Biographical Sketches of the Principal Agents in their
A. S. HAYDEN.
CHASE & HALL, PUBLISHERS.
[[@Page:2]] Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by
CHASE & HALL,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.
P R E F A C E.
THE beginning of the second quarter of the nineteenth century is memorable as the period when a new and powerful religious awakening began in North-eastern Ohio. The Western Reserve was the principal theater of this benign work. In recording the history of this revival, it will be necessary to trace the origin of the movement; to describe its character, its spirit, and its aims; to note the principal events which attended its origin and progress; and, in turn, to consider this remarkable outburst of Christian zeal and activity in its relation to the future, as the direct and potent cause of succeeding developments in the kingdom of Christ.
This movement was so unexpected, so rapid, so general, and accompanied by many incidents and events so peculiar, as to stamp the phenomenon with the clearest indications of a providential visitation of great mercy to the world. Many of its first advocates were plain, unpretending men, called unexpectedly to the front, and urged forward by the resistless impulses of the work itself. Some of these men exhibited fine oratorical powers. They have left their impress durably on a wide and growing society. Brief biographical sketches of the principal early actors in the scenes to pass before the reader cannot fail to be interesting to him. They will also constitute an important part of the record of the times.
Great care has been bestowed on the accuracy of every statement, both of date and incident; a branch of duty[[@Page:4]] often laborious, requiring the collation of many documents, and the reconciliation of conflicting testimonies.
Many persons yet remaining of the generation herein chiefly described, will find in these pages events with which they are personally familiar. The young will discover in the same pages the planting and establishment of principles of religious reform which are now providentially committed to their trust, and which, in their faithful hands, are yet, we hope, to be developed into yet fairer symmetry and greater perfection of individual Christian character, and higher Church order and activity.
As far as possible the whole work has been brought within the following plan:
1. A sketch of the condition of religious society at the opening of the work.
2. A short account of the agencies by which it was accomplished.
3. A history of the work itself.
4. Biographical notices of the principal actors.
A. S. H.
C O N T E N T S.
WESTERN RESERVE HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION
Preliminary agencies -- Debate between A. Campbell and John Walker -- Discussion with W. L. McCalla -- The Christian Baptist. -- Visit of Bentley and Rigdon -- The Mahoning Association: its constitution and its creed -- The Association in Canfield, 1826 -- Eminent preachers -- Notable sermon by A. Campbell -- Sketch of Elder Thomas Campbell -- Biography of A. Campbell
The Association in New Lisbon, 1827 -- Call for an evangelist -- Ministers of the Christian Connection -- Walter Scott chosen -- Biography of Scott -- Among the churches -- Quarterly meeting in Braceville -- Ministers consulting on momentous questions
The plea opened in New Lisbon: struggles and success -- The first convert -- Co-operating agencies -- John Secrest, Joseph Gaston -- Wm. Schooley -- Death of Gaston -- John Whitacre
Origin of the Baptist Church in Warren -- Biography of A. Bentley -- The "Siege of Warren" -- J. G. Mitchell -- Stirring events -- Sketch of Cyrus Bosworth -- East Fairfield -- Quarterly Meeting -- Death of Mitchell -- The Church in Lordstown
[[@Page:5]] C O N T E N T S.
