia ly.
Ít nhiều thiếu nữ buồn không nói
Tựa cửa nhìn xa, nghĩ ngợi gì.547
Here comes autumn The willow standing solitarily for funeral
Sad hair falling down thousands of tear drops
Here comes autumn, autumn comes
With fainted apricot dress weaving yellow leaves
More than a kind of flowers felt down
Inside garden, red overcomes green
The trembling shaky blast on leaves…
Some thin dry branches fragile bone
Sometimes the moon self-bewildered
Faraway mountain starts blurring vapour
Having heard coldness crawling inside the wind
Having been lack of people crossing the boat….
Spreading clouds on the sky, birds fly away,
Regretted separated atmosphere
More or less girls sadly nonverbal
Leaning on the window, looking outside, thinking of?
Ý Nhi (1944) was one of the leaders in women’s modern poetry in Vietnam. She was born in a traditional Confucian family and knew much about traditional Vietnamese plays. Her poetry was about normal daily life and the domestic life of women. They were read in a familiar way, similar to traditional poetry. She also wrote poetry in free verses.
There is a list of other Vietnamese poets that I have mentioned but have not analysed typically in the thesis:
Before the twentieth century: Hồ Xuân Hương, Đặng Trần Côn.
At the beginning of twentieth century: Tản Đà, Trần Tuấn Khải, Hồ Biểu Chánh.
From 1930 onwards: Xuân Quỳnh, Từ Huy.
The poems in the appendix and most of Vietnamese poems analysed in this thesis are translated by myself. As a Vietnamese researcher, I would like to introduce Vietnamese contemporary poets, who on the one hand, represented for some modern poetic trends in Vietnam; on the other, showed their desires for Vietnamese poetry innovations towards Western ideologies.
1 Lại Nguyên Ân, ‘Một Số Vấn Đề Xung Quanh Phạm Trù Chủ Nghĩa Hiện Đại’, Hợp Lưu tập san văn học nghệ thuật biên khảo, 9 (2008).
2 Jean-François Lyotard, The postmodern condition: a report on knowledge (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984). Jean-François Lyotard (trans. by Bùi Văn Nam Sơn), Hoàn cảnh hậu hiện đại (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Tri thức, 2007).
3 Virginia Woolf, A room of one's own (St Albans: Triad, 1977). Virginia Woolf (trans by Trịnh Y Thư), Căn phòng riêng (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Tri thức, 2009).
4 Trang Ngoc Doan Cao, ‘Bodily Impacts: Locating Vietnamese Moderinsm in the Contact Zones’, PhD thesis (California: University of California), 2014.
5 Nguyen Do, and Paul Hoover, ed., Black Dog, Black Night: Contemporary Vietnamese Poetry (Minnesota: Milkweed Editions, 2008), p. XI.
6 See unquoted bibliography for more information.
7 See Hoài Thanh, Hoài Chân, ‘Một thời đại trong thi ca’, Thi nhân Việt Nam (Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản Văn học, 2016).
8 The sources for this is no longer available due to the changes of social policy in Vietnam after 1975
9 Bùi Giáng, Mười hai con mắt (Twelve eyes) (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản văn học, 2001).
10 Thomas Ernest Hulme, Speculations: Essays on Humanism and the Philosophy of Art, 2nd edn(London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1936), p. 111.
11 James Barry Harmer, Victory in Limbo: Imagism, 1908-1917 (London: Secker and Warburg, 1975).
12 Hugh Kenner, The Pound Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971).
13 Doreen King, Short Essays on Experimental Poetry: Experimental Poetry in the 20th Century and beyond (Shrewsbury: Feather, 2003), p. 5.
14 Hulme, p. 111.
15 ‘T.E. Hulme had written a few poems to illustrate his theories, and no doubt they were read out and discussed at the meetings of the Club. None of the later Imagists was a member of this group, but the poem ‘Autumn’ and ‘A City Sunset’ by Hulme, which the Poet’s Club printed in January 1909 in a booklet called For Christmas MDCCCCVIII, may reasonably be termed the first ‘imagist’ poems, although the word itself was not yet in use’ in Peter Jones, Imagist poetry (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972), p. 15
16 Hulme, p. 113.
17 ‘That where you get this quality exhibited in the realm of the emotions you get imagination, and that where you get this quality exhibited in the contemplation of finite things you get fancy’, Hulme, p.139
18 Hulme, p. 134.
19 Frank Stuart Flint, ‘Imagisme’, Poetry 1, 6 (1913), 198-200, p.199.
20 Jones, p. 19.
21 Flemming Olsen, Between Positivism and T.S. Eliot: Imagism and T.E. Hulme (Odense; Lancaster: University Press of Southern Denmark, 2008), p. 15.
22 Jones, p. 21.
23 ‘In condensation several things might be compressed into one symbol, just as a metaphor like “the ship ploughed the waves” condenses into a single item two different images, the ship cutting through the sea and the plough cutting through the soil’, Roman Jakobson, in Peter Barry, Beginning theory: an introduction to literary and cultural theory, 3rd edn (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2008), pp. 78-79.
