VCU Open 2008—Round 13—Tossups 1. Nakamura has observed Rabi oscillations in these objects. The W state and the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state can be composed of three of these objects, and the Hadamard transform can be performed on a system containing these objects. Optical and hyperfine are the two primary types of it for a trapped ion system, and Josephson junctions can be connected together capacitively to form a "phase-based" system of them. They can be geometrically represented by the Bloch sphere, and Holevo's theorem gives the amount of classical information that that these objects can transmit or store. The name of these objects was coined by Benjamin Schumacher, and they are capable of existing in a superposition of two possible states. For 10 points, name these fundamental units of information in a quantum computer.
ANSWER: qubits [also accept quantum bits]
2. The seven very heavy sanjaq idols comprise the chief gods of this group, whose members believe that they were created in a separate instance from other men and are not related to Adam. Their other quirky interpretations of Abrahamic myth include a belief that Satan repented for his rebellion and was restored to his place as chief angel. This religion regards the color blue as unclean, and the Black Writing and the Book of Revelation are the scriptural corpus of this group. Named after the Umayyad caliph whose followers are the ancestors of this group, they believe that certain saints can become gods, most notably the medieval figure of Shaykh Adi, whose tomb forms the end of the annual ritual pilgrimage of this religion. For 10 points, name this sect which worships Malak Ta'us, the divine peacock, a minority group found in parts of Iraq and Syria.
ANSWER: Yazidism or Dasni
3. One poem about these items calls them “little bloody skirts” and “little hell flames” and ends “colorless, colorless.” Along with mandrake juice, an extract of this plant is drunk by Barabas in order to escape from prison in The Jew of Malta, and Harry gives Larry Shannon a tea made from it in The Night of the Iguana. In addition to a Sylvia Plath poem about these “in July,” the crown of the King of Dullness is made of these in the Dunciad, satirizing Thomas Shadwell’s addiction to a product of them, and they are described as moving "between the crosses row on row" in John McCrae's "In Flanders Fields. For 10 points, name these flowers, which a bunch of mice carry the central party out of a field of in The Wizard of Oz.
4. This man defeated such rival claimants as Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus after coming to power, and he attempted to forestall palace coups by replacing the entire Praetorian Guard. After the death of this man, his wife Julia Domna exercised great power over his successors. He bade his time as governor of Upper Pannonia during the chaos following the murder of Commodus, eventually using the unavenged death of Pertinax as a pretext to overthrow a rich man who had won the Imperial throne at an auction, Didius Julianus. For 10 points, name this Roman emperor who ruled from 193 to 211 and was the namesake of a group that included Elagabalus, Geta, and Caracalla, the Severan Dynasty.
ANSWER: Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax
5. The namesakes of this experiment were incorrect in their prediction that the results would contain a Poisson distribution. Methods to calculate the results of this experiment include the Drake formula and the Lea and Coulson method of the median. One version of it was performed by Barry Hall, who used a medium consisting of the glycoside salicin, and another version was performed by John Cairns using organisms that couldn't utilize lactose. It was first performed in 1943, and used phage-sensitive E. coli and T1 bacteriophages to show that mutations in bacteria occur spontaneously. For 10 points, name this doubly-eponymous fluctuation test.
ANSWER: Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test / experiment
6. Three direct-to-video releases in this series are the only movies directed by Rick Bota; the latest one featured Jake accusing his friends of causing the suicide of Adam through their obsession with an online game. The most notable sequel to the original movie of this name was about Joey Summerskill investigating a hospital death by finding a character trapped inside a marble pillar at the Boiler Room. In the first film of this series, a girl cuts herself on a nail, allowing blood to regenerate a man who had been killed after finding the Lament Configuration that caused deadly chains to whip out of a puzzle box. An iconic character played by Doug Bradley, the leader of the Cenobites, attempts to lay claim to that man’s soul in, for 10 points, what movie, which introduced the character of Pinhead and was the directorial debut of its writer Clive Barker?
7. This male figure's marriage was broken up by an archaic god of dueling who lived in Ydalir, a son of Sif named Ull, who married his former wife after the pair proved unable to decide between Noatun and Thrymhem as their place of residence. This man acquired that wife following the death of Thiazi, when Thiazi's daughter was allowed to choose any husband and picked this man based on his attractive feet. A patron of good fortune for sailors, this member of the Vanir practiced incest to father Freya and Freyr. For 10 points, name this figure who married the snowshoe-loving giantess Skadi.