The reformation in Salem -- Opposition on the alert -- A division -- Origin of the "Phillips" Church -- Rise of the Baptist Church in North-west Canfield -- The transition -- Anecdotes -- Myron Sacket -- Austintown -- The remnant of "Zoar" -- Notice of, by Scott -- Visit by Bentley; conversion of John Henry -- Great success -- A. Raines and the Universalists -- Formation of the church -- Sketch of Henry -- Origin of the church in Braceville and Newton Falls -- Ministers' meetings -- Biography of Marcus Bosworth -- Church on New Testament principles -- Life of Jacob Osborne
Success of Scott in Windham -- The church founded -- Elder T. Campbell's visit to the Western Reserve -- Biographies of A. Raines and E. Williams, and history of their conversion -- A church planted in Freedom
The Association in Warren, 1828 -- Great expectations -- Wisdom of Mr. Campbell in the introductory sermon -- Discussion on the reception of Raines -- Excitement -- Principles of union settled -- Scott's circular -- He is reappointed -- Wm. Hayden selected as his associate -- Biography of Hayden -- Expectation of the Millennium
The church in Mentor -- Of Baptist origin -- Great overturn under Bentley and Rigdon -- The first convert -- The work extends to Kirtland and Painesville -- Progresses into Waite Hill -- Biography of M. S. Clapp -- Sketch of Violl, Miller, Dexter Otis -- Alvin Waite -- R. Storm -- Church on the plains -- The cause established in the town of Willoughby
The principles of reform in Chardon -- Origin of the Baptist Church -- Bible investigation -- Calvinistic theory of conversion -- Nathan Porter -- William Collins, biography of -- Church established on King Street -- Early preachers -- Moved to the "Square" -- Pastors -- Rise of the church in Munson -- Labors of Collins, Hartzel, and others -- Great success of Dr. Robison -- Notice of O. Gates -- J. G. Coleman, Allen Harper -- Firm home guards -- The cause established in Burton
Origin of the churches in Mantua, Hiram, and Garrettsville -- J. Rudolph, Sr. -- Labors of Elder T. Campbell -- Symonds Rider -- Conflicts with Mormonism -- Ordination of D. Atwater and Z. Rudolph -- Sketch of the church in Mantua -- Obituary of Darwin Atwater -- Biography of Rider -- Sermon by President Hinsdale, with sketch of the church in Hiram -- Church in Garrettsville -- Successes -- Origin and establishment of the Eclectic Institute
The Association in Sharon, 1829 -- Founding of the church by T. Campbell, Scott, and Bentley -- Four evangelists chosen: Scott, Hayden, Bentley, and Bosworth -- System of evangelizing -- Hubbard Baptist Church in transition -- Jesse Hall -- Sketch of John Applegate -- A living church -- Bezetta on Baptist principles -- The ground contested -- The reformation wins -- Labors of Elder T. Campbell -- Edward Scofield -- Yearly Meeting -- John T. Phillips -- The evangelic Smith: biography of him
Great meeting in Austintown, 1830 -- The Association dissolved -- Origin of the Yearly Meeting system -- North Bloomfield -- The union experiment -- Benj. Alton -- Church formed -- Reorganized -- Successes under Isaac Errett -- Ministers following -- Farmington: church formed by Alton -- Harvey Brockett, conversion and biography -- Other helps -- Church in Green -- W. Bartlett -- E. Wakefield
Primitive Christianity in Deerfield -- Investigations -- Light breaking in -- Sketch of E. B. Hubbard -- Experience of Jonas Hartzel -- The Disciples uniting on New Testament principles -- Visit of Bentley and Bosworth -- Scott arrives -- Great Sermon -- Captains Allerton and Rogers -- Allerton's labors -- Ground of stability -- Experiences of Rev. John Schaeffer -- He accepts the union principles and abandons Lutheranism
Palmyra: spiritual declension -- Church formed by Scott and Hayden -- Shalersville -- Opening found -- Occupied by Hayden -- The Disciples called together -- Yearly Meetings -- Anecdotes -- Brockett's work -- C. C. Foot -- T. J. Newcomb -- Labors of A. B. Green and W. A. Belding -- Randolph -- Deacon Churchill -- Church raised up -- Great Yearly Meeting, 1832 -- Report of it by Hayden
The awakening in Perry -- Charge of heresy -- D. Parmly the victim -- Rigdon's zeal -- The Church built on the Rock -- A. Saunders -- R. Veits -- E. H. Webb -- Other helps -- Painesville -- Preparatory work -- Church organized by E. Williams and A. Saunders -- Wise builders -- Pastors -- A good record -- Pillars fallen