24 Michael Roberts, T.E. Hulme (New York: Haskell House Publishers), p. 225.
25 Arthur Rimbaud, ‘The Drunken Boat’ from Complete Works, Selected Letters, trans. by Wallace Fowlie (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005), p. 140.
26 Rimbaud, p. 128.
27 Jones, p. 97.
28 Shyamal Baghee, T.S. Eliot: a voice descanting: centenary essays (London: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1990), p. 29.
29 Phan Trọng Luận, Ngữ Văn Lớp 11 (11th Grade Literature) Volume 2 (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục, 2007), p. 58.
30 See more about ‘ca dao’ in Vietnamese Feminist Poems: From Antiquity to the Present (Hanoi: Women’s Publishing House, 2008), p. 29.
31 Xuan Quynh, ‘The boat and the sea’, Vietnamese Feminist Poems: From Antiquity to the Present (Hanoi: Women’s Publishing House, 2008), p. 193.
32 Hans Richter, Dada: Art and Anti-art (London: Thames & Hudson, 1997), p. 31.
33 Richter, p.32.
34 John Elderfield, ed., Flight Out of Time: A Dada Diary by Hugo Ball (London: University of California Press, 1996), p. 63.
35Sigmund Freud, Creative Writers and Day-dreaming (London: Yale University Press, 1995), p. 2.
36 Freud, p. 2.
37 Angus Stevenson, Oxford Dictionary of English, 2rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 1349.
38 Michael Oakeshott, Rationalism in Politics and other essays (London: Methuen & Co, 1962), p. 11.
39 André Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism, trans. by Richard Seaver and Helen R. Lane (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1969), p. 14.
40 Richter, p. 48
41 Richter, ibid.
42 Umbro Apollonio, Futurist manifestos (London: Thames and Hudson, 1973), p. 21.
43 Apollonio, p. 30.
44 Richter, p. 47.
45 Richter, p. 47.
46 C.W.E. Bigsby, Dada and Surrealism (London: Methuen, 1972), p. 10.
47 Marc Dachy, Dada and the Revolt of Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 2006), p. 14.
48 Hugo Ball, ‘Gadji beri bimba’ in Dachy, Dada and the Revolt of Art, p. 110.
49 Wouter Davidts, ‘Sculpture and the Museum’ in Christopher R. Marshall, Sculpture and the Museum (Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2011), p. 197.
50 Julie H. Reiss, From Margin to Center: The Spaces of Installation Art (Massachusetts: The MIT press, 2001), p. xv.
51 Willard Bohn, The rise of Surrealism: Cubism, Dada, and the Pursuit of the Marvelous (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), p. 141.
52 André Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism, ibid.
53 Breton, p. 21.
54 Jones, p. 18.
55 Breton, p. 20.
56 ‘Modern Fiction’, Virginia Woolf, The Common Reader (London: The Hogarth Press, 1968), 184-195 (pp. 190-191).
57 Breton, p. 24.
58 Dachy, Anthology of Dada poetry, p. 117.
59 Dachy, Ibid, p. 111.
60 Dachy, Anthology of Dada Poetry, p. 113.
61 Dachy, Ibid, p. 117.
62 Bigsby, p. 5.
63 Dachy, Dada and the revolt of art, p. 117.
64 Trần Dần, Thơ Trần Dần (Tran Dan’s poetry) (Da Nang: Nhà xuất bản Đà Nẵng, 2008), p.53.
65 Bảo Ninh, The Sorrow of War: A Novel of North Vietnam, ed. By Frank Palmos, trans. by Phan Thanh Hao (New York: Riverhead Books, 1996).
66 Bảo Ninh, p. 27.
67 Bigsby, p. 60.
68 Charles M. Oliver, Ernest Hemingway in Death in the Afternoon (New York: Checkmark, 1999), p. 322.
69 Dương Tường, ‘Noel 1’, Mea Culpa (Hai Phong: Hai Phong publisher, 2005), p. 31.
70 Hulme, p.111.
71 From my understanding of the image-word in Chinese and Japanese language, the word 禅 (Zen) in Japanese was collaged by two pictograms, one meaning ‘indicate’ and the other meaning ‘stage for worship’. Thus, the meaning of the word ‘zen’ itself was used to express piety.
72 ‘Scholars guess that he (Basho) went to Kyoto to study poetry and Zen’ in Robert Hass, The essential Haiku Versions of Basho, Buson and Issa (Northumberland: Bloodaxe Books Ltd, 2013), p.22.
106 Nhật Chiêu, Basho và Thơ Haiku (Basho and Haiku poetry) (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản văn học, 1994).
107 Rainer Emig, Modernism in poetry: motivations, structures and limits (London: Longman, 1995), p. 5.
108 Pound, Cathay, ibid.
109 Emig, p. 104.
110 Jones, p. 129.
111 Jones, p. 142.
112 Julia Kristeva, ed. by Leon S. Roudiez, Revolution in Poetic Language (Guildford: Columbia Univ. Press, 1984).
113 Emig, p. 94.
114 Jones, p. 138.
115 Jones, p. 130.
116 Emig, p. 109.
117 Lê Đạt, Bóng chữ (The Shadow of Words), (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản hội nhà văn, 1994), p. 96.
