Thyroid Gland Protocol applies to all malignant tumors of the thyroid gland, except lymphomas



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CAP Approved Head and Neck • Thyroid Gland

Thyroid Gland

Protocol applies to all malignant tumors of
the thyroid gland, except lymphomas.


Based on AJCC/UICC TNM, 6th edition

January 2004

Procedures


Cytology (No Accompanying Checklist)

Partial Thyroidectomy

Total Thyroidectomy With/Without Lymph Node Dissection
Authors

Virginia A. LiVolsi, MD

Department of Pathology, University of Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Zubair W. Baloch, MD, PhD

Department of Pathology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Michael Cibull, MD

Department of Pathology, University of Kentucky Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky

Susan Mandel, MD

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Robert Udelsman, MD

Chair, Department of Surgery, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

For the Members of the Cancer Committee, College of American Pathologists


Previous contributors: Diane Sneed, MD; Edward Paloyan, MD; Henry Travers, MD
Surgical Pathology Cancer Case Summary (Checklist)

Applies to invasive carcinomas only

Based on AJCC/UICC TNM, 6th edition

January 2004

THYROID: Resection

Patient name:

Surgical pathology number:
Note: Check 1 response unless otherwise indicated.


MACROSCOPIC

Specimen Type


___ Total thyroidectomy

___ Lobectomy

___ Right lobe

___ Left lobe

___ Isthmectomy

___ Other (specify): ____________________________

___ Not specified

Tumor Site (check all that apply)


___ Right lobe

___ Left lobe

___ Isthmus

___ Not specified



Tumor Focality


___ Unifocal

___ Multifocal



Tumor Size (largest nodule)


Greatest dimension: ___ cm

*Additional dimensions: ___ x ___ cm

___ Cannot be determined (see Comment)

MICROSCOPIC

Histologic Type


___ Follicular carcinoma (minimally invasive, widely invasive)

___ Oncocytic (Hürthle cell) carcinoma

___ Papillary carcinoma

___ Papillary carcinoma, follicular variant

___ Papillary carcinoma, tall cell variant

___ Papillary carcinoma, diffuse sclerosing variant

___ Papillary carcinoma, other variant

___ Insular carcinoma (and other poorly differentiated carcinoma)

___ Medullary carcinoma

___ Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma

___ Other (specify): ____________________________

___ Carcinoma, type cannot be determined



Pathologic Staging (pTNM)

Primary Tumor (pT)


___ pTX: Cannot be assessed

___ pT0: No evidence of primary tumor

___ pT1: Tumor size 2 cm or less, limited to thyroid

___ pT2: Tumor more than 2 cm, but not more than 4 cm, limited to thyroid

___ pT3: Tumor more than 4 cm, limited to thyroid or with minimal extrathyroidal extension (eg, extension to sternothyroid muscle or perithyroid soft tissues)

___ pT4a: Tumor of any size extending beyond the thyroid capsule to invade subcutaneous soft tissues, larynx, trachea, esophagus or recurrent laryngeal nerve

___ pT4b: Tumor invades prevertebral fascia or encases carotid artery or mediastinal vessels.

Anaplastic Carcinoma


___ pT4a: Intrathyroidal anaplastic carcinoma—surgically resectable

___ pT4b: Extrathyroidal anaplastic carcinoma—surgically unresectable



Regional Lymph Nodes (pN)


___ pNX: Cannot be assessed

___ pN0: No regional lymph node metastasis

___ pN1a: Nodal metastases to Level VI (pretracheal, paratracheal and prelaryngeal/Delphian) lymph nodes

___p N1b: Metastases to unilateral, bilateral or contralateral cervical or superior mediastinal lymph nodes.

Specify: Number examined: ___

Number involved: ___



Distant Metastasis (pM)


___ pMX: Cannot be assessed

___ pM1: Distant metastasis

*Specify site(s), if known: ____________________________

Margins


___ Cannot be assessed

___ Margins uninvolved by carcinoma

*Distance of invasive carcinoma to closest margin: ___ mm

___ Margin(s) involved by carcinoma

Site(s) of involvement: ____________________________

*Venous/Lymphatic (Large/Small Vessel) Invasion (V/L)


(Venous vessels outside tumor or in capsule)

*___ Cannot be assessed

*___ Absent

*___ Present

*___ Indeterminate

*Additional Pathologic Findings (check all that apply)