Middlebury and Akron -- The plea begun by Hubbard and Hayden -- Bosworth comes -- Opposition and debate -- M. L. Wilcox and Graham -- Vaughan's defection -- The work revived by two sisters -- Struggles -- "Millerism" -- The church re-established -- Great meeting by Henry -- Anecdote -- Laborers in the vineyard -- A new organization in Middlebury -- Mogadore -- Heralds of the glad tiding -- Church arises -- Opposition and method of silencing it -- Yearly Meetings -- Good example -- Wadsworth -- Elder O. Newcomb -- A. B. Green -- Hayden's visits -- Church springs up -- Great Meeting in Esquire Eyles' Barn -- Mr. Campbell's candor and success -- Advance movements -- Yearly Meeting, 1835 -- Anecdotes -- Opposition: how met -- A mother of preachers
Prelude of the reformation in Ravenna -- Conversion of E. Williams -- Bosworth comes -- Hayden follows, and forms the church -- Helps -- Self-reliance of the members -- Infidelity abounding -- Arrival of Campbell -- Court adjourns to hear him -- Demonstrative Sermon -- Anecdotes -- F. Williams -- Chas. Judd -- The church established in the village -- Succession of pastors -- Obituary of S. McBride -- Aurora -- The ground pre-empted for Christ -- Bold Invasion -- Concurring helps of Bosworth, Bentley, and Henry -- The Converts collected -- A grove meeting -- Mr. Campbell's Eloquence -- Yearly Meeting in 1834 -- C. Forward -- Incidents -- House burned and rebuilt -- Preachers aiding -- Anecdotes -- The campaign begins in Stowe -- Opposition -- It stimulates the defense -- The work extending to Franklin and Hudson
Origin of the church in Bedford -- Gaining Strength -- First Yearly Meeting, 1839 -- Memorable sermon by A. Campbell -- Other great assemblies -- Henry and Jones -- Dr. J. P. Robison -- Correspondence -- Chas. F. Bartlett, obituary -- Preachers who arose in Bedford -- J. O. Beardslee -- Headquarters of the Board of Managers of the Ch. Missionary Society -- Succession of helpers -- The light dawning on Newburg -- E. Williams' success -- Church formed by Hayden -- Interesting conversions -- Grove meeting on Col. Wightman's farm, 1835 -- Exciting incidents -- Church reorganized by Hartzell -- Succeeding labors of J. D. Benedict and J. H. Jones -- A flourishing Sunday -- school -- Incidents of the Yearly Meeting of 1835 -- Anecdote
Euclid (Collamer) -- Door opened -- Luther Dille and Mrs. Clarissa Dille -- A. P. Jones -- Rigdon comes -- And Collins -- The happy deacon -- Church organized by Elder T. Campbell -- J. J. Moss -- W. O'Connor -- Immense Yearly Meeting, 1837 -- Coming of Henry -- The captains captured -- Centralizing in Collamer -- A. S. Hayden among them -- Subsequent history -- Cleveland -- How Hayden came, and who invited him -- The young preachers -- The old academy -- A. Campbell in the court -- house -- He silences the infidels -- The way opened for Henry -- His success, and formation of the church -- Other helpers -- Jones, Robison, Collins, Hayden -- Change of location -- Succession of pastors -- East Cleveland -- A Fourth-of-July meeting -- Dr. N. H. Finney a convert -- Chief supports -- New church edifice -- Success -- Pastors
Royalton -- John B. Stewart -- Edward Scofield -- Light from the " Christian Baptist " -- E. Leonard brings Wm. Hayden -- The "church" closed, and the blacksmith-shop opened -- Charter members -- Anecdotes -- Intense interest -- Co-operating agents -- Wm. Moody -- His experience and adoption of the principles of Christian union -- Raises up a church in Lafayette -- A pleasing conversion -- Continued prosperity of the church in Royalton -- The Gospel brought into Granger and Ghent -- Hayden, Wilcox, and P. Green -- Obituary of Wilcox -- The church in Pompey Street, Brunswick -- Sketch of J. W. Lanphear -- The church established at Hamilton Corners
Arrival of Bentley in the vicinity of Chagrin Falls -- The church arises -- First officers -- Hayden preaches on the hay-scales -- The church located in Chagrin Falls -- Opposition arising -- A debate -- Excitement and results -- Strength in the local members -- Lectures by Isaac Errett -- Infidelity defiant -- Discussion, Garfield and Denton -- Favorable result -- Yearly meetings -- Succession of overseers, deacons, and preachers -- The sainted dead -- A call from North Eaton -- The church planted by M. J. Streator -- Incidents -- L. Cooley -- Opposition -- Colony in Bloomingdale, Michigan -- Dedications -- Three great meetings -- The church in Youngstown -- Early agencies -- Discussions: Hartzel, Waldo, and Stedman -- Mr. Campbell's interview with Rev. Boardman -- Corrects public prejudice -- Lanphear, first pastor -- Great yearly meeting, 1843 -- Prof. Anthon's testimony, in correspondence with Dr. E. Parmly -- Succeeding helps -- Prosperity -- A new church edifice
LESSONS OF OUR FORTY YEARS' EXPERIENCE. Position stated -- Its clearness and strength -- Purpose explained -- The Second Lesson stated, the due adjustment of the Evangelical and Pastoral work -- The Third Lesson, from planting too many small churches -- The cause of the weakness and decay of some -- Illustration from Episcopacy -- Our experience points to better methods -- The Fourth Lesson, the want of Records -- Extremes of some Reformers -- The Fifth Lesson, the importance of union of effort -- Character of the Yearly Meeting system -- Efforts for concert of action, and their failure -- Illustration from the Eclectic Institute -- The final Lesson, "Preach the Word"