118 Robert Sheppard, The poetry of Saying: British poetry and its discontents, 1950-2000 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2005), p. 40.
119 Sheppard, p. 38.
120 Derrida wrote in The Law of Genre: ‘As soon as the world ‘genre’ is sounded, as soon as it is heard, as soon as one attempts to conceive it, a limit is drawn. And when a limit is established, norms and interdictions are not far behind: ‘Do,’ ‘Do not’ says ‘genre’, the world ‘genre’, the figure, the voice, or the law of genre’. In Margueritte S. Murphy, A Tradition of Subversion: the Prose Poem in English from Wilde to Ashbery, (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992), p. 61.
121 Roland Barthes, The Rustle of Language, trans. by Richard Howard (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), p. 49.
122 Doreen, p. 5.
123 Suman Chakroborty, ‘Meaning, Unmeaning & the Poetics of L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E’, IRWLE, Vol. 4 No. I January (2008), p. 18.
124 George Puttenham, The Arte of English Poesie (London: Cornell University Press, 2007), p. 49.
125 James Walter McFarlane, Bradbury Malcolm, Modernism 1890-1930 (London: Penguin Books, 1991), p. 350.
126 Chakroborty, p. 18.
127 Doreen, p. 4.
128 Eugen Gomringer, ‘From Line to Constellation’, trans. by Mike Weaver in Marjorie Perloff, Unoriginal Genius Poetry by Other Means in the New Century (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010), p. 64.
129 Jean-François Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition: a Report on Knowledge (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984).
130 Puttenham, Chapter XII.
131 Puttenham, p. 49.
132 Gomringer, From Line to Constellation, p. 67.
133 Lyotard, ibid.
134 Gomringer, Concrete Poetry, p. 68.
135 Bob Cobbing, Sockless in Sandals: Collected Poems Volume Six (Cardiff: Second Edn., 1985), p. 8.
136 Alan Riddell, Eclipse (London: Calder and Boyar, 1972), p. 22.
137 Gomringer, Concrete Poetry, p. 68.
138 Cobbing, p. 33.
139 Cobbing, p. 24.
140 Cobbing, p. 32.
141 Cobbing, p. 39.
142 Riddell, p. 11.
143 Cobbing, p. 20.
144 Dương Tường translated L'Etranger by Albert Camus, La Route des Flandres by Claude Simon, and À la Recherche du Temps Perdu by Marcel Proust.
145 Dương Tường translated Lev Tolstoi’s novels (e.g. Anna Karenina).
146 Lê Đạt and Dương Tường, Ba mươi sáu bài tình (Thirty-six Love Poems) (Hanoi: Youth publication house, 1989).
147Ostranenie in Russian, which means ‘making strange’. ‘Defamiliarisation is a term that was popularized by the Russian Formalist, Victor Shklovsky, in the early part of the last century’, James L. Resseguie, The Strange Gospel: Narrative Design and Point of View in John (Leiden: Brill, 2001), p. 27.
148 Gary Saul Morson, ‘The Russian debate on narrative’ in Patricia Waugh, Literary Theory and Criticism: An Oxford Guide (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 216.
149 Dương Tường, p. 17.
150 Dương Tường, ‘Khoảnh khắc’ (Moment), p. 50.
151 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 6’, p. 131.
152 Dương Tường, ‘Khoảnh khắc’ (Moment), p. 49.
153 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 1’, p. 87.
154 Dương Tường, ‘Sinh nhật’ (Birthday), p. 15.
155 Dương Tường, ‘America’, p. 64. This poem was written in English by Dương Tường.
156 Dương Tường, ‘Sinh nhật’ (Birthday), p. 14.
157 Dương Tường, ‘Sinh Nhật’ (Birthday), p. 15.
158 Dương Tường, ‘Bella’, p. 19.
159 Dương Tường, ‘Romance 2’, p. 41.
160 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 2’, Mea Culpa, p. 94.
241 David Coward, A History of French Literature: From Chanson de Geste to Cinema (New York: Wiley-Blackwell), p. 239.
242 Mark W. McLeod and Thi Dieu Nguyen, Culture and Customs of Vietnam (London: Greenwood Press, 2001), p. 76.
243 See Huynh Sanh Thong, An Anthology of Vietnamese Poems (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1996).
244 Nguyen Ngoc Bich, p. xvi and p. 159.
245 Ý Nhi, ‘Woman Knitting’, Nguyen Ba Chung and Kevin Bower, 6 Vietnamese Poets (Northwestern: Curbstone Books, 2001), p. 3.
246 Nguyen Du, ‘Calling All Souls’, Huynh Sanh Thong, p. 77.
247 Victor Hugo, Les Miserables (London: Penguin Classics, 1982).
248 See Leslie Barnes, Vietnam and the Colonial Condition of French Literature (London: University of Nebraska Press, 2014).
