The European quest for security and defence integration: challenges ahead



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Survival, 34:3, pp. 98 – 118.

33


 As stated in Grosser, Alfred, (1980) The Western Alliance, London: MacMillan,, page 304: „[this directorate would have]… make joint-decisions in all political questions affecting global security … and would also draw up and, if necessary, implement strategic action plans, especially as regard to the use of nuclear weapons”.

34 Smith, op. cit.

35


Allen, David and William Wallace, (1982) European Political Cooperation; the Historical and Contemporary Background, in Allen, David, Reinhardt Rummel, and Wolfgang Wessels, European Political Cooperation: Towards a Foreign Policy for Western Europe, London: Butterworth Scientific.

36


 Smith, op. cit., and Menon, Anand, Anthony Forster, and William Wallace, (1992) A Common European Defense, in Survival 34:98-118.

37 Menon et all., ibid.

38


 As explicit cited the foreign ministers were not to develop institutions for foreign policy cooperation but to study the possibility of political unification which is not defined in the instructions. (Smith, op. cit. p. 69)

39


Regelsberger, Elfriede, EPC in the 1980´s: Reaching another plateu?, p. 6, in Pjipers, Alfred,Elfriede Regelsberger, and Wolfganf Wessels, (1988), European Political Cooperation in the 1980s, London: Brill.

40


 According to an interview with a Luxemburg Report negotiator conducted by Michael E. Smith. Smith, op. cit. p. 69.

41Nuttall, Simon, op. cit. p.30.

42


 Hill, op. cit. p. 36.; Stewart, Emma J., (2006), The European Union and Conflict Prevention – Policy Evolution and Outcome, Berlin: LIT.

43


 Smith, op. cit. p. 72.

44


Smith, ibid.

45


 Lipson, Charles, (1991) Why are some international agreements informal?, in International Organization, 45:495-538, p.501, Smith, op.cit., p. 76.

46


March, James, G., and Johan P. Olsen, The Logic of Appropriateness, Arena Working Papers, 04/09, 2004.



47 Wessels, op. cit. p.15.

48


Among these transgovernmental infrastructure created with the Copenhagen Report we can cite: the cooperation between EU embassies in third-countries and in international organizations and especially the development of the COREU (encrypted telex network to share information on foreign policy among EU countries).

49


Smith, op. cit. p. 92-93.

50


Nuttall, op. cit. p. 76.

51Regelsberger, op. cit., p. 14; Nuttall, op. cit. p. 103.

52


Even tough there is no mention, intention or suggestion for the use of military forces under the EPC, we can consider that the experience of moderating those crisis demonstrated that the EPC was an useful confidence-building mechanism and its potential to become a crisis management tool, thus enhancing the prospects of institutional development.

53


Smith, op. cit. , pp. 108-114; Nuttall, op. cit. p.81.

54


 Nuttall, op. cit., p.175-176.

55


Smith, op. cit., p. 126.

56


 Stewart, op. cit. p. 45-47.

57According to the London Report Part I: „ … possible to discuss in political cooperation certain important foreign policy questions bearing on the political aspects of security.”.

58


Smith, op. cit., 135-144.

59


Nuttall, op. cit. p. 189.

60


Stewart, op. cit., p. 48.

61


 Single European Act, Title I, Article 1 (emphasis added).

62


Single European Act, Title III, Article 30 6(a) (emphasis added).

63Bonvicini, Gianni, Mechanisms and Procedures of the EPC: more than traditional diplomacy?, in Pijpers, Alfred, et all., op. cit., pp. 53-55.

64


Smith, op. cit. pp. 148-154.

65


 Smith, Michael E., (2004b), Institutionalization, Policy Adaptation and European Foreign Policy Cooperation, in European Journal of International Relations 10:95,pp. 107.



66 Smith, (2004a,) op cit.176-190.

67


 However there was a WEU declaration attached to the TEU in which the WEU would commit to strength itself as the defence arm of the EU and as the European pillar of the Atlantic Alliance.

68 Van Eckelen, Wilhelm, (1998) Debating European Security 1948-1998, Center of European Policy Studies, Brussels and SDU Publishers, The Hague. p. 59.

69Stewart, op. cit. , p.49.

70


Smith, op. cit. p. 204-210.



71Hochleitner, Erich, The EU: Providing Common Security, Athena Paper of the PFP Consortium of Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes, pp. 10-13.

72Smith, op. cit., pp. 220-232.

73


 Treaty of Amsterdam, 1997, Article J. 7 (2).

74


 Boyer, Yves, (2004), Uma experiência de cooperacao internacional: A Uniao Européia e as questoes de Defesa, in Brigagao, Clóvis and Domício Proenca Jr. (Eds), Paz e Terrorismo, Sao Paulo: Huicitec, pp. 321-333.

75 Stewart, op. cit. p. 58.


76 Hochleitner, Erich, op. cit., p. 307.

77


Howorth, Jolyon, (2007) Security and Defence Policy in the European Union, New York: Palgrave MacMillian, p. 102.

78 Weisserth, Hans-Bernhard, (2003) Die Implementierung der “European Headline Goals” – Sachstand und Perspektiven Europäisches Fähigkeiten zur Krisenintervention, in Von Wogau, Karl (Ed.), Auf dem Weg zur Europäischen Verteidigung, Freiburg: Herder. pp. 141-162.


79Howorth, Joylon, op. cit., p. 68.


80 For more on this see: Mayer, Christoph O., (2006) The Quest for a European Strategic Culture: Changing Norms on Security and Defense in the European Union. Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan.


81 Howorth, Joylon, op. cit., p. 74.

82Stewart, op. cit., p. 61.

83


 Stewart, ibid..

84


 Howorth, op. cit., p.199.

85


Mayers, op. cit. p. 132.

86


Dannreuther, Roland and John Peterson (Eds..) (2006) Security Strategy and the Transatlantic Alliance, London: Routledge, p. 2.

87Stewart, op. cit., p. 61.

88


 Howorth, op. cit., pp. 200-201.

89


 Due to time and space constrains we will not be able to describe and analyse each of the EU Military and Civilian Missions overseas in this paper. The list of ongoing and completed Missions is available on Annex II at the end of this paper.

90


Stewart, op. cit., p. 224.

91 Howorth, op. cit., pp. 205-206.

92


Hill, op. cit.

93 Under the rejected constitutional Treaty he would be named the EU Minister for Foreign Affairs.

94


Interview with a NATO representative.





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