An abbreviated account of churches omitted, or recently organized -- Alliance -- Auburn -- Bazetta, West -- Birmingham -- Brookfield -- Bristol, North -- Camden -- Chester -- Denmark -- Edinburg -- Elyria -- Fairfield, North -- Fowler -- Footeville -- Geneva -- Hamden -- Huntsburg -- Hamilton's Corners -- Hartsgrove -- Hartford -- Hinkley -- Jackson, North -- Little Mountain -- Middlebury -- Montville -- Morgan -- Niles -- Norton -- Orange, North -- Orange, South -- Russell -- Solon -- Southington -- Thompson -- Trumbull, East -- Warrensville
The following resolutions, moved by Pres't. B. A. Hinsdale, were passed unanimously by the Western Reserve Christian Preachers' Association, held in Ravenna, Portage Co., Nov. 7, 8, and 9, 1871. There were twenty-two preachers present:
WHEREAS, It is greatly to be desired that the chronicles of the Western Reserve churches should be written: and
WHEREAS, Bro. A. S. Hayden is preeminently the man to write them: therefore,
Resolved, That we affectionately request Bro. Hayden to undertake this work; and in case he consents, we urgently press upon him the desirability of its being undertaken as speedily, and prosecuted as rapidly, as his other engagements may permit.
Resolved, That we pledge to Bro. Hayden, who has for years been collecting material for such a work, our united cooperation and moral support in his undertaking.
A. B. GREEN, Pres't. of the Association.
H. J. WHITE, Sec.
THE WESTERN RESERVE:
HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION.
AS we shall have frequent occasion to refer to the Western Reserve in the course of the following work, we give here a brief description and historic account of it. This notice is collected from several sources, and presented somewhat abridged.
This district of country, also called Connecticut Western Reserve, and New Connecticut, is situated in the north-east part of the State of Ohio. It is bounded on the north by Lake Erie, east by Pennsylvania, south by the 41st parallel of north latitude, and on the west by Sandusky and Seneca counties. It extends 120 miles from east to west, and averages about 50 from north to south. Its greatest breadth is at the east end, extending on the Pennsylvania line 68 miles. The area includes about 3,000,000 acres. It embraces the following counties, viz.: Ashtabula, Trumbull, north part of Mahoning, Lake, Geauga, Portage, Cuyahoga, Summit, Medina, Lorain, Erie, and Huron.
Connecticut became possessed of the land in question in the following manner: King Charles II. of England, pursuing the example of other sovereigns, granted to the colony of Connecticut, in 1662, a charter-right to all lands in the new world included within certain specified limits. But as the geographical [[@Page:14]]knowledge of Europeans concerning America was very limited and confused, patents for lands often interfered with each other, and many of them, by their express terms, extended to the Pacific Ocean, or mythical "South Sea," which the Pacific Ocean was thought to be. Among the rest, that for Connecticut embraced all lands contained between the 41st and 42d parallels of north latitude, and from Providence Plantations on the east to the Pacific Ocean west, with the exception of the colonies of New York and Pennsylvania; and, indeed, pretensions to these were not finally relinquished without considerable altercation. When the colonies, as the result of the Revolutionary War, became a united and independent nation, these interfering claims occasioned much collision between the Federal Government and several of the States; with no one more than Connecticut. Negotiations were pending for several years before a compromise was finally effected. In September, 1786, the State of Connecticut ceded to the United States her claim, both of soil and jurisdiction, to all her charter-lands lying west of the present western limits of the "Western Reserve." On the 30th of May, 1801, she also ceded her jurisdictional claims to all the territory called the "Western Reserve of Connecticut," when, in fulfillment of the compact then formed, the President conveyed, by patent, the fee of the soil to the Governor of the State of Connecticut, for the use of grantees and purchasers claiming under her. This tract, including the "Fire Lands," by a proclamation by Gov. St. Clair, September 22, 1800, was all erected into one county, and named Trumbull, in honor of two[[@Page:15]]successive governors of Connecticut. Of this mammoth county Warren was the seat of justice.