*___ None identified

*___ Nodular goiter

*___ Adenoma

*___ Thyroiditis

*___ Other (specify): ____________________________

*Comment(s)




Background Documentation

I. Cytologic Material

A. Clinical Information


1. Patient identification

a. Name


b. Identification number

c. Age (birth date)

d. Sex

2. Responsible physician(s)



3. Date of procedure

4. Other clinical information, if known

a. Relevant history

(1) previous treatment

(2) previous head and neck radiation

(3) family history of thyroid disease or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes

b. Relevant findings

(1) single or multiple nodules

(2) euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid, compensated euthyroid

(3) radiologic studies (eg, thyroid scan, ultrasound results)

(4) laboratory findings (eg, thyroid studies, antibodies)

(5) relevant molecular studies (eg, RET proto-oncogene mutational analysis)

c. Clinical diagnosis

d. Procedure (eg, intraoperative specimen cytology, fine-needle aspiration [FNA])

e. Operative findings

f. Anatomic site(s) of specimen(s)


B. Macroscopic Examination


1. Specimen

a. Type (eg, slides, fluid specimen, fine-needle biopsy)

b. Number of passes

c. Unfixed/fixed (specify fixative)

d. Number of slides received, if appropriate

e. Results of intraprocedural/preliminary on site consultation

2. Material prepared for microscopic evaluation (eg, smears, cytospins, filters, cell block)

3. Special studies (specify) (eg, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, morphometry)


C. Microscopic Evaluation


1. Adequacy of specimen (if unsatisfactory for evaluation, specify reason) (Note A)

2. Diagnostic category (Note B)

3. Additional pathologic findings, if present

a. Nodular goiter

b. Thyroiditis

c. Other(s)

4. Results/status of special studies (specify)

5. Comments

a. Correlation with intraprocedural consultation/on-site evaluation, as appropriate

b. Correlation with other specimens, as appropriate

c. Correlation with clinical information, as appropriate

II. Partial Thyroidectomy

A. Clinical Information


1. Patient identification

a. Name


b. Identification number

c. Age (birth date)

d. Sex

2. Responsible physician(s)



3. Date of procedure

4. Other clinical information

a. Relevant history

(1) previous treatment

(2) previous FNA results

(3) previous head and neck radiation

(4) family history of thyroid disease or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes

b. Relevant findings

(1) euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid, compensated euthyroid

(2) single or multiple nodules

(3) radiologic studies (eg, thyroid scan, ultrasound results)

(4) laboratory findings (eg, thyroid studies, antibodies)

c. Procedure (eg, lobectomy, isthmectomy)

d. Operative findings

e. Anatomic site(s) of specimen(s)

f. Availability of pertinent slides for review, if necessary


B. Macroscopic Examination


1. Specimen

a. Organ(s)/tissue(s) included

b. Unfixed/fixed (specify fixative)

c. Weight

d. Size (3 dimensions)

e. Descriptive characteristics, external surface

f. Descriptive characteristics, cut surface (eg, color, consistency)

g. Orientation, if indicated by surgeon

h. Nonneoplastic thyroid

i. Parathyroid gland(s) (if identified; give laterality and/or location, if known)

j. Results of intraoperative consultation

2. Tumor


a. Location

b. Encapsulated/nonencapsulated

c. Size(s) (Note D)

d. Extracapsular thyroid extension (Note D)

e. Descriptive characteristics (hemorrhage/necrosis)

f. Distance to margin of resection

3. Margins, as appropriate

4. Regional lymph nodes, if submitted

5. Tissue submitted for microscopic evaluation

a. Tumor(s)

b. Tumor in relation to capsule in toto, as appropriate


  1. Nonnodular thyroid

  2. Other mass(es)/nodule(s)

e. Margins, as appropriate

f. All lymph nodes, if submitted

g. Parathyroid glands, if identified

h. Frozen section tissue fragment(s) (unless saved for special studies)

i. Other tissue(s), as appropriate

6. Special studies (specify) (eg, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, morphometry, DNA analysis [specify type])


C. Microscopic Evaluation


1. Tumor

a. Histologic type(s) (Note C)

b. Multicentricity, if present

c. Extent of invasion (Note D)

(1) capsular invasion - location and extent (minimally vs widely) (Note C)

(2) venous/lymphatic vessel invasion, if present (note extent: minimally vs widely) (Note C)

(3) extrathyroid capsular extension (Note D)