8. This action was one of the principle party aims of the "Young Americans," and Pierre Soule's appointment by Franklin Pierce was made to satisfy those that supported doing this. Mississippi Governor John Quitman agreed to assist one man in performing this action, a man who earlier attempted to get Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee to do it. Narciso Lopez set out from New Orleans and burned the governor's mansion in Cardenas in a failed attempt to do this with a group of "filibusters." In 1851, William Critenden attempted it, and in the most famous incident involving an effort at this, members of the People's Revolutionary Movement were excluded from taking part in this act by the CIA. For 10 points, identify this action that was most notably attempted by the Bay of Pigs operation.
ANSWER: American invasion of Cuba or American annexation of Cuba or equivalents
9. One passage in this book defines good men as those who “dig the old thoughts” to become “farmers of the spirit,” but laments that “eventually all land is exploited, and the ploughshare of evil must come again and again.” It is bookended by a chapter entitled "Joke, Cunning and Revenge" and by the "Songs of Prince Vogelfriei;" in between are sketches on St. Januarius and "We Fearless Ones." A noted quote from this book is followed by the disclaimer "but given the way people are, there may still for millennia be caves in which they show his shadow. And we, we must still defeat his shadow as well." The title is an expression about the attitude of troubadours in Provencal towards their occupation. For 10 points, name this text which first explained “eternal recurrence” and announced that "God is dead," a book called the most personal of Friedrick Nietzsche.
ANSWER: The Gay Science or Die fröhliche Wissenschaft
10. In an experiment involving chromium-doped garnet crystals, Michael Selzer showed its use in relating optical and physical properties. It includes the effect of mixing states with the same symmetry; however, lines connecting states of the same symmetry can never cross. Unlike a similar construct named for Orgel, it can take into account electron-electron repulsion effects. The units used for each of the axes measure the repulsion between terms of the same multiplicity, and are given in terms of the Racah parameter. This diagram is used to illustrate the effect of the strength of the ligand field on the positions of energy level components. For 10 points, name this diagram used to interpret UV and visible spectroscopic data for coordination complexes.
ANSWER: Tanabe-Sugano diagram
11. Elizabeth Gilbert's New Journalism biography of outdoors enthusiast Eustace Conway was titled as this kind of "American Man." This adjective also titles a story about the death of Minna Davis and the suicide of Schwartz, in which the crafty Pat Brady impacts such figures as the alcoholic writer Wylie White. The greedy Dr. Bumstead treats Peter Alden, the father of the title character Oliver, in a George Santayana novel with this adjective in the title. The protagonist of Parade’s End, Christopher Tietjens, is called this type of English Tory, and it also titles a book set in Thalia about Sonny Crawford and Jacy Farrow, written by Larry McMurtry. For 10 points, Santayana’s “Puritan,” the titular Monroe Stahr in Fitzgerald’s unfinished “Tycoon,” and a certain “Picture Show” are all described with what word?
12. This experiment showed the potential of a technique known as LEED, which is used to study surface structures. The Kapitza-Dirac effect was predicted shortly after it, and Alfred Phillips has offered numerous alternative explanations to this experiment, which was unknowingly based on an idea of Walter Elsasser. Similar to an experiment performed by Stern and Estermann three years later, it was first performed in 1927 at Bell Labs, and its setup included an ionization chamber and a nickel crystal. For 10 points, name this experiment that confirmed a prediction made by de Broglie and first observed electron diffraction.
ANSWER: Davisson-Germer experiment
13. An actress in this novel proposes starring in a series of films as a goddess among a newly discovered group. This novel begins on the Sumatran coast, where a man is investigating why the Bataks are afraid of Devil Bay. A trade in harpoons for pearls soon springs up, and after the pearls are depleted, Bondy suggests that the title characters hire themselves out as laborers. The title action consists of digging into the shoreline of Europe in order to provide more habitat for some creatures discovered by Captain van Toch. The exploitation of the title creatures by the Czech government leads to the world becoming gradually submerged in, for 10 points, what novel by Karl Capek about the discovery of intelligent salamanders?
