The Muscular system



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The Muscular system




Content:


  1. Introduction




  1. How skeletal muscle produce movement




  1. Origin and insertion

  2. Effects of fascicle arrangement

  3. Coordination within muscle groups:

  1. Agonist & Antagonist

  2. Synergist

  3. Fixator




  1. Naming of skeletal muscle




  1. Muscles that act on various joints and various parts of the body




  1. Disorders: Running injury

Compartment syndrome

Contractures



  1. Introduction:


Refers to the voluntary skeletal muscle
This chapter discusses how skeletal muscle produces mevements of various joints and various parts of the body



  1. How skeletal muscle produce movement:


A. Produce movement by exerting force on tendons, which in turn pull on bones or other structures such as skin. When such a muscle contracts, it draws one articulating bone towards the other where

  1. the attachment to the stationary bone is the Origin and

  2. the attachment to the movable bone is the Insertion



B. Effects of Fascicle arrangement:


  1. Skeletal muscle fibers are arranged within the muscle in bundles called Fascicle

  2. The muscle fibers are arranged in a parrallel fashion within each bundle, but arranged of the fascicle with respect to the tendons may take one of four characteristics patterns:


Parrellel------Stylohyoid muscle

Fusiform-----Digastric muscle

Circular------Orbicularis Oculi

Pennate: Unipinnate-----Extensor digitorum Longus

Bipinnate-------Rectus Femoris

Multipinnate----Deltoid muscle

  1. Fascicular arrangement is correlated with the power of a

Muscle and the range of motion



  1. Coordination within the muscle groups:




  1. Agonist & Antagonist:

A muscle that causes a desired action is referred as the prime mover or Agonist

The Antagonist are those group of muscle which produce an opposite action

Example: Biceps brochii is the prime mover or Agonist (cause flexion) where as Tricepr brachii is the Antagonist ( causes extension)


  1. Synergist: Muscle which serve to steady a movement and

help the prime mover to function more efficiently.


  1. Fixators: Those muscles which stabilize the origin of the

Agonist so that it can act more efficiently.



  1. How skeletal muscles are named:


Based on some characters:

  1. Direction: In which muscle fibers run

  2. Size , shape , action & location

  3. Site of origin and insertion of the muscle



  1. Muscles that act on various joints, acts on various parts of the body and move bones of our body:




  1. Muscles of Facial expression:


-Zygomaticus major

-Zygomaticus monor

-Buccinator

-Orbicularis oculi


  1. Muscles that move the eye ball:


-Superior rectus

-Inferior rectus

-Lateral rectus

-Medial rectus

-Superior oblique


  1. Muscles that move the mandible:


-Massater

-Temporalis

-Medial & lateral Pterygoid



  1. Muscles that move the tongue:


-Genioglossus

-Styloglossus

-Hypoglossus

-Palatoglossus



  1. Muscles that move the head:


-Sternocleidomastoid

-Semisspinalis capitus



  1. Muscles that act on the abdominal wall:


-Rectus abdominis

-Transverse abdominis

-External oblique

-Internal oblique



  1. Muscles used in breathing:


-Diaphragm

-External intercostal

-Internal intercostal



  1. Muscles of the pelvis floor:


-Levator ani

-Pubococcygeus

-Iliococcygeus

-Coccygeus


  1. Muscles that move the pectoral girdle:




  • Anterior thoracic muscles:


-Subclavius

-Pectoralis major

-Serratus anterior


  • Posterior thoracic muscles:


-Trapezius

-Lavator scapulae


  1. Muscles that move the Humerus:


-Pectoralis major

-Latissimus dorsi

-Deltoid

-Teres major

-Teres minor


  1. Muscles that move the forearm:


*Flexors: *Extensors: *Pronators:
-Bicepes brachii -Triceps brachii -Pronator teres

-Brachioradialis Pronatorquadratus—Brachialis


  • Supinators:


-Supinator



  1. Disorders:




  1. Running injuries: Mostly involve knee joint, Calcaneal tendon, hip area, foot and ankle.

  2. Compartmnet Syndrome:

Here external and internal pressure constrict structures within the compartments. Muscle damage develop scar tissue called ‘Contracture’


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