249 Tony Day and Maya H. T. Liem, Cultures at War: The Cold War and Cultural Expression in Southeast Asia (New York: Cornel Southeast Asia Program, 2010), p. 164.
250 See the transformation of Vietnamese poetic forms in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, ed. by Roland Greene, 4th edition (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2012), p. 1519.
251 See Dorothy Blair Shimer, Voices of Modern Asia: Anthology of Twentieth-century Asian Literature (London: Signet Books, 1974), p. 361.
252 Dang Tran Con and Phan Huy Ich, ‘The song of a Soldier’s Wife’, Huynh, p. 405.
253 Vu Hoang Chuong, ‘The Beau Ideal’, Huynh, p. 312.
254 Roland Barthes, The Rustle of language, ibid.
255 David G. Marr, Vietnamese Tradition on Trial, 1920-1945 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981), p. 166.
256 Huynh Sanh Thong, An Anthology of Vietnamese poetry, p. 22.
257 ‘Picking the Soul’, Han Mac Tu, Hurt (Hanoi: Literature Publishing House, 1995), p. 63.
258 Hoai Thanh, Hoai Chan, p. 104.
259 ‘Benediction’, Baudelaire, The Flowers of Evil, p. 11.
260 Nicolae Babuts, ‘Baudelaire and the Identity of the Self’, Mosaic: a Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature, 47(3) 2014, 159-173, p. 159.
277 In ‘The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas’, Gertrude Stein, Van Vechten Carl, Selected Writings of Gertrude Stein (New York: Vintage Books, 1990), p. 189.
278 Ezra Pound, Gaudier-Brzeska: a Memoir ... Including the published writings of the sculptor, and a selection from his letters. With thirty-eight illustrations, etc. (London: John Lane, 1916), p. 103.
279 Gertrude Stein, ‘What are Master-pieces’ in Gertrude Stein: Writings and Lectures 1909-1945, ed. by Patricia Meyerowitz (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967), p. 313.
280 Murphy, p. 138.
281 Michael Schmidt, Lives of the Poets (London: Phoenix, 1999), p. 657.
282 Gertrude Stein, 'A Translatlantic Interview 1946' with Robert Bartlett Haas in A Primer for the Gradual Understanding of Gertrude Stein, ed. Robert Barlett Haas (California: Black Sparrow Press, 1971), p. 18.
283 Ulla E. Dydo, Rice William, Gertrude Stein: the Language that Rises, 1923-1934. (Evanston, Ill: North Western University Press, 2003), p. 13.
284 Murphy, p. 139.
285 Geoffrey Leech, A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry (Harlow: Longman, 1969), p. 79.
286 Johanna Winant, 'Gertrude Stein and the Contingency of Inductive Reasoning’, Journal of Modern Literature, Volume 39, Number 3 (Spring 2016), pp. 95-113 (p. 104).
287 Gertrude Stein, ‘Melanctha’, Three Lives (London, Penguin Books, 1987), p. 134, 153-54.
288 Stein, ‘A Table’, Tender Buttons, p. 14.
289 Stein, ‘Shoes’, Tender Buttons, p. 14.
290 Gertrude Stein, and Carl Van Vechten, Selected Writings of Gertrude Stein (New York: Vintage Books, 1990), p. 471.
292 Stein, ‘Nothing Elegant’, p. 4.
293 Stein, Vechten, p. 114.
294 Stein, ‘Nothing Elegant’, p. 4.
295 Stein, Vechten, ‘Red Hat’, p. 467
296 Stein, Vechten, p. 199.
297 Stein, ‘A Paper’, p. 10.
298 Stein, ‘A Fire’, p. 12.
299 Stein, ‘Red Roses’, p. 12.
300 Stein, ‘A Drawing’, p. 10.
301 Stein, ‘Salad Dressing and An Artichoke’, p. 37.
302 Stein, ‘A Piece of Coffee’, p. 3.
303 Stein, ‘Food’, p. 17.
304 Stein, ‘A piece of coffee’, p. 3
305 Stein, ‘A piece of coffee’, p. 3.
306 Stein, ‘New cup and saucer’, p. 9.
307 Gertrude Stein, ‘After the war 1919-1932’, The Autobiography of Alice B Toklas (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966). See Wright Morris, ‘One law for the lion’, Partisan Review, Vol. 28, 5-6 (1961), 541-51 (p.546).
308 Stein, ‘Roastbeef’, p. 17.
309 Stein, ‘A little bit of a tumble’, p. 11.
310 Stein, ‘Careless water’,p. 10.
311 Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Golden Catherine J., Charlotte Perkins Gilman's the Yellow Wall-paper: a sourcebook and critical edition (London: Routledge, 2004).