ANSWER: War With the Newts [or Vàlka s Mloky]
14. The aftermath of the first one of these events was the Yassiada trials, in which three people were sentenced to death, and the period of the National Unity Committee. Another of these events happened due to inadequate handling of the Grey Wolves and led to the banning of the National Order Party. The most recent one is sometimes known as the “February 28 Operation” and is frequently dubbed “postmodern,” while the first one was a response to an order to prevent a Ismet Inonu from giving a speech in Kayseri and forestalled the planned dissolution of the Republican People’s Party. The one instigated by Kenan Evren led to the adoption of a new constitution, based on that of the French Fifth Republic, which contained provisions legitimizing this action, while the first one happened in 1960 against Adnan Menderes and the most recent targeted Necmettin Erbakan in 1997. For 10 points, what are these nondemocratic events, which are usually justified as protecting from Islamists the secular character of a state founded by Mustafa Kemal?
ANSWER: Turkish military coups or military “interventions” in Turkey [accept obvious equivalents; prompt on answers such as military coups that do not specify Turkey]
15. A namesake documentary about this man, filmed in 1984, shows him standing in front of a cityscape in a window and smoking a cigar while musing about his films. Two itinerant musicians are given magic slippers and three wishes by the King of Ghosts in a children's movie he directed. Tony and Carla disapprove of Lizzie's interracial relationship in his Shakespeare Wallah, and he replaced the tannery with a temple in his local adaptation of An Enemy of the People. A protégé of Jean Renoir, whom he assisted during the making of Renoir’s The River, this man’s first film starts with the central character's father moving to the city to become a writer and was followed by Aparajito. For 10 points, name this director of Pather Pachali and The Music Room, the creator of the Apu Trilogy.
ANSWER: Satyajit Ray
16. One copyist demonstrated his admiration for this piece by writing out its score in very large notes. A work of the so-called “Netherland School,” it uses the Hypo-Ionian and Mixo-Lydian modes, and it inspired one listener to say that he now understood the music of heaven which drew John to Jesus. It debuted at the home of Cardinal Vitellozzi and was repeated in the Sistine Chapel shortly thereafter to the great satisfaction of its audience; it was able to produce such an impression despite eschewing most ornament and all innovation in order to conform to the guidelines recently issued by the Council of Trent. It was composed on spec in 1562 and was ready for a subsequent commission by Pius IV, but was titled after a man who was in power for twenty-three days some decades earlier. For 10 points, name this pinnacle of the Renaissance mass, a work by Giovanni da Palestrina.
17. In explaining the title concept of this work, the author points out the difference between one person and fifteen million people being unemployed. This book claims that the “Age of Fact” requires better skills at organizing “lucid summations” of ever-increasing amounts of information, and it also says that, after acquiring the title thing, the first thing one realizes is the importance of a person “locating himself within his period.” It lays out the definition of the title concept as something that “enables its possessor to understand the larger historical scene in terms of its meaning for the inner life and the external career of a variety of individuals.” One paragraph in the introduction to this book, “The Promise,” lists nine people who achieved the title state, including E.A. Ross, W.E.H. Lecky, Karl Mannheim, and Auguste Comte. For 10 points, name this treatise by C. Wright Mills about the frame of mind characteristic to one who engages in Mills's line of work.
ANSWER: The Sociological Imagination
18. This man's father obtained formal recognition from U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing after issuing a commentary which hoped that the "ill-fated campaigns of Kornilov, the Don Cossacks, the various Siberian governments, and many others" would not be repeated, while addressing the question of whether the namesake “legion” of this man’s home country would be returning. This man published transcripts of his radio addresses as Speaking To My Country. He spent thirteen years as ambassador to Britain, leaving that post about a year before World War II broke out, and soon thereafter becoming foreign minister in the government-in-exile of Eduard Beneš. Although he was an advocate of good relations with the USSR, his desire to participate in the Marshall Plan irked Stalin, and soon after the Victorious February movement led by Klement Gottwald took power, this man’s corpse was found dressed in pajamas, several stories below his bathroom. For 10 points, name this possible target of the Third Defenestration of Prague, a Czech politician who died under mysterious circumstances in 1948.
