The age of diversity: exploration study guide

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Directions: You may answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper or directly on this sheet. Please remember, this is a guide and is not all-inclusive. All vocabulary terms, reading assignments as well as class notes and activities are fair game. THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO BE COMPLETED BY FRIDAY, APRIL 10th.

NIGHTLY READING ASSIGNMENTS (p. 83-88, 147-154, 175-180, 183-190)

  1. Why did the Asians cross the land bridge?

  2. What group became the first Americans?

  3. How did the first Americans acquire food?

  4. What caused the Americans to become gatherers?

  5. For the early Americans, what was the most important crop? Why?

  6. Why was the development of farming so significant? Two reasons.

  7. Where did the Hohokam, Anasazi, Mound Builders, Mississippians and Iroquois settle? Continent.

  8. From above, the mounds of the Mound Builders, often depicted what?

  9. What four things linked the different Native American societies?

  10. Where did the Olmec, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec settle? Continent.

  11. What became the leading power in Mexico after the decline of the Toltecs? Who led this group?

  12. The most important religious rituals in the Aztec empire were for which god? What did this god need?

  13. What two reasons contributed to the decline of the Aztec empire?

  14. What was the name of the first civilization in the Andes Mountains?

  15. Why was the Chavin civilization described as a “mother culture”?

  16. What are the Nazca most famous for?

  17. In addition to the Chavin and the Nazca, what other civilization greatly influenced the Inca Empire?

  18. Where did the Inca first settle?

  19. The Inca believed that their ruler was related to whom?

  20. How did the Inca win the loyalty of their conquered peoples?

  21. How did the Inca link all parts of their empire?

  22. What was the name of the Inca common language?

  23. The Inca reached the height of their power under which ruler?

  24. What happened when this ruler died?

  25. Why were the Spanish able to conquer the Inca Empire?

  26. What land was Columbus hoping to reach?

  27. Upon meeting the natives, Columbus mistakenly referred to them as what?

  28. Who defeated the powerful Aztec Empire?

  29. Who conquered the mighty Inca Empire?

  30. Where else did the Spanish hope to gain power and who led these expeditions?

  31. Who opposed Spanish rule? Why?

  32. What was the main activity in French colonies?

  33. Where did the Dutch settle and what did they call their colonies?

  34. New Amsterdam was renamed what?

  35. Why did Europeans bring Africans to the Americas?

  36. What killed a large part of the Native American population during the Columbian Exchange?

  37. Why did Europeans want to explore Asia? Think “God, Glory and Gold”.

  38. What made European voyages possible? Two things.

  39. Who declared himself the first ruler of the Ming Dynasty & why?

  40. What ruler of the Ming Dynasty launched a major effort to contact other Asian peoples?

  41. What admiral led these expeditions?

  42. What group took over after the Ming Dynasty lost control? What Dynasty did this group start?

  43. What emperor and his grandson allowed China to flourish and prosper?

  44. What group carried on the largest share of trade with China? Why?

  45. What allowed for the daimyo to take control of feudal lands in Japan?

  46. Who took control of the emperor’s capital at Kyoto?

  47. Who continued to unite Japan under a central authority?

  48. Who completed the work of unifying Japan and became the shogun?

  49. Japan isolated all groups from trading and entering the empire except which two groups?


  1. In Portugal, who was committed to exploration? What did this individual do to increase the success of his country’s exploration?

  2. Who sailed around the tip of Africa?

  3. Who sailed around the tip of Africa to India and back?

  4. To diffuse land conflicts between the Spanish and the Portuguese, these two groups signed what?

  5. What did Portugal get out of the treaty? What did Spain get?

  6. Which two groups entered the East Indies in the 1600s and established companies to protect their trading interests?


  1. Describe life for the earliest Americans before farming and after farming.

  2. What was the Hohokam civilization known for? Two things.

  3. Where did the Iroquois settle? Continent and region.


  1. What benefits did the rainforests of South Mexico provide for the Olmec?

  2. What did the Olmec and the Zapotec contribute to future cultures in Mesoamerica?

  3. How many Mayan cities did archeologists discover? List two of the most important.

  4. Describe the religious views of the Maya Empire.

  5. Why were Mayan mathematical developments significant?

  6. How many calendars did the Mayan Empire have?

  7. What was so significant about Mayan astronomy?

  8. Why did the Maya Empire decline? Two possible reasons.

  9. What was the name of the Aztec capital city?


  1. Describe the Andes Mountains.

  2. Which Incan ruler led conquest after conquest and won loyalty through friendship?

  3. What was the name of the Inca Empire’s most influential ruler? Why was he so significant?

  4. What were the names of the individuals that waged war against each other? Who won? What did this mean for the Inca Empire?

THE ATLANTIC WORLD (guided notes)

  1. Where was Christopher Columbus from? Who was he sailing for?

  2. Who was America named after?

  3. Which explorer circumnavigated the globe?

  4. Where did Cartier explore?

  5. Where did de Champlain sail to?

  6. The area explored and claimed by the French became known as what?

  7. What was the name of the first English settlement?

  8. What was the name of the settlement established by the pilgrims?

  9. Who were the Puritans?

  10. Which two groups fought over the Ohio Valley? What was this conflict called?

  11. Which European groups were the first to participate in the slave trade?

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