The Skeletal System I. Functions



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IX. Bone Development

  • Osteogenesis




  • In embryos this leads to the formation of the bony skeleton.

  • In children




  • In adults, it occurs as part of bone remodeling and bone repair.

-Formation of the Bony Skeleton

  • Before week 8, the human embryonic skeleton is made of fibrous membranes and hyaline cartilage.

  • After week 8,




    • The development of bone






-Endochondral Ossification






  • Most bones in the body develop via this model.

  • More complicated




  • We’ll follow limb bone development as an example.

-Growth in Bone Length



  • Epiphyseal cartilage (close to the epiphysis) of the epiphyseal plate divides to create more cartilage,



At puberty, growth in bone length is increased dramatically by the combined activities of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and the sex hormones.



-Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair

  • Deficiency of Vitamin A –

  • Deficiency of Vitamin C –

  • Deficiency of Vitamin D –

  • Insufficient Growth Hormone –

  • Excessive Growth Hormone –

  • Insufficient Thyroid Hormone –

  • Sex Hormones –




  • Physical Stress –




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