ANSWER: Jan Garrigue Masaryk
19. The speaker of this poem remembers when the “infinite oblivion shattered you like a jar.” One part of this poem recalls “dwarves at dawn,” and another mentions the “fierce cave of the shipwrecked.” The addressee is accused of “swallowing everything,” and the speaker then says three couplets that each end with “In you everything sank!” This poem ends “It is the hour of departure. Oh abandoned one!” and it is the last poem in a collection that also includes "Thinking, Tangling Shadows," "Drunk With Pines," "Tonight I Can Write" and "Ah Vastness of Pines." For 10 points, name this work by Pablo Neruda, which accompanies “Twenty Love Poems.”
ANSWER: “A Song of Despair” or “Una Canción Desesperada”
20. This painting was accomplished with the use of two mirrors, each placed at an angle, in order to achieve a profile view uncommon in its genre. Its authenticity was first confirmed by Michael Levey in 1962, and it shows the subject looking upwards and to the left at the out-of-frame target of the action. It was based on the artist's study of the book Iconology by Cesar Ripa, which mandated using unkempt hair, gagged mouth, a pendant mask, clothing that can change color, and a gold chain on the figure of Pittura. It omits the gag, but does use a white lace neckline on a blue and green dress, with the left hand holding three brushes and a palette. For 10 points, name this work of the 1630s in which Artemisia Gentileschi personifies herself as her art.
ANSWER: Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting
21. He led a two-year blockade of Thasos, and his exploits included expelling pirates from Scyros, clearing Pausanias out of Byzantium, and recovering the relics of Theseus. He won nineteen straight elections as strategus before being ostracized, but he so impressed his countrymen by showing up as a private, stateless man to fight with them at Tanagra that his exile was ended prematurely. He led the victory over Persia at the Eurymedon River in 466 BCE and went on to use the “yoke of oxen” metaphor to advocate an aristocratic policy, in opposition to Pericles. For 10 points, name this leading military figure of the original Delian League, noted for championing the common interests of Sparta and Athens and for being the son of the victor at Marathon, Miltiades.
VCU Open 2008—Round 13—Bonuses 1. Led by Robert Aske and put down by Thomas Darcy, this event happened in 1536. For 10 points each:
 Name this movement which sought the firing of Thomas Cromwell and a halt to the anti-Catholic policies of Henry VIII.
ANSWER: the Pilgrimage of Grace
 This program of Henry, which displaced about ten thousand of the cloistered and acquired large amounts of real estate for resale, was the particular target of the Pilgrimage of Grace.
ANSWER: the dissolution of the monasteries
 Occurring just before the Pilgrimage of Grace, this attempt by Thomas Kendall to get the Statue of Uses repealed was put down by the Duke of Suffolk in its namesake county.
ANSWER: the Lincolnshire Rising 2. The namesake of this value first identified the aerodynamic boundary layer, and is also the namesake along with Glauert of a singularity that causes condensation clouds from aircraft. For 10 points each:
 Name this dimensionless number that can be written as the product of specific heat and viscosity divided by thermal conductivity.
ANSWER: Prandtl number
 One scientist with this last name is the namesake of a dimensionless value equal to the Schmidt number divided by the Prandtl number, and another introduced the concept of fugacity.
 This other dimensionless number is equal to the term diameter divided length times the Reynolds number times either the Prandtl or the Schmidt number.
ANSWER: Graetz number
3. Identify these kings with descriptive names, for 10 points each.
 He was one of the leaders of the invasion of East Anglia in the 860s. The brother of the possibly better named Sigurd Snake-in-the-Eye, he was carried around by his troops on a shield due to an osteoporosis-like disease that made it appear as though he could not support himself with his own skeleton.
ANSWER: Ivar the Boneless
 This governor of Phrygia under Alexander the Great became the king of Syria and founded the Antigonid dynasty as a member of the Diadochi.
ANSWER: Antigonus I Monophthalmus or Antigonus the One-Eyed
 Charles II repelled a Viking attack on Paris in the 850s led by this father of Ivar the Boneless who was stylin’ in some new fur garments.
ANSWER: Ragnar Hairy Pants or Ragnar Lothbrok 4. Unlike Ryan Westbrook, chemistry is associated with a lot of rules. For 10 points each:
 Used to predict whether a chemical bond will be covalent or ionic, these rules state, among other things, that covalent character increases with decreasing cation size or increasing cation charge.
ANSWER: Fajans’ rules
 This doubly-eponymous rule states that epoxide ring openings give trans diaxial products.