312 Virginia Woolf, A Room of One's Own (St Albans: Triad, 1977).
313 Stein, ‘Book’, p. 15.
314 Stein, ‘Custard’, p. 30.
315 Stein, Vechten, ‘A Time To Eat’, p. 472.
316 Stein, ‘A Mounted Umbrella’, p. 9.
317 Stein, ‘Lunch’, p. 28.
318 Stein, ‘Peeled Pencil, Choke’, p. 16.
319 Stein, ‘Breakfast,’ p. 23.
320 Stein, ‘Sugar’, p. 25.
321 Stein, ‘A Handkerchief’, p. 12.
322 Stein, ‘Nothing Elegant’, p. 4.
323 Stein, ‘A Drawing’, p. 10.
324 Stein, ‘A Plate’, p. 6.
325 Stein, ‘A Little Called Pauline’, p. 13.
326 Ernest Hemingway, ‘Une Génération Perdue’, Life, Vol. 56, No 15(1964), p. 65.
327 Stein, ‘A Little Called Pauline’, Tender Buttons, p. 13.
328 Stein and Vechten, p. 492.
329 Stein and Vechten, p. 494.
330 Stein, ‘Orange in’, p. 35.
331 Leech, p. 184.
332 Stein and Vechten, p. 490.
333 Ibid, p. 475.
334 Ibid, p. 494.
335 Ibid, p. 490.
336 Jenny Stringer, ed., The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 642.
337 Nhu Huy said in a conversation with me that he was impressed by Stein and to some extent, followed her Tender Buttons approach as a way of rejecting the traditional poetry of Vietnam.
338 Stein and Vechten, p. 467.
339 Stein, p. 6.
340 Stein, p. 37
341 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘A poem’, Stand Magazine, Volume 13 (1) 205 (2015), 30-35 (p.30).
342 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘Two Complex Sentences’, Stand magazine, p. 31.
343 Stein, Vechten, p. 472.
344 Stein and Vechten, p. 496.
345 Stein, p. 17.
346 Stein, p. 3.
347 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘There is something disintegrating’, Stand magazine, p. 35.
348 Stein, p. 17.
349 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘Memory’, Stand magazine, p. 34.
350 Stein, Vechten, p. 489.
351 Stein, Vechten, p. 349-50.
352 Thạch Lam, Nắng trong vườn (Sunshine in the garden) (Hanoi: Đời nay, 1938).
353 Stein, Vechten, pp. 499-504.
354 See more about Vietnamese ‘Doi moi’ in Ari Kokko, Vietnam: 20 Years of Doi Moi (Hanoi: The Gioi Publisher, 2008).
355 Nguyễn Đình Đăng, ‘The introduction of Roman writing in Vietnam’, Bui, Nhu Huong, and Pham Trung, p. 7.
357 Carolyn Burke, Becoming Modern: The Life of Mina Loy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997, p. Viii.
358 Burke, p. V.
359 Maeera Shreiber, Keith Tuma, National Poetry Foundation, Mina Loy: Woman and Poe (London: National Poetry Foundation, 1998).
360 Carolyn Burke, Becoming Modern: The Life of Mina Loy.
361 Burke, p. V.
362 Marjorie Perloff, ‘English as a “second” Language: Mina Loy's "Anglo-Mongrels and the Rose’, Mina Loy: Woman and Poet, ed. by Maeera Shreiber and Keith Tuma (Orono, ME.: National Poetry Foundation, 1998), p. 131.
363 Amanda J. Bradley, ‘Millay and Loy: Two Iconic Feminist Poets’, Limina Journal of Historical and Cultural Studies, volume 18 (2012).
364 Bradley (Ibid).
365 This cited from Mina Loy’s essay: ‘Modern poetry’ from The Lost Lunar Baedeker: Poems of Mina Loy, ed. by Roger L. Conover (New York: Noonday Press, 1996), p.157, in which Loy also wrote: ‘Poetry is prose bewitched, a music made of visual thoughts, the sound of an idea’.
366 Torczyner, Magritte: the True Art of Painting (London: Thames and Hudson, 1979).
367 ‘I consider valid the linguistic attempt to say that my picture were conceived as material signs of freedom of thought’ – Torczyner, p. 50.
368Carolyn Burke, ‘Becoming Mina Loy’, Women’s Studies 7 (1980), 136-150.
369 Julie Schmid, ‘Mina Loy’s Futurist Theatre’, Performing Arts Journal 18.1, January (1996), 1-7.
370 Loy, ‘Parturition’, p. 8.
371 Loy, ‘Parturition’, p. 8.
372 Virginia M. Kouidis, Mina Loy: American Modernist Poet (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980), p. 46.
373 Kenneth Rexroth, ‘Les Lauriers Sont Coupes No2: Mina Loy’, Circle, 1.4 (1994), 69-70.
374 Loy, ‘Italian picture’, p. 12.
375 William Carlos William, ‘Mina Loy’ Lunar Baedeker and Time Tables, ed. Jonathan Williams (Highlands, NC: Jargon Society, 1958b).
376Samuel French Morse, ‘The Rediscovery of Mina Loy and the Avant-Garde’, Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature, 2.2 (Spring/Summer 1961), 12-19.