2. Additional pathologic findings, if present

a. Nodular goiter

b. Thyroiditis

c. Therapy-related changes

d. Other(s)

3. Margins, as appropriate (Note E)

4. Regional lymph nodes, if submitted

a. Number

b. Number with metastasis

c. Extranodal extension

5. Other tissues/organs (eg, parathyroid tissue) (give laterality and/or location of parathyroid, if known)

6. Metastasis to other organs/structures (specify sites)

7. Result/status of special studies (specify)

8. Comments

a. Correlation with intraoperative consultation, as appropriate

b. Correlation with other specimens, as appropriate

c. Correlation with clinical information, as appropriate



III. Total Thyroidectomy With/Without Lymph Node Dissection

A. Clinical Information


1. Patient identification

a. Name


b. Identification number

c. Age (birth date)

d. Sex

2. Responsible physician(s)



3. Date of procedure

4. Other clinical information

a. Relevant history

(1) previous treatment

(2) previous FNA results

(3) previous head and neck radiation

(4) family history of thyroid disease or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes

b. Relevant findings

(1) euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid, compensated euthyroid

(2) single or multiple nodules

(3) radiologic studies (eg, thyroid scan, ultrasound results)

(4) laboratory findings (eg, thyroid studies, antibodies)

c. Clinical diagnosis

d. Procedure (eg, thyroidectomy with node dissection)

e. Operative findings

f. Anatomic site(s) of specimen(s)


B. Macroscopic Examination


1. Specimen

a. Organ(s)/tissue(s) included

b. Unfixed/fixed (specify fixative)

c. Thyroid gland

(1) weight

(2) size (3 dimensions)

(3) symmetry

(4) descriptive characteristics (eg, color, consistency)

(5) external surface

(6) cut surface

(7) nodule(s)/mass(es)

i. location

ii. character

iii. calcification

iv. cysts

d. Orientation, if indicated by surgeon

e. Parathyroid glands, if identified (give laterality and/or location, if known)

f. Description of other tissues

g. Results of intraoperative consultation

2. Tumor


a. Location

b. Descriptive features

c. Size(s) (Note D)

d. Extracapsular thyroid extension (Note D)

3. Margins, as appropriate

4. Regional lymph nodes

a. Number

b. Location, if possible

5. Tissue submitted for microscopic evaluation

a. Tumor(s)

b. Mass(es)/nodule(s)

c. Tumor capsule in toto, as appropriate

d. Noninvolved thyroid

e. Margins

f. All lymph nodes, if submitted

g. Other lesions

h. Parathyroid tissue, if identified

i. Frozen section tissue fragment(s) (unless saved for special studies)

j. Other tissue(s) (specify)

k. Special circumstance: prophylactic thyroidectomy (familial medullary carcinoma or MEN syndrome) (Note F)

6. Special studies (specify) (eg, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, morphometry, DNA analysis [specify type])

C. Microscopic Evaluation


1. Tumor

a. Histologic type(s) (Note C)

b. Multicentricity, if present

c. Location(s)

d. Extent of invasion (Note D)

(1) capsular invasion: location and extent (minimally vs widely) (Note C)

(2) venous/lymphatic vessel invasion, if present (note extent: minimally vs widely) (Note C)

(3) extrathyroid capsular extension (Note D)

(4) Invasion of tissue(s) adjacent to thyroid (specify)

2. Margin(s), as appropriate (Note E)

3. Lymph nodes

a. Number

b. Number involved by tumor

(1) location, if possible

(2) extranodal extension, if present

4. Additional pathologic findings, if present

a. Nodular goiter

b. Thyroiditis

c. Therapy-related changes

d. Adenomatous (hyperplastic, adenomatoid) nodules/adenoma

e. Other(s)

5. Other tissues/organs (eg, parathyroid tissue; give laterality and/or location, if known)

6. Results/status of special studies (specify)

7. Distant metastasis (specify site)

8. Comments

a. Correlation with intraoperative consultation, as appropriate

b. Correlation with other specimens, as appropriate

c. Correlation with clinical information, as appropriate



Explanatory Notes

A. Specimen Adequacy


The specimen adequacy criteria should be followed regardless of radiologic and clinical findings. A widely used criterion for specimen adequacy requires 6 or more groups of follicular cells with 10 to 20 cells per group on 2 different slides. Paucicellular specimens with abundant colloid almost always correspond to colloid nodules, but rarely papillary cancers may have these findings. Specimens with inadequate numbers of follicular cells and scant (or no) colloid should be interpreted as nondiagnostic. Paucicellular specimens having limited numbers of follicular cells showing some features of malignancy should be interpreted as suspicious. Although specimens showing only abundant proteinacous material, histiocytes, and/or hemosiderin can be interpreted as cyst contents such specimens have a low risk of representing a malignancy, but a higher risk than otherwise benign adequate specimens. It should be recognized that cystic malignancies may rarely present with cytologic findings that are similar to those of benign cysts. Guidelines for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid have been published.1

