Study guide questions for motor systems

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    Why is the treatment of motor systems by themselves somewhat artificial? ( hint: sensori-motor integration)

  2. What are the relative differences between goal-directed behaviors and reflexive behaviors?

  3. What are the logical requirements for a goal-directed behavior to be planned and then effectively produced?

  4. What are the main inputs to the DLPFC? How do they relate to the question above?

  5. Although we did not talk about this, what do you think would be the outcome deficits associated with damage to the DLPFC?

  6. Be able to describe the major functional attributes as well as the effects of stimulation/damage on the secondary motor cortices and the primary motor cortices. ..what is ideomotor apraxia?

  7. Be able to describe in an overview the relationship of DLPFC to 2nd Motor cortex and 2nd Motor cortex to Primary motor cortex.

  8. What are the main descending motor tracts? Describe their characteristics. What additional inputs do these tracts pick up on their way to the spinal cord?

  9. What additional motor pathways contribute to behavior? How do they contribute?

  10. What are the anatomical and functional characteristics of the DL and VM pathways?..what are the medullary pyramids? What is collateral branching?

  11. What is “Yoking?” Why does it occur?

  12. What is the “motor unit?” How does it relate to resolution of control? What is the “motor pool?”

  13. What is the ventral root?

  14. What underlines the progressive disease, ALS?

  15. Be able to describe the relationship of actin and Myosin to myofibrils, muscle fibers and muscle group. How can the activation of a skeletal muscle produce movement?

  16. How does the activation of an alpha motor neuron lead to muscle contraction? What is the end-plate potential and how is it different from an EPSP? What is the role of Ca++ in muscle contraction? What is the sarcolemma?

  17. What are the characteristics of Myasthenia Gravis? What is the nature of this disease and what are the effects. How do recordings of neuromuscular tetanizing stimulation help reveal MG?

  18. What are spinal reflex arcs? What is the difference between a monosynaptic and a polysynaptic reflex arc? Be able to describe the “simple stretch reflex.” Describe the withdrawal reflex arc. What is the difference between extrafuscal and intrafuscal muscle fiber? What is the neuromuscular “spindle?” What role does it play in the stretch reflex?

  19. Why is the idea of a monosynaptic reflex arc artificial?

  20. How do the concepts of agonist, antagonist and synergistic muscle groups relate to the question above? What is meant by the idea of poly-segmental reflex arcs? Of “cross-segmental” reflex arcs?

  21. What is the Golgi tendon Organ? What role does it play in spinal reflex arcs? What is a renshaw cell? Why is it important?

If we have time to see the film I’ve selected then you should also be able to answer the following questions:

  1. What is encephalitis lethargic?

  2. What name was this disease commonly given?

  3. What happened to most of those who survived this disease?

  4. How would you describe the syndromes that existed in these survivors?

  5. What did Oliver Sachs do in efforts to help these people?

  6. Was his intervention ultimately successful? ….Why or why not?

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