377 Loy, ‘Three moments in Paris’, p. 15.
378 Loy, ‘Babies in hospital’, p. 26.
379 Jacques Meuris, René Magritte, 1898-1967 (Ko¨ln: Benedikt Taschen, 1998), p. 19.
380 Meuris, p. 71.
381 Torczyner, p.60 (Letter to Hornik, May 8, 1959, in Andre Bosmans archive).
382 Marcel Paquet, René Magritte, 1898-1967: thought rendered visible (Ko¨ln: Benedikt Taschen, 1994), p. 51.
383 Meuris, p. 89.
384 Paquet, p. 51.
385 Paquet, p. 53.
386 David Sylvester, Magritte (Houston: Menil, 1992), p. 237.
387 Patrick Walberg, Surrealism (London: Thames and Hudson, 1966), p. 97.
388 Walberg, p. 32.
389 Torczyner, p. 112.
390 Paquet, 'Collective Invention', 1934, p. 74.
391 Francis Murphy, The Uncollected Essays and Reviews of Yvor Winters (Chicago: Swallow Press, 1973).
392 See the case of Breton while he ‘proposes to modify the social condition, he is attentive to the human condition’ (Ferdinand Alquie, Waldrop Bernard, The philosophy of surrealism (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1965), p. 147).
393 Loy, ‘Three moments in Paris’, p. 15.
394 ‘I had a little idea: instead of writing a strange word under an object, I thought of trying to paint a plum on a pear, or something else, such as a locomotive on a recumbent lion, etc.’, (Harry Torczyner, 1979, p. 128) (letter from Magritte to Mirabelle Dors and Maurice Rapin, February 14, 1956).
395 Meuris, ‘Homesickness’, 1940, p. 72.
396 Walberg, p. 81.
397 Paquet, p. 39.
398 Meuris, p. 104.
399 Mary Ann Caws, Surrealism (London: Phaidon, 2004), p. 22.
400 Caws, p. 22.
401 Loy, p. 36.
402 Loy, ‘The Effectual Marriage or The Insipid Narrative of Gina and Miovanni’, p. 36.
403 Loy, Ibid, p. 39.
404 ‘woman (...) There is no half-measure – NO scratching on the surface of the rubbish heap of tradition, will bring about Reform, the only method is Absolute Demolition’ – ‘Feminist Manifesto’,Loy, p. 153.
405 ‘There is no half-measure—NO scratching on the surface of the rubbish heap of tradition, will bring about Reform, the only method is Absolute Demolition’ – Loy, p. 153
406 Meuris, ‘The two mysteries’, 1966, p. 123.
407 Ben Stoltzfus, ‘Magritte, Cladel, and The Tomb of the Wrestlers: Roses, Daggers, and Love in Interarts Discourse’, University of Nebraska Press, Vol. 19, No. 1-2 (2011), 173-90 (p. 173).
408 Nicholson Baker, ‘Wrapping Sentences Around Things’, lecture at Lingua Franca: The 2014 D-Crit Conference Presented by the SVA MFA in Design Criticism, School of Visual Arts Theatre, New York City, May 2 (2014).
409 Carolyn Burke, ‘Carolyn Burke in conversation with Pam Brown about Mina Loy’ [accessed on 8Dec 2015].
410 Loy, ‘Human Cylinders’, The Lost Lunar Baedeker, p. 40.
411 Danielle Pafunda, ‘On Human Cylinders: The Pregnant Poet‘, American Poet, issue 38 (Spring 2010) https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/text/human-cylinders-pregnant-poet
412 Loy, ‘The Widow’s Jazz’, The Lost Lunar Baedeker, p. 95.
413 Paquet, pp. 32-33.
414 Meuris, p. 104.
415 Paquet, p. 19.
416 Caws, p. 70.
417 Loy, ‘Lunar Baedeker’, p. 81.
418 Loy, ‘Lunar Baedeker’, p. 82.
419 ‘”The starry sky” of Wyndham Lewis’, p. 91.
420 Loy, ‘Marble’, p. 93.
421 Loy, ‘Gertrude Stein’, p. 93.
422 Jacinta Kelly, ‘The Dissolution of Space in Mina Loy’s Poetry’, Limina, < http://www.limina.arts.uwa.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/2570959/Jacinta_Kelly_-_Purging_the_Birdcage-2.pdf> [accessed 8 October 2015]
423 Kelly, p. 3.
424 Meuris, p. 136.
425 Loy, ‘Virgins Plus Curtains Minus Dots’, p. 23.
426 Loy, ‘Virgins Plus Curtains Minus Dots’, p. 21.
427 Laura Scuriatti, ‘Negotiating boundaries : the economics of space and gender in Mina Loy’s early poems’, Feminismo/s, N. 5 (Jun 2005), 71-84 (p. 82).
428 Paquet, p. 42.
429 Paquet, p. 42.
430 René Magritte, ed. by Jose Maria Faerna, Magritte (London: Cameo, 1996), p. 23.
431 Paquet, p. 61.
432 Neil Matheson, ‘Something borrowed, something new’, Tate Etc., 22 (2011) < http://www.tate.org.uk/context-comment/articles/something-borrowed-something-new> [accessed 20 December 2015].
