The Female Reproductive System



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The Female Reproductive System

Overview16_08figurea-l.jpg 004e47e8ehap_for_kym c37af81a:

  • Ovaries

  • Duct System

    • Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes)

    • ___________

    • Vagina

  • External genitalia


Ovaries

  • Composed of ovarian follicles (sac-like
    structures)

  • Each follicle consists of

    • ______________ (immature egg)

    • Follicular cells—surround the oocyte

  • Ovarian Follicle Stages

    • ____________ follicle—contains an immature oocyte

    • Graafian (vesicular) follicle—__________ follicle with a maturing oocyte

    • Ovulation—when the egg is mature, the follicle ____________ ; occurs about every 28 days

    • The ruptured follicle is transformed into a corpus luteum

  • Support for Ovaries

    • Suspensory ligaments—secure ovary to lateral walls of the pelvis

    • Ovarian ligaments—attach to ______________

    • Broad ligament—a fold of the peritoneum, encloses suspensory ligament


Duct System16_07figure-l.jpg 004e47e8ehap_for_kym c37af81a:

  • Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes)

  • Uterus

  • Vagina

Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes



  • ___________ the ovulated oocyte

  • Provide a site for ______________

  • Attach to the uterus

  • Little or no ____________ between ovaries and uterine tubes

  • Supported and enclosed by the broad ligament

  • Uterine Tube Anatomy and Physiology

    • _______________

      • Finger-like projections at the distal end of the uterine tube

      • Receive the oocyte from the ovary

    • ___________

      • Located inside the uterine tube

      • Slowly move the oocyte towards the uterus
        (takes 3–4 days)

    • ______________ occurs inside the uterine tube since oocyte lives about 24 hours16_08figureb-l.jpg 004e47e8ehap_for_kym c37af81a:

Uterus


  • Located between the urinary bladder and ______________

  • Hollow organ

  • Functions of the uterus

  • Support for the Uterus

    • Broad ligament—attached to the ______________

    • Round ligament—anchored anteriorly

    • Uterosacral ligaments—anchored posteriorly

  • Regions of the Uterus

    • Body—main portion

    • ______________ —superior rounded region above where uterine tube enters

    • ______________ —narrow outlet that protrudes into the vagina

  • Walls of the Uterus

    • _______________

      • Inner layer

      • Allows for implantation of a fertilized egg

      • Sloughs off if no pregnancy occurs (menses)

    • Myometrium—middle layer of ______________ muscle

    • Perimetrium (visceral peritoneum)—outermost serous layer of the uterus

Vagina


  • Extends from ______________ to exterior of body

  • Located between bladder and rectum

  • Serves as the ______________

  • Receives the penis during sexual intercourse16_09figure-l.jpg 004e47e8ehap_for_kym c37af81a:

  • Hymen—partially closes the vagina until it is ruptured


External Genitalia (Vulva)

  • Mons pubis

  • Labia

  • ______________

  • Urethral orifice

  • Vaginal orifice

  • Greater vestibular glands

  • External Genitalia (Vulva)

Mons Pubis



  • Fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis

  • Covered with pubic hair after ______________

Labia

  • Labia—skin folds

    • Labia majora—______________ skin folds

    • Labia minora—delicate, hair-free folds of skin16_13figureb-l.jpg 004e47e8ehap_for_kym c37af81a:

Vestibule and Greater Vestibular Glands

  • Vestibule

  • Greater vestibular glands

    • One is found on each side of the vagina

    • Secretes ______________ during intercourse

Clitoris

  • Contains ______________ tissue

  • Corresponds to the male penis

  • The clitoris is similar to the penis in that it is

    • Hooded by a ______________

    • Composed of sensitive erectile tissue

    • Becomes swollen with blood during sexual excitement

______________

  • Diamond-shaped region between the anterior ends of the labial folds, anus posteriorly, and ischial tuberosities laterally


Mammary Glands

  • Present in both sexes, but only function in females

    • Modified ______________ glands

    • Function is to produce milk

    • Stimulated by sex hormones (mostly ______________ ) to increase in size

Anatomy of Mammary Glands

  • Areola—central pigmented area

  • Nipple—protruding central area of areola

  • ______________ —internal structures that radiate around nipple

  • Lobules—located within each lobe and contain clusters of alveolar glands

  • ______________ glands—produce milk when a woman is lactating (producing milk)

  • Lactiferous ducts—connect alveolar glands to nipple

Mammography

  • X-ray examination that detects breast cancers too small to feel

  • Recommended every ______________ for women between 40 and 49 years old and yearly thereafter



16_03figure-l.jpg 004e47e8ehap_for_kym c37af81a:


Childhood

Primary oocyte

Primary oocyte (still
arrested in prophase I)


Mature
vesicular
(Graafian)
follicle


Primary
follicle


Primary
follicle


Primary
follicle


Oocyte

Ovulated
secondary
oocyte


Growing
follicle


Primary oocyte
(arrested in prophase I;
present at birth)


Oogonium (stem cell)

Each month from
puberty to menopause


Meiosis I (completed by one
primary oocyte each month)


First polar body

Mitosis

Growth

Meiosis II of polar body
(may or may not occur)


Polar bodies
(all polar bodies
degenerate)


Ovum

Second
polar body


Meiosis II completed
(only if sperm
penetration occurs)


Sperm

Ovulation

Secondary oocyte
(arrested in
metaphase II)


Follicle cells

(ovary inactive)

2n

2n

2n

2n

n

n

n

n

n


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