Guidelines for the Microscopic Evaluation of Specimen Adequacy1


Number of Follicular Cells

Amount of
Colloid



Interpretation


Numerous

Variable

Adequate for interpretation, diagnosis depends on cellular features

Few

Scanty or Absent

Unsatisfactory#

Few follicular, numerous histocytes

Variable

Nondiagnostic. Recommend repeat after 3 months, possible under ultrasound guidance.##,###


# One should be cautious in rendering a diagnosis of colloid nodule in a specimen which shows watery colloid, macrophages, and few follicular cells, because aspirates of papillary carcinoma with extensive cystic degeneration may also give rise to specimens with abundant colloid-like material, macrophages, and few follicular cells. If malignant cells, irrespective of the number, are positively identified in an aspirate, a malignant diagnosis should be made. However, if small numbers of follicular cells show atypical features short of overt malignancy, a “suspicious” diagnosis or a repeat aspiration may be suggested. The pathologist should discuss these findings with the clinician before rendering a “suspicious” diagnosis on a paucicellular specimen. In the majority of cases, a definite diagnosis of malignancy can be reached in an ultrasound guided repeat FNA.
## The report should contain a qualifier stating that the interpretation is limited by the paucity of follicular cells.
### Occasionally, a cystic papillary carcinoma may present a similar pattern. Check for residual solid areas, and re-aspirate if palpable. The risk of malignancy is higher in large (greater than 4 cm) lesions and those that increase in size despite therapy.

B. Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) Diagnostic Categories


Benign

Nodular goiter, Hyperplastic nodule, Thyroiditis


Suspicious

Follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell neoplasm

Rule out / Suggestive of neoplasm

Malignant

Non-diagnostic
See Note C; Follicular and Hürthle cell carcinoma cannot be reliably diagnosed with FNA.

C. Histologic Type


The histologic classification published by the World Health Organization (WHO) is recommended by the protocol and shown below.2-4

WHO Classification of Carcinoma of the Thyroid


Follicular carcinoma (minimally invasive, widely invasive)

Oncocytic (Hürthle cell) carcinoma

Papillary carcinoma

Follicular variant

Tall cell variant

Diffuse sclerosing variant

Other variant

Poorly differentiated carcinoma (including insular carcinoma)

Medullary carcinoma

Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma

Other (specify)
The diagnosis of follicular carcinoma or Hürthle cell carcinoma depends on the identification of capsular and/or blood vessel invasion. Blood vessels should be of venous caliber and be located outside the tumor, within, or immediately outside the capsule. Encapsulated follicular tumors with vascular invasion have potential for metastasis.5 Tumor cells should be attached to the vessel wall and protrude into the lumen. Encapsulated follicular tumors with invasion of the capsule may have potential for metastasis, although this is still controversial.
“Minimally invasive” follicular carcinoma refers to lesions with no vascular invasion. “Angioaggressive” follicular carcinoma refers to those tumors in which vascular invasion is identified. “Widely invasive” follicular and Hürthle cell carcinomas are those tumors with grossly apparent invasion of thyroid and/or soft tissue.

D. TNM and Stage Groupings


According to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), staging of thyroid cancer depends primarily on the histologic type.6,7 Thus, there are specific TNM stage groupings for papillary and follicular carcinomas that are stratified by age, and separate stage groupings not stratified by age for medullary carcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. Hürthle cell tumors are staged the same as follicular carcinomas. Undifferentiated or anaplastic carcinomas are always assigned stage IV. Age is not a prognostically important consideration for medullary or undifferentiated carcinomas. Tumor size and lymph node status are also considered in the TNM classification.
All categories may be subdivided: (a) solitary tumor, (b) multifocal tumor. With multifocal tumors, the largest one is used for classification. The lymph nodes must be specifically identified to classify regional node involvement.

