They are front to back and side to side relations of the mandible to the maxilla

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Horizontal Jaw Relation

They are front to back and side to side relations of the mandible to the maxilla

Centric jaw relation

Centric relation and centric occlusion

Eccentric jaw relation

Protrusive relation and lateral relation

Importance of centric relation

  • More definite position

  • Reference relation

  • Functional movements can be made in this position

Definition Centric relation

The maxillo mandibular relationship in which the condyles articulate with the thinnest avascular portion of their respective discs in the most retruded, physiological unstrained position

Centric Occlusion

It is the relation of the opposing occlusal surfaces of teeth whenn the upper and lower jaws are in centric relation

Protrusive relation

It is the relation resulting from the protrusion of the mandible

Lateral relation

The relationship of the mandible to the maxilla in a position to the left or right of the mid sagittal plane.

Methods of recording Centric relation

  1. Static : (interocclusal check record)

  2. Functional

a.graphic method

b. Chew in method

C.Terminal hinge axis method.

Centric relation record is made at the correct occlusal vertical dimension. At the correct occlusal vertical dimension the patient is asked to relax as much as possible and the dentist guides mandible into unstrained retruded position.

Methods for assisting the patient to retrude the mandible.

  1. Instruct the patient by saying “ let your jaw relax, pull it back, close slowly and easily on your back teeth. ”

  2. Instruct the patient by saying “ get the feeling of pushing your upper jaw out and closing your back teeth together. ”

  3. Instruct the patient to turn the tongue backward towards the posterior border of the upper denture.

  4. Tilt the patient’s head back while the various exercises just listed are carried out.


  1. Extraoral tracing devices:

A needlepoint tracing made on a tracing table coated with carbon or wax can be used to indicate the relative position of upper and lower jaws in the horizontal plane. These tracings are shaped like a gothic arch and therefore are referred to as “gothic arch tracings. ” Also known as “ arrow point tracings. ”

  1. Intraoral tracing devices:

A hole may be drilled in the plate at the apex of the intraoral tracing or a plastic disc with a hole in it may be placed over the apex of the tracing. The hole or the depression is used to ensure that the patient’s jaw is in the retruded position while the registration is being done with plaster or some such material.

    1. Other methods:

  1. Heat the surface of one of the rims and have the patient close into this softened surface to make a new maxillo mandibular relation impression.

  2. Soften the wax rims by deep heating posterior portion of the mandibular wax rim and leaving the anterior portion cool to maintain the predetermined vertical dimension of occlusion. Deep heating is referred to as Pooling. The heated portion will readily collapse under closing pressure. Swallowing method: when swallowing the jaws go back to centric and cones of wax are compressed against maxillary occlusal rims.

  1. Chewing method of recording

    1. Static : (interocclusal check record

Intraocclusal centric relation recording in detail:

After establishing the vertical dimension record, 3 mm of wax from the mandibular rim is removed from the first premolar and molar areas both on right and left sides.

Cut 2 or 3 notches on the corresponding maxillary rim.

After lubricating this surface with petrolatum place both the upper and lower rim in the patient’s mouth.

Check for any interferences and train the patient to close in centric relation by assisting the patient in retruding the mandible by placing the index fingers on the buccal flanges of the mandibular occlusal rim in both premolar regions with the thumbs under the patients chin.

Instruct the patient to close slowly and gently on the back teeth, if centric relation position satisfactory, soft baseplate wax or bite registration paste is placed from were 3 mm of wax was removed.

The registration material should be placed 1 ½ mm above the original height of the rim.

After the registration material is placed, the patient is guided in retruding the jaw and closing it slowly with minimum force until the anterior occlusal rims are uniformly touches each other.

Trim the excess material from the buccal and lingual sides and recheck to see if the bases contact simultaneously and in the proper position.

    1. Functional

Graphic methods in detail

Graphic Methods

  • Graphic methods are either intra oral or extra oral dpending on placement of recording device.

  • Made at predetermined vertical dimension.

  • Intraoral tracing cannot be observed during tracing

  • Extra-oral tracing can be examined as it is made. The apex can be identified easily.

Factors affecting accuracy of graphic tracing:

  1. Stability of the denture base.

  2. Resistance by the occlusal rims against occlusal forces.

  3. Presence of flabby tissue.

  4. Interference from the tongue.

  5. Lack of coordinated movement can cause double tracing.(advvanced age)


The central bearing device is located intra-orally and hence the name.


  1. The central bearing point and the central-bearing plate (coated with chalk) attached to record bases are inserted into the patient's mouth.

  2. The central bearing point is adjusted to a pre determined vertical dimension such that it contacts the central-bearing plate when the patient closes his mouth.

  3. When the patient is asked to make antero posterior and lateral movements, the central-bearing point will draw the tracing pattern on the central-bearing plate.

  4. After completing the movements, the tracing should resemble an arrow point with a sharp apex. If the apex is blunt, the record is repeated.


  1. The tracer is not visible during the procedure.

  2. The size of the tracing is very small, hence to determine the apex of the tracing is difficult.

  3. It cannot be used in patients who cannot retract the tongue.

  4. In cases of macroglossia.

intraoral intra
Parts of Intra oral tracer

    1. Lower central bearing point

    2. Upper central bearing plate

Both are attached to occlusal rims.


The concept is same as for intra-oral tracer.

Parts Of Extra- Oral Tracers:


Extra-oral Tracer

  1. Central Bearing Plate

  2. Tracing plate (Mandibular Rim)

  3. Needle point tracer (Attached to maxillary rim)


  1. Extra-oral tracing can be examined as it is made.

  2. The size of the tracing pattern is easily seen.

  3. The apex can be identified easily.

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