433 Meuris, ‘Golconde’, 1953, pp. 110-11.
434 Meuris, ‘The Month of the Vintage’, 1959, pp. 106-07.
435 See L. S. Lowry, ed. by Michael Leber, L S Lowry (London: Phaidon Press, 1995).
436 Andrew Kalman, Andrew Lambirth, L.S. Lowry: Conversation Pieces, (Oxford: Chaucer Press, 2003), p. 136.
437 Sarah Whitfield, René Magritte Newly Discovered Works: Oil Paintings, Gouaches, Drawings Volume 6: Catalogue Raisonne (London: Philip Wilson Publishers, 1993), p. 141.
438 Meuris, p.200.
439 Gablik, ‘Time transfix’, 1938, p. 108.
440 Matheson, ibid.
441 Walter Benjamin, ‘The storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nicolai Leskov’, in Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt (New York: Schocken Books, 1969), pp. 83-110.
442 Blanchot, p. 41.
443 Michel Remy, On the Thirteenth Stroke of Midnight (Manchester: Carcanet Press, 2013).
444 Tony del Renzio, ‘Those Pennies Were Well Spent’, Remy, p. 79.
445 Emmy Bridgwater, ‘Weed Growing’, Remy, p. 52.
446 David Gascoyne, ‘The Very Image’, Remy, p. 101.
447 Gascoyne, ‘Automatic Writing’, p. 107.
448 Len Lye, ‘Chair in Your Hair’, Remy, p. 121.
449 E.L.T. Mesens, ‘Untranslatable, Statistical and Critical News Item’, Remy, p. 141.
450 Messen, ‘War Poem’, p. 137.
451 ‘The Boat and the Sea’ in Vietnamese Feminist Poems from Antiquity to the Present (Hanoi: Women’s Publishing House, 2008), p. 193.
452 Loy, ‘Song to Joannes’, The Lost Lunar Baedeker, p. 53.
453 Nguyễn Đình Đăng, ‘The Silent Piano’, 2001, Bui, Nhu Huong, and Pham Trung, Vietnamese Contemporary Art 1990 – 2010, trans. by Bui Le Na, and Matt Lureco (Hanoi: Knowledge Publishing House, 2012), p. 75.
454 Bui, Nhu Huong, and Pham Trung, p. 72.
455 Nguyễn Đình Đăng, ‘Awakening of the Past’, 2004, Bui, Nhu Huong, and Pham Trung, p. 73.
456 ‘Magritte writes that the evocation of night and day appears to have the power to surprise and delight us. His name for this power is poetry and the reason he believes in its existence is because he has always been interested in night and day, without preferring one to the other’, Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy, Uta Grosenick, Surrealism (Cologne: Taschen, 2004), p. 68.
457 Olivia Bloechl, Melanie Lowe and Jeffrey Kallberg, Rethinking Difference in Music Scholarship, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 290-91.
458 Klingsöhr-Leroy and Uta Grosenick, p. 68.
459 Ibid, p. 64.
460 Matsuo Basho, trans. by David Landis Barnhill, Basho's Journey: The Literary Prose of Matsuo Basho (New York: State University of New York Press), p. 182.
461 David Hinton ed., Classical Chinese Poetry: An Anthology (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010), p. xix.
462 Bui, Nhu Huong, and Pham Trung, p. 76.
463 Woolf, A Room of One's Own.
464 Elaine Showalter, ‘Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness’, Critical Inquiry, Vol. 8, No. 2, Writing and Sexual Difference (Winter, 1981), pp. 179- 205 (p. 201).
465 Woolf, p. 103.
466 Woolf, p. 92.
467 Marjorie Garber, Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life (London: Routledge, 2000), p. 515.
469 Woolf, p. 98.
470 Woolf, p. 76.
471 Nguyen Thi Minh Hà, Nguyen Thi Thanh Bình and Lady Borton, Vietnamese Feminist Poems from Antiquity to the Present (Hanoi: Women’s Publishing House, 2008), p. 17.
472 See Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, Vietnamese Feminist Poems from Antiquity to the Present, p. 32.
473 Ibid, p. 28.
474 Ibid, p. 16.
475 Nguyen Thi Minh Hà, Nguyen Thi Thanh Bình and Lady Borton, Vietnamese Feminist Poems from Antiquity to the Present, p. 33.
476 Loy, ‘Parturition’, p. 8.
477 See Janine A. Mileaf, Please Touch: Dada and Surrealist Objects after the Readymade (London: University Press of New England, 2010).
478 Meuris, ‘Golconde’, 1953, pp. 110-11.
479 ‘Vietnamese students were reading the works of Rousseau, Hugo, Proust, and Gide in French, they memorised poems by Hugo, Baudelaire, and Verlaine. The French emphasised their own history, thereby educating a generation of revolutionaries’, Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, Vietnamese Feminist Poems from Antiquity to the Present, p. 40.
480 Hélène Cixous, trans. by Keith Cohen and Paula Cohen, ‘The Laugh of the Medusa’, Signs, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Summer, 1976), pp. 875-893 (p. 876).