ANSWER: Fürst-Plattner rule
 Presumably loved by Ryan since it is violated by numerous polar compounds, this rule states that the entropy of vaporization for a liquid can be calculated as the enthalpy of vaporization divided by the boiling point, and is approximately 87 Joules per mole Kelvin.
ANSWER: Trouton's rule
5. Galileo Gall believes that the title event will take place sometime around 1897 at the Canudos Ranch. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel in which Antonio Conselheiro starts an apocalyptic cult, which is broken up by the government of Brazil.
ANSWER: The War of the End of the World or La guerra del fin del mundo
 This Peruvian author of Conversation in the Cathedral and Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter wrote The War of the End of the World.
ANSWER: Mario Vargas Llosa
 Lituma dies playing Russian Roulette in this Vargas Llosa novel about the titular brothel led by Don Anselmo.
ANSWER: The Green House or La Casa Verde
6. The title creatures can’t stand the sound of music, and are driven off by the scientist Turtlespit and the teenage girl Emily after they arrive on Earth. For 10 points each:
 Name this 1968 opera about some aliens who swarm a broken-down bus from St. Paul’s School.
ANSWER: Help, Help, the Globolinks!
 This composer of Help, Help, the Globolinks! also wrote Amahl and the Night Visitors and Amelia Goes to the Ball.
ANSWER: Gian Carlo Menotti
 "O Black Swan" and "Monica's Waltz" are sung in this Menotti opera about the accidental killing of Toby, following a séance with Madame Flora and Monica.
ANSWER: The Medium 7. Much of this work is an accounting of how well the author did in the spoils system of the recent Tory government. For 10 points each:
 Name this compendium of letters sent to Ester Johnson between 1710 and 1713 by Jonathan Swift.
ANSWER: The Journal to Stella
 Princess Maria Stella is the wife of Don Fabrizio in this novel by Giuseppe di Lampedusa.
ANSWER: The Leopard or Il Gattopardo
 A dispute with Stella-Rondo is the answer to the title interrogative clause in this Eudora Welty short story.
ANSWER: “Why I Live at the P.O.”
8. Name these abolitionists, for 10 points each.
 This Unitarian advocate of an intuitionist religious philosophy wrote A Letter to the People of the United States Touching the Matter of Slavery.
ANSWER: Theodore Parker
 This founder of the Union Humane Society founded the anti-slavery newspaper The Genius of Universal Emancipation in 1821.
ANSWER: Benjamin Lundy
 In 1837, a riot in Alton, Illinois caused the death of this editor of the St. Louis Observer.
ANSWER: Elijah Parish Lovejoy
9. Answer the following about the electron transport chain, for 10 points each.
 Most of the molecules of the ETC are these proteins that contain heme prosthetic groups and serve as one-electron transfer agents. The last of which, a3, passes its electron to oxygen.
 The reduced form of this co-enzyme delivers its electrons directly to ubiquinone shortly after being produced in the succinate dehydrogenase reaction of the Krebs cycle.
 This eponymous iron-sulfur protein subunit is mobile and responsible for the electron transfer in the cytochrome bc1 complex.
ANSWER: Rieske protein
10. This figure is sometimes said to have taken the place of Themis as the adviser of Zeus during the Trojan War. For 10 points each:
 Name this Greek personification of blame and mockery.
 Momos criticized this forge god’s automata for not having doors on their chest for Momos to enter and examine their thoughts. This lame god built stuff like the shield of Achilles.
 This personification of night was the mother of Momos as well as Eris and the Fates.
ANSWER: Nyx 11. This book claims that the title value is internalized by children and used to sort people into social classes. For 10 points each:
 Name this “social critique of the judgment of taste,” which also claims that the concept of a “working class aesthetic” is not liberating because it is defined in terms of the dominant aesthetic.
ANSWER: La Distinction
 Distinction was written by this author of On Television and Language and Symbolic Power.
ANSWER: Pierre Bourdieu
 Bourdieu also wrote a set of “Meditations” titled for this man, a seventeenth-century philosopher whose works include the Provincial Letters and Pensées.
ANSWER: Blaise Pascal 12. A group of his American followers created Betar. For 10 points each:
 Name this founder of the Haganah, who insisted that a Jewish state must include both sides of the Jordan River.