Primary Tumor (T)


TX Primary tumor cannot be assessed

T0 No evidence of primary tumor

T1 Tumor 2 cm or less in greatest dimension limited to the thyroid

T2 Tumor more than 2 cm but not more than 4 cm in greatest dimension limited to the thyroid

T3 Tumor more than 4 cm in greatest dimension limited to the thyroid or any tumor with minimal extrathyroidal extension (eg, extension to sternothyroid muscle or perithyroid soft tissues)

T4a Tumor of any size extending beyond the thyroid capsule to invade subcutaneous soft tissues, larynx, trachea, esophagus or recurrent laryngeal nerve

T4b Tumor invades prevertebral fascia or encases carotid artery or mediastinal vessels.
All anaplastic carcinomas are considered T4 tumors
T4a Intrathyroidal anaplastic carcinoma—surgically resectable

T4b Extrathyroidal anaplastic carcinoma—surgically unresectable


By AJCC/UICC convention, the designation “T” refers to a primary tumor that has not been previously treated. The symbol “p” refers to the pathologic classification of the TNM, as opposed to the clinical classification, and is based on gross and microscopic examination. pT entails a resection of the primary tumor or biopsy adequate to evaluate the highest pT category, pN entails removal of nodes adequate to validate lymph node metastasis, and pM implies microscopic examination of distant lesions. Clinical classification (cTNM) is usually carried out by the referring physician before treatment during initial evaluation of the patient or when pathologic classification is not possible.
Pathologic staging is usually performed after surgical resection of the primary tumor. Pathologic staging depends on pathologic documentation of the anatomic extent of disease, whether or not the primary tumor has been completely removed. If a biopsied tumor is not resected for any reason (eg, when technically unfeasible) and if the highest T and N categories or the M1 category of the tumor can be confirmed microscopically, the criteria for pathologic classification and staging have been satisfied without total removal of the primary cancer.

Regional Lymph Nodes (N) (see Note G)


NX Regional nodes cannot be assessed

N0 No regional lymph node metastasis

N1a Nodal metastases to Level VI (pretracheal, paratracheal and prelaryngeal/Delphian) lymph nodes

N1b Metastases to unilateral, bilateral, or contralateral cervical or superior mediastinal lymph nodes



Distant Metastasis (M)


MX Distant metastasis cannot be assessed

M0 No distant metastasis

M1 Distant metastasis

Stage Groupings

Papillary or Follicular Carcinoma

Under 45 Years of Age 45 Years or Older


Stage I Any T Any N M0 T1 N0 M0

Stage II Any T Any N M1 T2 N0 M0

Stage III T3 N0 M0

T1 N1a M0

T2 N1a M0

T3 N1a M0

Stage IVA Any T# Any N M0

Stage IVB T4b Any N M0

Stage IVC Any T Any N M1
# Except T4b.

Medullary Carcinoma (Any Age)


Stage I T1 N0 M0

Stage II T2 N0 M0

T3 N0 M0

Stage III T1 N1a M0

T2 N1a M0

T3 N1a M0

Stage IVA T4a N0 M0

T4a N1a M0

T1 N1b M0

T2 N1b M0

T3 N1b M0

T4a N1b M0

Stage IVB T4b Any N M0

Stage IVC Any T Any N M1



Undifferentiated Carcinoma (All Cases - Stage IV)


Stage IVA T4a Any N M0

Stage IVB T4b Any N M0

Stage IVC Any T Any N M1

TNM Descriptors


For identification of special cases of TNM or pTNM classifications, the “m” suffix and “y,” “r,” and “a” prefixes are used. Although they do not affect the stage grouping, they indicate cases needing separate analysis.
The “m” suffix indicates the presence of multiple primary tumors in a single site and is recorded in parentheses: pT(m)NM.
The “y” prefix indicates those cases in which classification is performed during or following initial multimodality therapy (ie, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both chemotherapy and radiation therapy). The cTNM or pTNM category is identified by a “y” prefix. The ycTNM or ypTNM categorizes the extent of tumor actually present at the time of that examination. The “y” categorization is not an estimate of tumor prior to multimodality therapy (ie, before initiation of neoadjuvant therapy).
The “r” prefix indicates a recurrent tumor when staged after a documented disease-free interval, and is identified by the “r” prefix: rTNM.
The “a” prefix designates the stage determined at autopsy: aTNM.