481 Hélène Cixous, p. 881.
482 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 15.
483 D. H Lawrence, ‘The Woman who Rode Away’, Sexual Politics (New York: Kate Millet, 1970), p. 285.
484 Elaine Showalter, p. 308.
485 Julia Kristeva, Woman’s Review number twelve, p. 19.
486 Jonathan Culler, On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982), p. 54.
487 Từ Huy, p. 4.
488 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 1’, Mea Culpa, p. 83.
489 Từ Huy, p. 17.
490 Loy, ‘The Effectual Marriage or The Insipid Narrative of Gina and Miovanni’, The Lost Lunar Baedeker, p. 39.
491 Từ Huy, p. 10.
492 Dương Tường, p. 81.
494 Vi Thùy Linh, Movie in Couple – Love in Andate (Hanoi: Youth Publishing house, 2010).
495 Vi Thuy Linh, p. 9.
496 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 38.
497 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 123.
498 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 281.
499 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 291.
500 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 219.
501 See A. David Moody, Thomas Stearns Eliot: Poet (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).
502 Thomas Ernest Hulme, Speculations: Essays on Humanism and the Philosophy of Art, p. 111.
503 William Wordsworth, A.R Jones, Samuel Taylor Coleridge; R.L Brett, Lyrical Ballads (London: Methuen, 1963).
504 Peter Jones, Imagist Poetry, ibid.
505 ‘By 1913, not yet fifty, Yeats had begun to write his memoirs and rewrite his past. He was well embarked on his development into a new and uncompromising tradition, in poetry as in stagecraft: encouraged by his secretary and companion, Ezra Pound. He would look to the East, to Europe and eventually back to Ireland’, in Jonathan Allison, Yeats's Political Identities: Selected Essays (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1996), p. 100.
506 ‘Modern Fiction’, Virginia Woolf, The Common Reader, p. 189.
507 Victor Shklovsky, ‘In the Early Part of the Last Century’, James L. Resseguie, ibid.
508 Roland Barthes, The Rustle of Language, ibid, p. 49and see Seán Burke, The Death and Return of the Author: Criticism and Subjectivity in Barthes, Foucault and Derrida (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998).
509 Dương Tường, Mea Culpa, Ibid.
510 Julia Kristeva, ed. by Leon S. Roudiez, Revolution in Poetic Language (Guildford: Columbia Univ. Press, 1984).
511 See Hoai Thanh and Hoai Chan, ibid.
512 ‘Nevertheless, Pound seems to have been quite successful in producing a haiku in English on another occasion. "Fan Piece, for Her Imperial Lord" is based on the subject matter of a poem from the Chinese’ in Richard Eugene Smith, ‘Ezra Pound and the Haiku’, College English 26, no. 7 (1965): 522-27, p. 525
513 T.S Eliot: Pound was ‘the inventor of Chinese poetry for our time’, Selected Poems, edited and with an introduction by T. S. Eliot, Faber & Gwyer, 1928, Laughlin, 1957, p. 14.
514 ‘During most of the Twentieth century, Western scholars and translators used the term haiku for both modern haiku and premodern hokku. And haiku has thus come to be the generally accepted term in the West’, in MatsuoBasho, Basho's Haiku: Selected poems of Matsuo Basho, trans. David Landis Barnhill (New York: Tate University of New York Press, 2004), p. 4.
515 Basho was also considered as an imitation monk. He ‘spent a number of years in travel, sleeping at monasteries and inns’. To Basho, ‘travel and its difficulties were a form of freedom and a way of disciplining the mind’ (quoted in Hass, p.10).
516 ‘Unending circle of birth, death and rebirth’ (Buddhist theory of salvation), Kunio Komparu, The Noh Theater: Principles and Perspectives (New York: Weatherhill; Tokyo: Tankosha, i983), p. 42.
517 ‘While the mainly English background of the poetry does not reflect a fully “British” context, the question of what constitutes the “experimental” in poetry is robustly argued in a convincing argument for the validity of the avant-garde legacy’, in a book review of David Kennedy and Christine Kennedy, Women’s Experimental Poetry in Britain 1970–2010: Body, Time and Locale, Contemporary Women's Writing, 9 (2015), pp. 159-160.
518 Bích Khê, ‘Tì Bà’ (Spleen Music), Tinh Tuyển Văn Học Việt Nam (Vietnamese Literature Anthology), Vol. 7 (Hanoi: Social Science Publishing, 2004), p. 235.
519 Hoài Thanh, Hoài Chân, Thi Nhân Việt Nam, p. 221.
520 Chế Lan Viên, ‘Đêm tàn’ (The End of the Night), Thi nhân Việt Nam, p. 216.* Chế Lan Viên wrote this poem in the mood of an imagined person from Cham’s nation, which had ‘Chiem’ as its kingdom. ‘Cham’ was attacked throughout war and was no longer existed. Thus, Chế Lan Viên thought of the girl in Chiem’s kingdom, and the sorrow of losing country as symbols for his lost-feeling during the war in Vietnam in 1930s.