Versatility of carbon :Carbon is known metal and occurs in free as well combined state in nature.
Free state: Diamond ,graphite and coal.
Combined state :1.Solid state: All animals and plants products.
2.Liquid state: Petroleum and vegetable oil .
3.Gaseous state: In air has CO 3 .
Carbon has 4 valance electrons carbon can form an anion c-4 by gain of electons.It can also form of cations C+4 by loss of electron.IT can share its balanced electrons with other carbon atoms or atoms of non metal and forms covalent bonding.
Compounds of carbon: Simplest compounds of carbon are hydro carbon and simplest hydro carbon is methane.
Classification of hydro carbon:
Saturated hydro carbon: Unsaturated hydro carbon:
Compounds having single bond compounds having double and triple bonds.
ESTERIFICATION REACTION:The reaction between carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of con. Suphuric acid to form a sweet smelling substance ester. .e.g
Saponfication reaction : Alkaline hydrolysis of ester produces soaps.
Reaction with carbonates and hydrogen carbonates: reaction of ethanoic acid with carbonates or bi carbonate evolves carbon di oxide gas.
SOAP AND DETERGENT: Soap is sodium and potassium salt of long chain of carboxylic acid .They foam lather with soft water only.
Detergent are ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acid .they even remain effective in hard water and foam lather.