Additional Descriptors




Residual Tumor (R)


Tumor remaining in a patient after therapy with curative intent (eg, surgical resection for cure) is categorized by a system known as R classification, shown below.
RX Presence of residual tumor cannot be assessed

R0 No residual tumor

R1 Microscopic residual tumor

R2 Macroscopic residual tumor


For the surgeon, the R classification may be useful to indicate the known or assumed status of the completeness of a surgical excision. For the pathologist, the R classification is relevant to the status of the margins of a surgical resection specimen. That is, tumor involving the resection margin on pathologic examination may be assumed to correspond to residual tumor in the patient and may be classified as macroscopic or microscopic according to the findings at the specimen margin(s).

Vessel Invasion


By AJCC/UICC convention, vessel invasion (lymphatic or venous) does not affect the T category indicating local extent of tumor unless specifically included in the definition of a T category. In all other cases, lymphatic and venous invasion by tumor are coded separately as follows:

Lymphatic Vessel Invasion (L)


LX Lymphatic vessel invasion cannot be assessed

L0 No lymphatic vessel invasion

L1 Lymphatic vessel invasion

Venous Invasion (V)


VX Venous invasion cannot be assessed

V0 No venous invasion

V1 Microscopic venous invasion

V2 Macroscopic venous invasion



E. Margins


Few published studies have addressed the influence of margin status and patient outcome. Most surgeons, endocrinologists, and nuclear medicine specialists require knowledge of positive margins, ie, tumor extending to surgical resection edge. While this makes intuitive sense and it is recommended that a positive margin be mentioned in the final pathology report, data on the effect of positive margins and outcome in large series of patients with long-term follow-up is not available.
Similarly, a few authors refer to the value of measuring distance of tumor to closest resection margin since some therapists modify dose of postoperative radioiodine depending on closeness of margins.8 Since data on the prognostic import of close margins as an independent variable or even co-variable is lacking, assessment and reporting of this information is not currently recommended.

F. Prophylactic Total Thyroidectomy


In patients with familial medullary carcinoma (familial MTC, MEN 2 or variants) and in whom germline mutations in RET proto-oncogene are present, prophylactic total thyroidectomy is performed based on positive mutational analysis.9 Many of the thyroidectomy specimens appear grossly normal. In such cases, serial blocking of the gland is required to document the extent of C-cell hyperplasia and to assess for micromedullary carcinoma.10 These blocks should be taken in a superior to inferior direction for each lobe, and the isthmus should be submitted separately. This serial sectioning of the thyroid is performed because C-cells are restricted to a zone deep within the middle to upper thirds of the lateral lobes. The extreme upper and lower poles of each lobe and the isthmic regions are generally devoid of C-cells. Immunostains for calcitonin and CEA may be required to assess extent of C-cell disease.

G. Special Procedures for Lymph Nodes


At the current time, no additional special techniques should be used other than routine histology for the assessment of nodal metastases. Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect isolated tumor cells are considered investigational techniques at this time.

References


1. Guidelines of the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology for the examination of fine-needle aspiration specimens from thyroid nodules. Mod Pathol. 1996;9:710-715.

2. Hedinger C, Williams ED, Sobin LH. Histological Typing of Thyroid Tumours. International Histological Classification of Tumours. World Health Organization. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1988.

3. Hedinger C, Williams ED, Sobin LH. The WHO histological classification of thyroid tumors: a commentary on the second edition. Cancer. 1989;63:908-911.

4. Rosai J, Carcangiu ML, DeLellis RA. Atlas of Tumor Pathology. Tumors of the Thyroid Gland. 3rd series. Fascicle 5. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1992.

5. Franssila KO, Ackerman LV, Brown CL, Hedinger CE. Follicular carcinoma. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1986;2:101-122.

6. Greene FL, Page DL, Fleming ID, et al, eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 6th ed. New York: Springer; 2002.

7. Sobin LH, Wittekind C. UICC TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours. 6th ed. New York: Wiley-Liss; 2002.

8. Simpson WJ, Panzarella T, Carruthers JS, Gospodarowicz MK, Sutcliffe SB. Papillary and follicular thyroid cancer: impact of treatment in 1578 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988:14:1063-1075.

9. Altanerova V. Cancers connected with mutations in RET proto-oncogene. Neoplasma. 2001;48:325-31.

10. Stoler MH. Prophylactic surgical pathology. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:257-259.



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