ANSWER: Vladimir Jabotinsky
 Jabotinsky’s position is known as this kind of Zionism, after another party Jabotinsky led.
ANSWER: Revisionist Zionism
 This group, which eventually formed Gahal with the Liberals under the political name Herut, was another organization of Jabotinsky supporters. Under the leadership of Menachem Begin, it blew up the King David Hotel.
13. This book collects such lectures as "The Present Dilemma in Philosophy" and "The One and the Many." For 10 points each:
 Name this text of 1907 about “a new way for some old ways of thinking.”
 Pragmatism was by this author of The Varieties of Religious Experience and Principles of Psychology.
ANSWER: William James [prompt on James]
 This William James lecture of 1897 says that accepting the truth of propositions can often lead to evidence for those propositions emerging, rather than the other way around.
ANSWER: “The Will to Believe”
14. At the left, a blue idol looks out at the viewer. For 10 points each:
 Name this inquisitive canvas, whose center shows a man in a loincloth picking some fruit from the top.
ANSWER: Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?
 Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? was one of many paintings executed on this island by Paul Gaugin.
 A naked Tahitian woman lies face-down on a yellow couch while a guardian on the left is seen in rigid profile in this other painting from Gaugin's island days.
ANSWER: Manao tupapau or The Spirit of the Dead Keep Watch 15. Answer the following about inscriptions with linguistic value, for 10 points each.
 The Orkhon inscriptions give their name to the script use to write this language, the most ancient known from a family that includes Kyrgyz, Uzbek, Uyghur, and Tuvan.
ANSWER: Old Turkic
 Found near Jeyhounabad, Iran, this inscription is the Rosetta Stone for Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian, showing the same passage in cuneiform for each language.
ANSWER: the Behistun inscription
 The Kafkania Pebble is one of the oldest instances of this Minoan writing system, which was deciphered by John Chadwick and Michael Ventris in 1951.
ANSWER: Linear B 16. Pedro Orce discovers the title formation on the beach, but others are unable to see it. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel in which the Iberian Peninsula breaks off of Europe and is about to collide with the Azores.
ANSWER: The Stone Raft or A Jangada de Pedra
 This author of Blindness and The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis wrote The Stone Raft.
ANSWER: Jose Saramago
 Domenico Scarlatti is among the personages who drop by the Mafra Convent in the midst of the eighteenth-century affair between the title characters of this Saramago novel.
ANSWER: Baltasar and Blimunda or Memorial do Convento
17. Answer the following about circles, sort of, for 10 points each.
 In math, this curve is generated by a point of the circumference of a circle that rolls on a straight line.
 Devised in 1953 by its namesake Northwestern chemist, this energy diagram contains a horizontal line drawn through its center in order to separate bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals.
ANSWER: Frost's circle
 This eponymous circle from engineering is constructed with normal stresses plotted along the horizontal axis and shear stresses along the vertical axis.
ANSWER: Mohr's circle
18. Based on the poems of Jens Peter Jacobsen, this oratorio ends with “The Wild Hunt of the Summer Wind.” For 10 points each:
 Name this 1911 piece, the first vocal music to use atonality.
 The Gurrelieder was a work by this composer of Pierrot Lunaire and Moses und Aaron.
ANSWER: Arnold Schoenberg
 This Schoenberg opera begins with a panther gnawing on a man’s neck and reflects on the composer’s separation from his wife, possibly due to the fickle machinations of the title entity.
ANSWER: The Hand of Fate or Die glückliche Hand 19. This Martinican author wrote the poetry volumes Beheaded Sun and Shackles. For 10 points each:
 Name this writer, perhaps better known for plays such as Henri Christophe.
ANSWER: Aime Cesare
 Like Leopold Senghor, Aime Cesare was a leader in this movement for authentic black literature.
 This author of Pigments and Return to Guyana was the third founder of Negritude.
ANSWER: Leon Damas 20. It was proven a forgery by Lorenzo Valla. For 10 points each:
 Name this member of the False Decretals, allegedly giving Pope Sylvester I dominion over Europe.
ANSWER: the Donation of Constantine
 Made to curry favor with the Pope against the Byzantines, this 756 gift by a Mayor of the Palace expanded the recently created Papal States.
ANSWER: the Donation of Pepin
 The Papal States began twenty-eight years earlier with land gained from Liutprand of the Lombards in this transfer.