In May, 1795, the Legislature of Connecticut appointed a commission to issue proposals and make sale of the lands she had "reserved" in the Northwest Territory, afterward Ohio. This committee sold the lands to sundry citizens of that State and of other States. In September of that year the title was confirmed to the purchasers by deeds of conveyance. The purchasers proceeded to survey into townships, of five miles square, the whole of this tract lying east of the Cuyahoga, the Indians still asserting their claims to the portion of it lying west of that river. By a treaty with them at Fort Industry, near Sandusky, in 1805, their claim was finally extinguished in favor of the grantees of Connecticut.
The State of Connecticut sold out the lands to the contractors at 40 cents per acre, receiving for the sale one million two hundred thousand dollars. This money, permanently invested, constitutes her school fund. The State gave only a quit-claim deed transferring only such title as she possessed, and leaving all the Indian titles of the "Reserve" to be extinguished by the purchasers.
On the 4th of July, 1796, the first surveying party of the Western Reserve landed at the mouth of Conneaut Creek -- the Plymouth of the Western Reserve. Patriotic sons of revolutionary sires, and some, themselves, the participants in that immortal struggle, they prepared to give "to the day its due, and to patriotism its awards." With their tin cups dipping from the broad lake the crystal waters with[[@Page:16]]"A cabin was erected on the bank of Conneaut Creek, and in honor of the commissary of the expedition, was called 'Stowe Castle.' At this time the whole inhabitants west of the Genesee River and along the coasts of the lakes, were as follows: The garrison at Niagara, two families at Lewiston, one at Buffalo, one at Cleveland, and one at Sandusky. There were no other families east of Detroit, and with the exception of a few adventurers at the 'Salt Springs' of the Mahoning, the interior of New Connecticut was an unbroken wilderness.
"The work of surveying was commenced at once. One party went southward on the Pennsylvania line to find the 41st parallel, and began to survey; another, under Gen. Cleaveland, coasted along the lake to the mouth of the Cuyahoga, which they reached on the 22d of July, and there laid the foundation of the chief city of the Western Reserve. A large portion of the survey was made during that season, and the work was completed the following year."
The surveying party numbered fifty-two persons, among whom were two females and one child. As these individuals were the advance of after millions of population, their names become worthy of record, and are therefore given, viz.: Moses Cleaveland, agent of the company; Augustus Porter, principal surveyor; Seth Pease, astronomer and surveyor; Moses Warren, Amos Spafford, Milton Hawley,[[@Page:17]] Richard M. Stoddard, surveyors; Joshua Stowe, commissary; Theodore Shepard, physician; Joseph Tinker, principal boatman; Joseph McIntyre, George Proudfoot, Francis Gay, Samuel Forbes, Elijah Gunn, wife and child, Amos Sawten, Stephen Benton, Amos Barber, Samuel Hungerford, William B. Hall, Samuel Davenport, Asa Mason, Amzi Atwater, Michael Coffin, Elisha Ayres, Thomas Harris, Norman Wilcox, Timothy Dunham, George Goodwin, Shadrach Benham, Samuel Agnew, Warham Shepard, David Beard, John Bryant, Titus V. Munson, Joseph Landon, Job V. Stiles and wife, Charles Parker, Ezekiel Hawley, Nathaniel Doan, Luke Hanchet, James Hasket, James Hamilton, Olney F. Rice, John Locke, and four others whose names are not mentioned.